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fourteen hours. And even in the last minute of the fourteen hours she opened her eyes, uttering these words, 'Behold God's providence, and his wonder of wonders!' which is indeed a deliverance so remarkable since the ceasing of miracles, that it cannot be paralleled in all ages, for the space of 300 years. And withal, it may remain upon record for a precedent to all magistrates and courts of justice, to take a special care in denouncing of sentence, without a due and legal process, according to the known laws of the land, by an impartial and uncorrupted jury. * * * This poor creature, whom God of his infinite mercy hath evidently manifested love unto, is now indifferently well recovered, and can walk up and down her chamber; but her neck is very sore, and black withal, her breast and stomach much bruised: yet her pains dis*suage daily, and divers, both in city and country, frequent hourly to behold her. At her first recovery, she seemed to be much aghast, her eyes being ready to start out of her head; but, by the great pains of honest and faithful Doctor Petty, she is miraculously recovered; which moved some of her enemies to wrath and indignation, in so much, that a great man amongst the rest moved to have her again carried to the place of execution, to be hung up by the neck, contrary to all law, reason, and justice. But some honest soldiers, then present, showed to be very much discontented thereat, and declared that there was a visible finger of God in it, and, having suffered the law, it was contrary to all right and reason, that any further punishment should be inflicted upon her; which words brought a final end and period to their disputes and controversy: where I shall at present desist from reciting any further circumstances." (Signed) W. Burdet.
This trial and execution took place in the time of the Commonwealth, two years after the death of Charles I. The "honest soldiers" who saved Anne Greene from being hanged again, were the devout soldiers of Fairfax and Cromwell, whose habits of thought and doctrinal notions disposed them always to acknowledge the particular and immediate dispensations of God's providence. The partner of Anne's guilt (i. e. in the minor, and proved offence of incontinency) was declared by her to be "a gentleman of good birth, and kinsman to a justice of peace." The puritanism and severity of the prevailing political party to which this well-bred gentleman, and his family, in all probability belonged, (for royalists were not then put into the commission of the peace,) may have been indirect causes of the barbarous, persevering, and unfair prosecution of the unfortunate girl, seeing that such a backsliding, though common enough among the Cavaliers, brought great shame and reprobation on a Roundhead; and thus his connexions, who, as usual, considered themselves partakers of the disgrace, may, in malice and revenge, have sought the life of the unhappy creature who was the instrument and the cause of divulging that disgrace. Such an hypothesis would account for the infamous manner in which the trial was conducted, and for the efforts made by the "great man" to have her carried a second time to the place of execution. Some of the most unrelenting and savage persecutions, some of the most horrible of crimes, have proceeded from an overchariness of reputation, and the passionate desire of keepAN AWKWARD ELEVATION IN THE PEERAGE. 241
ing a family reputation for sanctity unimpaired. In those times, while one party made an open show and boast of their profligacy, the other party were most rigid and uncompromising with regard to all such failings; carrying their rigour so far that it must in many cases have led to hypocrisy, and induced extreme measures to cover over and conceal irregularities of conduct, or to avenge the disclosure of them. Moreover, although immense reforms had been made since the days when Charles and bis fierce archbishop, Laud, cut off noses and ears, and tortured and maimed the images of God upon earth, upon the slightest, or upon no proofs at all, still the stream of justice was far from being so pure as it has since become; and in spite of the existence of a "Commonwealth," the poor and lowly continued to be but too often oppressed by the rich and powerful.
XLII. AN AWKWARD ELEVATION IN THE PEERAGE.
In the days of the good Queen Anne, one of the many noblemen who incurred the displeasure of the irascible Sarah, first Duchess of Marlborough, of whom we shall give several stories elsewhere, was my Lord Rivers, then, as she says, more commonly called his Grace of Tyburn.
In one of the-MS. defences of her own conduct, there is this concise passage: "Lord Rivers, who robbed his father, lived out of England for some years for fear of being hanged, and since he has always gone by the name of the Duke of Tyburn."
Vol. I. R
Though evidently not given to invention, Sarah, in her animosities, certainly could over-colour and exaggerate facts; but, in this particular instance, the whole of her short story is confirmed by several contemporary authorities. She was so fond of it that she repeated it several times in her letters to her friends and partisans. It was, indeed, a well-pickled rod!
There are many curious things in this lady's various printed and manuscript defences, which were for the most part not written by herself, but by eminent literary men of the day, who either did the work out of gratitude for former obligations, or in the hope that she might be again restored to favour, and have good livings and other places at her disposal, or were regularly hired to do it by fees. In one of these papers, supposed to have been written by Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester, Dr. Sacheverell, who, after his prosecution, was held by the highchurch and tory party as a martyr, and feted, feasted, and banqueted wherever he went, is compared to a jolly fat monk, who was sitting down to a rich venison pasty, and exclaiming, "Heu ! quantum patimur pro Ecclesid .'" or, "Alas! how much do we suffer for the Church!"
The wit of these apologies, however, is not often of so lively a nature. Other persons are gibbeted besides my Lord Rivers; and Dean Swift is set down on more than one occasion as a base, intriguing, and scurrilous fellow, fully qualified for the gallows at Tyburn.
XLIII. WHICH IS THE WORST FATE THAT CAN BEFALL A NEW POEM?
According to old Will Winstanley, the most degrading fate that could befall a poem, was to be turned into a pipe-lighter. The chandler's shop, the oil-man's, nay, even to be made " a casing for Christmas-pies," was nothing compared to this—" to be condemned to light tobacco." We presume Will did not love the weed.
XLIV. SIMPLE PROPERTIES OF NUMBERS.
Many persons are interested in questions of numbers, who are not algebraists, and have nothing to employ their talent upon. They may, by common rules, amuse themselves with multiplying numbers together, or finding how much 61cwt. 23lb. cost, at 5fd. a pound, if they please. But there is nothing interesting in the result of all this; and accordingly, none but those to whom such proceedings are necessary, have recourse to them.
Between the arithmetician, and a great many interesting properties of numbers, stand nothing but a few simple terms, which being once explained, a large field of amusement is open in verifying, upon simple numbers, the results which have been obtained in algebra. The following article contains some of these, in which nothing will be required but common multiplication and addition. In each succeeding volume, we shall add one or two more to the list. The reader may try high or low numbers, according to his facility in performing the operations.