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composed part of a structure. The bricks with inscriptions upon them are Most generally found hero by the Arabs, who are constantly employed in digging for them to build the houses at Hillah.
Near this mound is another, not so high, but rather more extensive, divided completely from the former by a space of one hundred and twenty paces, and having no kind of building standing on it except a small conical one resembling Zobcide's tomb at Bagdad, and of the same workmanship. Bricks, however, arc dug out of this place in great quantities for buildings; but, I understand, none with impressions of characters on them.
Between these two mounds and the Euphrates, there are 110 others of any description; a fact of which I am entirely satisfied, from the result of my inquiries, as also from the particular attention with which I observed the face of the country while passing over it, and during the time I was on the top of the mound. About a mile and a half from Hiilah, on the eastern side of the Euphrates, is a mound of some length, close along the bank of the river, but possessing no particular feature to render it remarkable. About two miles further on, in an easterly direction, is another, more extensive, from which furnace-baked bricks are procured in large quantities for modern houses, but none of the sun-burnt kind, or any with inscriptions. At one part of it I saw a wall of red brick, even with the surface of the earth, and reaching to the depth of thirty feet in the mound, the surrounding rubbish having been excavated for the purpose of getting at it; at another, not tar distant, I saw the remains of a bouse, which must have been of extensive dimensions; some of its walls were still in great preservation ten feet above the surface of the ground, and at other sides of it their foundation had not been reached at the depth of forty-five feet. These walls were six feet eight inches thick, and built entirely of the finest kind of furnace-baked yellowish bricks, and a very thin lime and sand cement. There was not the most distant reason to imagine that reeds and bitumen had been used in the construction of any of the buildings in any part of this mound.
Our author now proceeds to describe the scite and appearance of the famous Tower of Being, with his judicious remarks on the extent and dimensions of these venerable remains of antiquity, compared with former histories and later
accounts, noticed in former Numbers of this Magazine.
Proceeding about half a mile further up the eastern bank of the Euphrates, what has been supposed to be Belus's Tower presents itself, about a quarter of a mile removed from the edge of the river. It is described by Herodotus,as understood by Major Rennell, as a tower of five hundred feet in the base, and as many in height. These dimensions, however, appear so disproportionate, that Major Rennell, though he does nor absolutely deny the fact, yet hesitates in admitting it: he gives an excellent comparative plan of it and the great pyramid at Memphis.
Major Renncl says, that Herodotus must have meant to write "breadtb and length," aud not "breadth and height;" in which case he coincides with Strabo: leaving us to imagine it a pyramid consisting of eight stories, in which form and height it resembles the great pyramid at Memphis, except being about twenty feet higher. In Alexander's time, the Greeks, who mention this sepulchre, had also seen the pyramids of Egypt, but no comparisons are drawn by them of either their bulk or height. Strabo asserts, that the sides of Belus's temple were of burnt bricks.
Delia Valle, in his Travels in 1616, describes this mound, or Belus's tower, as a heterogeneous mass, of which he could determine nothing as to its original state, and that it measured 1134 paces, or 2700 feet in circumference: be however does not mention what shape it had. I must acknowledge that, on reaching it, I was agreeably surprised in finding it possess a greater regularity of form than I had been led to suppose: —it was almost a perfect square, retaining its faces (excepting the south one) quite regular and perceptible. Its circuit (ten feet within the outer edge of the rubbish) was nine hundred paces, or, at two feet and a half per pace, 2250 feet. I then paced the east aud south faces at the top, and found the former one hundred and eighty, and the latter one hundred and ninety, paces.* The south-west angle was by much the loftiest part of the whole. Major Rennell's modern authorities omit mentioning of what kind of materials they found the mound composed; but it appeared clear, that the outer face or coating had been formed of red furnace-baked bricks, ce
• Medium 660 feet each face.
