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and that oral tuition in religious doc- phy, so that the one has nothing to trine is less satisfactory than the more feach which the other feels compelled patient, and impartial, and slow inves- to deny. tigations of the closet. It does not ap
SITE pear that the author of this work is a The word site, from the Latin situs, disciple of the German school of anti. (situation,) is in many printed books supernaturalist christians ; but the re- erroneously spelled scite. Whence sult of his inquiries has in like man, this ignorant blunder? Does the ner been to accomplish a complete printer's dictionary spell it so ? alliance between religion and philoso
NOVELTIES OF FOREIGN LITERATURE. IMPORTATION into FRANCE of the During a short stay which M. Joubert
CACHEMIRE-WOOL GOAT. made at Constantinople, in his passage NT AMADEUS JOUBERT quitted homewards with his goats, he held a 1 1. Paris in April, 1818, and pro- conversation, through the second interceeded first by Odessa, Tangarock, and preter to the French embassy, with an Astracan, to the camp of General Jer. Armenian named Khodja-Youssuf, who moloff in Caucasus, gaining information was sent eighteen years ago by a house on the way, relative to the object of his in Constantinople into Cachemire, to journey, from the Bucharians, the Kir- procure shawls made after patterns ghiz, and the Armenians, who frequent which he carried with him. This ArAstracan. He was there told that there menian had resided a long time in Caexisted amongst the numerous hordes chemire, Lahore, and Pichawer, and in of Kirghiz (a nomade tribe residing in learning the language of these countries, Bucharia, on the banks of the Qural he obtainer much positive information lake) a species of goat of a dazzling as to the manufacture of these valued white, bearing every year a remarkable articles. He stated to M. Joubert, that fleece about the month of June. The the animal which yields thls beautiful specimens of it which he there collected material is neither a camel nor a sheep, convinced him of the identity of this as some have reported, but is a goat, rewool with that which is imported into sembling the common goat in appearFrance, through Russia. This disco. ance, having straight horns, and a white very was the more important to him, as or clear brown coat. A coarse hair it promised to save him the long and covers the fine downy wool, which last difficult journey which he would other is the only material from which the wise have had to encounter, in penetrat- shawls are wove. ing to Thibet through Persia and Cache- Khodja-Youssuf had seen at Cachemire. In this he was not deceived ; mire, twenty or thirty of these goats, for he actually collected scattered sam. which were kept there for curiosity. ples of this fine wool, at some hundreds The women and children pick out the of wersts from the Wolga, amongst the fine wool from the coarse hair, and steppes that separate Astracan from other heterogeneous matter; which is Oremburg, which satisfied him that he afterwards carded by young girls with needed not to penetrate further. He their fingers on India muslin, to had besides observed, that in the lan- lengthen the fibre, and clean it from guage of the country,they gave the name dirt and foulness; and in this state it is of Thibet-goat to the animal which fur. delivered to the dyers and spinners. nished this fine fleece. He therefore The loom that is used is horizontal and bought of the Kirghiz in this district, very simple; the weayer sits on the from the hordes called Cara-Agadgi and bench, a child is placed below him Kaisacks, twelve hundred and eighty. with his eyes on the pattern, and gives nine of these animals, and directed him notice, after every throw, of the his course homewards with them, by shuttle, of the colours wanted, and the Tsaritzin, where he brought them bobbins to be next employed. The across the Wolga. After making all finest shawls cost from 5 to 600 rupees the deductions from this number, occa (12 to 1500 francs). The most beauti. sioned by losses on the road, by the ful wool comes from the provinces of shipment of them at Kaffa, and the Lassa and Ladack in Thibet; and also passage home, there now exist in France à good deal of it is imported into Thi. four hundred of this stock of Cachemire bet and Cashemire, from Casgar and wool goats.
Bucharia, all of which go to form the
fine shawls, of which there is such a the result of my discoveries, in a perigreat demand throughout Asia. The odical journal : my plan of the temple, fine wool is brought into Cachemire, in and a brief notice of my labours, have bales, mixed with coarse hair.
indeed already appeared in one of these TEMPLE OF THE SPHINX, by M. CA- for January last. VIGLIA.
It appears to me that the whole agM. de Forbin was unable to profit by gregate of Egyptian antiquities would the discovery of the Temple of the speedily be laid open for the investigaSphinx, which an unpardonable ego- tion of European archæologists, were it tism, he says, had caused to be buried not for a sort of jealous rivalship that up or covered again. As this leads to has crept in among the explorers of an implication, that it was Mr. Salt these scientific riches. The most valuwho discovered that beautiful inonu- able, and indeed the most proper inment, I think it right to exculpate this strument for these purposes, in respect gentleman from the above charge of of his physical force and capabilities, I egotism.
