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This can only be owing to early prejudices, and want of reflection ; and I do hope and pray, that they may be directed into the right way that they may seek the truth, and that the truth may make them free.

NO. 13.

OPINIONS OF MANKIND DURING THE DARK AGES,

AS THEY RESPECTED WAR.

The opinions of mankind, during the dark ages, as was to be expected, were universally in favor of war: for war is the offspring of ignorance, and reproduces its kind. Pope Leo IX. established an army of the Church, about the middle of the eleventh century, and thus the visible church of Christ on earth, was espoused to Moloch, and the abomination, which maketh desolate, stood in the place of the holy. From such an unnatural union nothing but monsters was to be expecta ed; and religious wars were the issue. The dove was turned into a vulture, the lamb into a lion; and many successive armies of Christians sacrificed their lives, to obtain the sepulchre of Him, who taught them to feed their enemies, when they were an hungered, to clothe them, when they were naked, to pray for them at all times, and to return good for evil, and who set them the example of laying down his own life for his persecutors. At this distance of time, we look back with astonishment on the crusaders, waging war on the infidels, for the possession of an empty grave; and after an equal lapse of time, men will look back on our times, with equal astonishment, that christians should fight with and murder each other for an empty bubble.

There is more of the spirit of the crusaders among us, than we are willing to allow, and we still impiously talk of an “appeal to Heaven," when we speak of war; and though we do not search for the miraculous spear, or the true cross, we have, on each side, our chaplains, to bless our standards, and pray for our success in defacing God's image in our fellow creatures. We have our fasts too, on commencing a war, as the judicial combatants had before their duels; and endeavor to snatch the sword of justice from the hand of Him, who has said, “ Vengeance is mine"--attempt to be judge, jury, and executioner in our own cause, and to press the Almighty himself into our service, though

experience has shown us, that the wrong - side-if ever one side is more wrong than the

other,-is generally successful; and though both sides are punished, the most guilty generally suffers less than the other. We can see, easily enough, the folly and wickedness of the ancient judicial combats and modern duels, while we seem to be blind to the same folly and wickedness exhibited in national combats,—which, indeed, are the most criminal of the two, inasmuch as duellists settle their own quarrels ; while those, who are most efficient in making wars, fatten on the blood of others, who have no interest in the quarrel.

But as light shone out of darkness, and the reformation commenced, wars became less frequent and less ferocious; and as the light continues to increase, we have reason to hope, that the shadows will flee away, and

then it will be evident, to christians of every sect and denomination, that their religion is a religion of peace and good will, and totally opposed to war.

I have heard this objection made against peace societies, that they are useless, because when the Christian religion shall extend over the whole world, wars will cease, and not before. This is futile,-for many real christians are now as much in favor of war, as the benevolent John Newton was in favor of the slave trade, after his conversion. No man is made perfect on earth; and I have no doubt, there were real christians ergaged in our last war with Great Britain, on both sides. But there is reason to hope, that they may see cause to change their opinion, as Newton changed his,-though I doubt, whether he would ever have altered his opinion, until he got to Heaven, had it not been for abolition societies.

NO. 14.

EXEMPLIFICATION OF THE PACIFIC SPIRIT

AMONG THE SAVAGES OF AFRICA.

On reading the African Repository, I was struck with some facts therein related, which tend still further to convince

me

that wars may be avoided in the worst of circumstances. If a nation adopting the pacific principle remains safe and unmolested among hordes of barbarians, why may not a pacific nation remain safe among Christians ? Is there any thing in the Christian religion that renders its professors more ferocious than Mahometans and Pagans !

The facts to which I refer are briefly these -Major Gray commanded an exploring party sent by the British government into the interior of Africa. He found the nations and hordes generally living in walled towns or villages, of which the following is a specimen. Boolibang, the capital of Bondoo, "is surrounded by a strong clay wall ten feet high and eighteen inches thick: this is pierced with loop-holes; and is so constructed,

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