mented with lime ami sand; and tho interior mass of sun-liurnt ones, with layers of reeds and bitumen for their adhesion at every course. What I form this opinion from is, that the foot of each of the faces is strewed with great quantities of the red bricks, and that, on ascending to the top of the mound, and throughout the whole body of it, nothing but the clay sun-burnt brick is to be found. The bricks of this place are much larger, coarser, and thieker, than the others that I had seen; they have no inscriptions on them, and, on account of their softness, are not in much request amongst the Arabs for building. I found the sides exactly in the same state as they are described by the older travellers, who saw them many years since, very steep and rugged in some parts, and moderately sloping in others, with deep ravines, evidently formed by currents of rain ; but could not discover any caverns in any part of this mound, notwithstanding a diligent search; nor do I agree with Delia Valle, that there are a number of smaller mounds of fifty and sixty paces long surrounding this mass. When I thus deny the assertion of Delia Valle, it may be expected that I should afford some probable evidence of my own observation being correct. All travellers who had ever visited this place, M. Beanchamp excepted, acknowledge they were obliged to do it in a very hurried manner, from shortness of time and a fear of the Arabs. On the contrary, I was not under the slightest
ophical Intelligence. 63
apprehension of any mischief, nor was I pushed for time, boing perfectly at my ease, and having full leisure to examine the whole of it, which I did with great attention ; and, on reading Major Rennell's remarks on this part of his account, whileseated on the top of the tower, I surveyed the whole country in the vicinity, but could not perceive even a single hillock, or the least vestige of a mound, except the one described just before, at the distance of about a half a mile, and the double banks of a deep water-course, perpendicular to the bank of the river, and running parallel to the south-west face of the square. The height of the tower, if we may judge from the view of objects in the surrounding country, appears very great, as a man or horse seen from its summit is considerably diminished in appearance. This is the only place at which I found reeds and bitumen used as a cement, (except at Aggurkeef, near Bagdad,) where it is seen at the sixth, seventh, and eighth, layer of bricks, but here at every course, without the least variation. Beauchamp, who seems to have visited these ruins with greater security and frequency than any preceding or subsequent traveller, is in consequence more full, and, in my opinion, more correct, than Delia Valle: he, however, mentions some things, which I was unable, after a diligent search, to verify; but he does not give the statement as the result of personal inspection, but as information received from the natives.
VARIETIES, LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL.
Including Notices of Worlis in Hand, Domestic and Foreign.
A VERY extraordinary work, at least Ajl one of very imposing pretensions, is announced for early publication, by the celebrated Roger O'connor, a gentleman of distinguished patriotism and unquestionable probity, and a descendant of the ancient kings. It consists of a History of Ireland, under the title of the Chronicles of Ulla'd, commencing from the earliest point of time which is recorded by.the invention of letters, with a traditionary portion, which was the work of Eolus Prince of the Gael of Sciot of Ib-er, who ruled in Gael-ag 1400 years before Christ. It is asserted in the Prospectus, that, from the time of Eolus, the chronicles were written by the Ard-Olnm of the Irish nation, till the days of Ete-Er-Ial, chief king in Er-i, 673 years before Christ; and that, from
the reign of Ete-Er-Ial, they have been compiled by every Ard-Olam of Ulla'd, and publicly submitted to the kings, princes, nobles, and chiefs, of the Olam, or heads of the people, assembled on the Mount of Ulla'd once every third year, to transact the business of the kingdom. It is therefore asserted that, in these chronicles, is to he found the authentic history of Ireland, from the year 1006 before the Christian era, to the birth of Christ; and that the writings hitherto imposed on the world as histories of Ireland, are compilations from the rhapsodies of baids, full of anachronisms and misrepresentations of lacts,— the contemptible poetry of history, pieced together by ignorant men. These chronicles (says the editor) describe the mode of keeping time by our forefathers, and their lunisolar system. They correct errors respecting the language mill religion of the Irish, anri clearly show the former to be Phoenician, the latter not Druidic. They correspond exactly with the traditions of the