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Aldus de Bassano. After some residence at Rome, he preferred Aldus Romanus, and then adopted the Manucci, a distinguished family at Rome, calling himself Aldus Manutius Romanus. Afterwards, becoming acquainted with Alberto Pio, Prince of Carpi, he engrafted, by consent, another name upon his previous ones, and was Aldus Pius Manutius Romanus, the well-known printer.

There is a reverse sort of instance in Barthelemi, secretary of the Duke of Ferrara (died 1545), who took the surname of Ferrinus on marrying the daughter of a rich iron-merchant.

A French author could not bear his own name of Disne-Maudi (Dine in the Morning), but changed it to Dorat:. but he gave his daughter to a M. Goulu, (Mr, Guttle) without any stipulation as to change of name.

The Peire Canard (in English, Father Duck) translated his name into Latin, and was called Anas. Another Jesuit, with the unlucky name of Comere, was disgusted at the sounds Pere Comere, and greatly improved his name by merely changing a letter—he was then Pere Comire.

Apelles is said to have hidden himself behind his pictures to hear the remarks of the public. The Jesuit Scheiner published his book on the spots of the sun, &c. (a.d, 1612) under the title of Apelles post Tabtdam (Apelles behind the Picture).

One man took the name of Idiota (a Private Person); another of Dacryanus (TheWeeper); a third of Hamartolus (the Sinner), from modesty. Our " lovers of truth" and "enemies of humbug" in the newspapers are modest the other way, as stale fish mends in summer. But the modesty of the first-mentioned was undoubtedly for their contemporaries, not for us; they little thought, perhaps, that in a few centuries their real names would be as good symbols of obscurity as could well be.

The first author whom Baillet mentions as having feigned a name for pure deception's sake was the angel Raphael, as related in the story of Tobias. We do not know what works this writer left; probably they are lost. The number of private names which have been dropped in favour of others derived from estates is well known. Thus Boileau was during his life M. Despreaux.

Mathematicians were in the habit of putting to works which treated any subject after the manner of an ancient author, the name of that author, with another derived from their own country: thus Vieta is, in one of his works, Apollonius Gallus; Snell is Eratosthenes Batavus; Adrian Romanus is Apollonius Batavus.

A Portuguese statesman took the name of his son, under which to publish a work on his own family, which his good sense told him was rather a foolish occupation. This method of deception was adopted in several other instances: Des Cartes would not at first believe that Pascal's Treatise on Conic Sections (written when he was very young) could be other than the work of his father.

Some have feigned relationships to make their works answer a purpose. A German Jesuit styled himself Conrad Andrese, brother of James: the latter was a Protestant.

The formation of surnames out of the Christian names of parents is very common: the best known instance is Galileo Galilei (G. the son of G.)'

The nicknames will give a notion of the state of wit among the older moderns, which is not very flattering to them. Casaubon hit Scioppius very hard by calling him Scorpius; but J. Scaliger hit Temporarius still harder by changing him into Stercorarius; and Salmasius changed Kerkoetius into Cercopithecus. Some heretics called S. Athanasius, Sathanasms; and Ambrosius, Ombrosus. An Italian made Gronovius into Grunnovius. Scioppius turned Scaliger into Sacrilege by transposition of letters: the transposition is more perfect in " adversus J. Sacrilegum" (Scaligerum). Maimbourg, in writing on matters connected with the churches of Rome and France, styled himself Fran^ais Romain.

It was also common, in writing against an opponent, to assume as opposite a name as possible; thus Nicolas Crassus junior was answered by Nicodemus Macer senior,and Constantius a. Monte Laboris by Anastasius a Valle Quietis.

Some changed their names into Latin or Greek of similar meaning: thus, Thalassius Basilide stands for Marin le Roy, Oxyorus for Montagu, Leucander for Whiteman, Pelagius for Morgan, Victorius Rusticus for Nicolas Villani, De Sacro Bosco for Holywood, De Media. Villa for Middleton.

In being retranslated, some authors had their countries changed: thus the Italian Capegistus Niger was often called Kopwisch der Schwartz; and Schwartzerdt, or Melancthon, was called Terranera.

The following list will show the general rules by which, particularly among the French, modern names were Latinized; but the exceptions were many and capricious, and some terminations have no rule:—


The transformations of many Dutch and German names are very amusing: Vander-Doez was turned into Douza, Moltzer into Mycillus, Schuler into Sabinus, Gastebled, or Outdebled, into Vatablus, and so on, with hundreds of others.

The confusion which arose from the Latinization of names, and from translating names into Latin and Greek —for many family denominations were turned into Greek equivalents—was beyond all description, and presented enigmas that required an (Edipus to solve them, as was remarked by Noel d'Argonne, who wrote a very amusing essay on the subject under the title of " The Revolt of Latinized Names." The common French names of La Porte and La Forest were rendered Janua or Januensis,

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