Hebrews, concerning the overthrow of the Scythian dominion in Asia, and the establishment of Eis-uir (the Assyrian) on their ruin; and they record the building of Babylon and Nineveh. They represent Noe, Japheth, and Gog, in new characters, and explain the passage of Genesis, which says, "That the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, etc. in the land of Shenar: out of thai land went forth Asher, and builded Nineveh.'' The chronicles strip the events of the figurative dress in which the Hebrews have decked them, whilst they give the true original names of the Ganges, Tygris, Euphrates, Euxine, Caspian, Caucasus, Armenia, Colchis, Iberia, Albania, Phoenicia, Egypt, and Spain ; and of all places in Galicia. They also describe the commerce of the Phoenicians with the southern parts of Britain, and mark the period when the isles of Scilly were separated from the main-land. The; confirm the accuracy of the traditions of the Hebrews, as to the colonization of the isles of the Gentiles by the posterity of Japheth; and they set at rest other important and curious matters, too numerous for brief anticipation. The editor states that he relies with confidence on the fidelity of his materials; and, deeming them authentic records, he has not stepped out of his way into the paths of controversy; but that, when this curinus piece of antiquity is attacked, he will nut decline the combat with all who are inclined to enter the lists of literary warfare. The work will be illustrated by maps, and other engravings.
Among the literary prodigies of the age, may be accounted the appearance of a hook of the anxiously-expected Historical Memoirs of the Emperor Napoleon, by Himself. The French edition was published in London a few days since ; and a translation into English, by Mr. O'meara, will appear in the ensuing week. Several frauds, in the name of this great man, render the public suspicious of the authenticity of whatever assumes his abused name; but of the good faith of the publishers of this volume there can, we hope, be no question, A manuscript of reputed authenticity has reached this country, and will be published, in English and in the original French, in the course of the ensuing
month, entitled " Documtnti Historiqve* e.t Reflections sur It Gouvernement tie la Hollandc, par Louis Bonaparte, ExRoi de Hollande." It contains every event relating to the political or financial situation of Holland, from the commencement of the reign of Louis, until the close of his government. Sketches of the invasion of Italy and expedition in Egypt, in both of which the author was present. Relations of most of the important events in Spain; and his refusal of the crown of that kingdom, on the renunciation of Charles IV. to Ferdinand his son, and the formal cession of the latter to Napoleon. Copies of the letters of Charles and Ferdinand, relating to the conspiracy of the latter against his father. The hitherto secret motives of the marriage of the author with the daughter of the Empress Josephine, and their subsequent mutual agreement to a separation. The events which occurred on the separation of the Emperor Napoleon and the Empress Josephine. Numerous characteristic and highly-interesting letters from Napoleon to the author, exposing his views, situation, and purposes ; and a variety of anecdotes of the author, of Napoleon, and of his family. Although this work contains many events already known to the public in a general way, yet, coming from the hand of one who had an immediate share in all that occurred, joined to his universally acknowledged probity and good faith, form together a justifiable motive for giving it the preference over many other modern publications; and it is assuredly next in point of interest to the great work from the pen of Napoleon himself.
The Fudge Family in Italy, is announced; by the author of the Fudge Family in Paris.
The Monastery, a romance, is announced, by the prolific author of Wnverley, &c. in three volumes. We begin to suspect some new application of the powers of the steam-engine in this manufactory of Scottish novels. These form ten or twelve volumes within the year; and the previous year was not less pre. ductive.
A Journal of a Tour through part of the snowy range of the llimala mountains, and to the sources of the rivers Jumna and Ganges, in 1815, by J. B. Frasek, esq. is printing, royal octavo.
Twenty Views in the Himala Mountains, illustrative of the foregoing Travels, engraved from the original drawings made on the spot, by James Iuim r.
1820.J Literary and Philosophical Intelligence.
Phaser, esq. are also preparing, in ele- delivered to Messrs. Ross pbant folio,
A very curious and useful work, giving an account of between 2 and 3000 Public Men of all countries, living in 1820, is printing with all expedition, and will appear as a match-book to Debrett's Peerage, early in March.
Memoirs of the late R. L. Edgeworth, esq. partly written by himself, and continued by his daughter, Miss EdgeWorth, are announced, in two volumes octavo.
Tales of the Heart, are printing, from the ingenious pen of Mrs. Opie, in three volumes.
Memoirs of Dr. Walton, Bishop of Chester, and editor of the London Biblia Polyglotta, with important notices of his coadjutors in that illustrious work, are in preparation ; by the Rev. H. J. Todd.
The next Number of the Journal of New Voyages and Travels will consist of Travels in Lower Canada, in 1817, by J. Sansome, Esq. of New York,
A Tale of Paraguay, is announced, by Robert Southey, esq.
An Historical and Statistical Account of the Principalities of Wallacbia and Moldavia, including various political observations relating to them, is preparing, by William Wilkinson, esq. late consul to the above-mentioned principalities.
Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Louis de Camoens; by John Adamson, esq. will soon appear, in two volumes, with nine engravings.
The Poetical Works of Mr. James Montgomery, are printing uniformly, in three volumes, foolscap octavo. • The Unknown Director, is preparing for the press, by Saraii Renoo.
Mr. Leigh Hunt, author of Rimini, is about to publish a translation of Amy ntas, from the Italian of Torquato Tasso; with an Essay on the pastoral poetry of Italy.
On the 3d of Dec. a deputation of the Court of Directors of the E.I.C proceeded to the college at Haileybury, for the purpose of receiving the report of the result of the general examination of the students at the close of the term. The students, as usual, read and translated in the Sanscrit, Arabic, Persian, and Hindustani languages. Specimens of Persian and DevaNagaree writings i*ere exhibited. Mr. Ross Donelly Ma'nOles read an English Essay, the subject, "the Effects of the Discovery ol the Cape of Good Hope." Prizes were thert
Monthly Mao. No. 33G.
DonellJ' Mangles, David Anderson Blane, Edward Bradford, John Goldingham, GeoWilliam Bacon, Evelyn Meadows Gordon, Alfred William Beijbie, Robert Keith Arbuthnut, John Venn, George Udney, Robert North Collie Hamilton, Edward Vernon Schalch, Joseph Alexander Dorm, Richard Paternoster, Ed. ward Peploe Smith, Henry Lushington, George Francis Brown, Augustus Prinsep, Samuel George Palmer, William Henry Babington, and Francrs Franco.
The following courses of Lectures will be delivered at the Surrey Institution,viz, 1. On the Elements of Civil Architecture, by James Elmes, esq. architect; to commence on Tuesday, February 8, and to be continued on each succeeding Tuesday evening.
•i. On Music, by William Crotch, Mus. Doc. professor of music. To commence on Friday, February 11, and to be continued on each succeeding Friday evening.
On the first of March will be commenced the publication of a series of subjects descriptive of the character'of the noble river Meuse; which, independent of the interest excited by its own peculiar grandeur of character, will derive an additional claim to attention, from the circumstance that it has never before been the object of any graphic publication. The first part will be completed in eight Numbers, containing each six plaies, the size and manner of the Liber Veritatis; engraved by S. W. Reynolds, from drawings made on the spot by G. Arnald, A.R.A. The name of the draughtsman is a guarantee for the superior character of the work.
Dr. Baron will shortly publish, Illustrations of some parts of his Enquiry respecting the Origin of Tubercles and Tumors. The work will be printed in quarto, and contain engravings, several of which will be accurately coloured, showing, in a particular manner, the progress of tubercles in the lungs, the jiver, and the serous membranes.
Dr. Puout intends to publish shortly, an Inquiry into the Nature and Medical Treatment of those Diseases connected with a deranged Action of the Urinary Organs, especially Gravel and Calculus.
The next volume of the Library of New Novels, called the Circulating Library, will appear on the 15th of March.
Mr. Cottle is about to publish an Expostulatory Epistle to Lord Byron. Memoirs of M. Obelin, Lutheran pasK tor tor of Walshback, are preparing, by the Rev. Mark Wilks.
In March will be published, an Address to Parents and Guardians, containing a Review of the Merits of Schools and Academies for Youth of both Sixes within one hundred miles of London, by William Playfaib. and James Webb. It will be preceded hy a short but very important treatise on Education; and a catalogue of the btst publications for the improvement of yo»ng minds in moral duties and useful knowledge.
A small volume of Poems is in the press, to be entitled " Sacred Lyrics;" bv James F.dmestone.
"The following reprints of original American works wiil appear eSVIy in February:
1. The Sketch Book, by Geoffrey Crayon, gent, the first English edition, with alterations and additions, by the Author, in one handsome volume 8vo.
2. Giovanni Sbogarro, a Venetian Tale; 2 vols. 12mo.
3. A Voyage to South America, performed by order of the Government of the United States, in the frigate Congress; by H. 51. Buackenrioge, esq. secretary to the mission; in two volumes, octavo.
An Accuunt of the Introduction of Christianity into this Island, and the Welsh Nonconformist Memorial; with a brief account of the original state of the Sacred Writings; by the late Rev. WiLii Am Rich Ards.ll.d. is preparing.
An Enquiry into certain Errors respecting Insanity, by Dr. Burrows,. will appear this month.
A third edition is in the press, of Dr. Merriman's Synopsis of the various kinds of difficult Parturition; wilh addition", and an Appendix of illustrative cases, plates, &c.
In February, will be published, Retrospection,, a rural poem, by Thomas Whitby, author of the Priory of Birkenhead.
Sunday-school Sketches of the benign Operation of those Institutions, are printing.
A second volume of Clark's Abridgment of Popular Voyages and Travels, forming the Tour of Asia, is in forwardness.
A Collection of Fables for Children* on the most familiar subjects; by M. Jauffret, will be published in February.
Recent letters from Sydney, New South Wales, announce the discovery, by Captain Hammond, of a small island -which he could not land on, for the bjeakers, in lat. 38° 37' S. and 137° Ion.
There were no traces of any inhabitants on the coast.
M. Petjtsche has just published, at Weimar, an historical pamphlet relative to the Potatoe, including the particulars of its introduction into Europe, a description of the plant, with all its varieties, accurate rules for selecting its proper soil and manure, the different modes of cultivating each species, the diseases to which it is liable, and its varying products. It contains also directions for turning it to the best account as an article of domestic ceconoiny, for the use of men or animals. In the work are a number of coloured plates, representing the plant in all its parts and varieties, with the instruments lor pounding, mincing, &c. M. Putsclie has derived much of his information from the Society of Agriculture of Paris, which distributes, annually, samples of the different varieties,. and labours to propagate them throughout the provinces of Fiance.
M. Rosen Muller, Professor of Orieatal Languages in the University of Leipsic, published formerly an elementary woik for facilitating the study of the Arabic. It has been held in high estimation, and is now succeeded by a very complete Grammar, which unfolds the rules of syntax, with a perspicuity and precision that fully correspond with the wishes of the student.
The Journal General of Music, whichappears in weekly numbers at Leipsic, severely criticizes the Royal Academy of Music; or the Grand Opera, as the Parisians in general style it. It denouncesthe pompous title which the French give it of being the first theatre in Europe. The singing is considered as a sort of scream, wherein too much effort is expended, to render the words distinct. To . the orchestra it attributes great mechanical precision, but itsstrains are inanimate, and without power to charm ihe ear. All the actors are condemned for making too much noise for a delicate ear; and it impugns Madame Catalan! singing concertos for the violin, and allows-her unqualified applause in German airs only. We learn, from this Journal, that a Conseivatnry of Music has been founded in Vclhynia, for the purposes of instruction in singing, in composition, and of playing on different instruments, by a society of iOOfit nilenien.
The latest census in the kingdom of Bavaria enumerates 2512 Catholic parishes, 103C Protestant do. and 739,119