mean M. Belzoni, is about to leave It was I, and not Mr. Salt, that caused Egypt. A report prevails that, on his the temple to be covered up again; return to Cairo from his last expediand here are my reasons for it. I had tion, one of the agents of M. D. asalready removed obstructions from the saulted, and actually fired a pistol at newly discovered passages, and from the him. This circumstance was mennew subterranean chamber of the great tioned to me by Mr. Briggs, on his pyramid; and finding nothing all arrival from Alexandria. around but the live or natural rock - CHINESE LITERATURE. stone, I set about exploring the base of Letters from Canton report the sucthe Sphinx, in hopes of lighting on cessful prosecution of Mr. Morrison's some communication that might lead labours, in the printing of his Chinese to any new points of the pyramid. Dictionary. The second part was After having been at work for several begun, in April, 1811; this volume months, with a hundred and fifty Arabs, consists of a thousand printed pages, and not unfrequently at the risk of in 4to. and contains above 12,000 Chibeing buried in the downfalls of sand, nese characters, the most in use, with I was at length enabled to clear out the numerous examples. In Feb. 1819, area of a temple of Osiris : its site at 600 pages, comprising near 8000 chaabout the depth of 40 feet, and within racters, were compleated. The printing the very claws of the Sphinx. M. de of all the volumes of this important Forbin is within the limits of strict work will occupy a space of hardly less truth, when he asserts that this is one than ten years. of the finest monuments of the power of It appears that an official gazette is the arts in ancient Egypt.
published in China, which is considered After having taken the dimensions as the organ of government in every and the most correct designs of all matter connected with the religion, these antiquities, I was concerned to laws, manners and customs of the find a number of Arab women, allured country. In its plan, it totally differs by superstition, coming, at first, to from the gazettes of Europe, wherein worship and kiss the images, on their articles of a miscellaneous description first view of them, but, not. content are inserted for money. No article with this, proceeding afterwards to appears in the gazette of China, which break off fragments or pieces to serve as has not first been submitted to the inamulets or charms; in this way, several spection of the emperor, and having hieroglyphics have been already dis- received his approbation, not a syllable · figured. At length, being apprehen- can be added to it. A deviation from
sive that this fine workmanship, which this rule would incur a severe punishit had cost me so much labour (even at ment. the hazard of losing my sight) to ex. In 1818, an officer in a court of jusplore, should come to destruction, I re- tice, and also employed in the postsolved to inter it anew, till circumstan- office, suffered death, for having pubces more auspicious might authorize the lished some false intelligence, through disclosure of it to every eye.
the medium of this gazette. The reason The learned will, i hope, be shortly assigned by the judges, in passing senenabled to appreciate these antiquities, tence, was, that the party culpable had whether deserving or not of the care been wanting in respect to his imperial expended for their preservation. It is majesty. The gazette of China comintended to publish, as soon as possible, prehends documents relative to all the
· public affairs of that vast empire; also the foundation of the order of Assassins,
extracts from all the memoirs and peti. in the year 1004 of the Christian æra, tions that have been presented to the and under the government of the first sovereign, with his answers, orders and grand master, Hassan Sabah. One of favours granted to the mandarins and his deys, Hassan Ben Sabah Homairi, to the people. It appears every day, a competitor for the throne, became, making a pamphlet of 60 or 70 pages. towards the end of the eleventh cenTHE ASSASSINS.
tury, the founder of a new sect. He A history of the Assassins, drawn seized on the strong castle of Alamut, from oriental sources, has appeared between Dilem and Irak, and made it lately at Stuttgard. From this work the seat of his power. The third book is we learn that the Assassins, a confede an account of the reigns of Kia Busurrate people or society, which, in the gomid and of his son Mahomet, and the time of the Crusades, for two centuries, wars which they had to maintain. The acted an important part in Asiatic his fourth book contains the reigns of Hastory, were originally, a branch of the san II. and of Mahomet II. both of Ismaelites. The author, M. de Ham- whom upheld the doctrine of the impumer, illustrates many of the events of nity of crimes. Their history is interthe middle ages, and shews, at the spersed with curious details relative to same time, the advantageous use that the literature of some contemporary might be made of oriental literature, oriental and western authors. Also if its cultivation were more generally documents hitherto unnoticed of the attended to.
Templars, who, at that period, appear The Assassins were a secret society, to have been actuated with the spirit originally organized at Cairo, wherein of the Ismaelites. A charge is laid to the adepts took an oath to obey impli- Richard, King of England, that he recitly, a chief that was even unknown sorted to the assistance of the Assassins, to them. Their horrible dogmas in- to effect the destruction of the Marculcated murder, and one of their fun- grave Conrad de Montferrat. The fifth damental positions was the principle book contains the reigns of three Azthat all human authority, including sassin princes, the former of whom, kings, magistrates and priests, was Dschelaleddin, had his sovereignty acsuperfluous and pernicious. The author knowledged by the Caliph of Bagdad. draws a parallel between these assassins His son committed a parricide, but perand the society of Jesuits, who, though petrated no crime, according to the deprived of their former influence, per established principles of the Assassins. severe to maintain their order. The This book has also the reign of Rockprinces of the east were frequently so neddin Charschah, the last Grand imprudent as to make common cause Master of their order, with an account with Hassan Sabah, chief of the order, of his wars with the Mogul Hulagu, and a headstrong adventurer, who soon the taking of Alamut and the rest of after, became a terror to all princes and their castles, in 1256. The exterminagovernments, polluting thrones, tribu- tion of this horde of Ismaelites forms nals and altars with blood.
the subject of the sixth book. It conTo the materials collected from Ara tains also the description of the taking bian, Persian and Turkish manuscripts, and plundering of Bagdad, by the M. de H. adds what Sylvestre de Sacy Moguls, in 1258, with the punishment and others have written, before him, on of the Caliph. In short, it details the the same subject. His work is divided defeat of the Assassins in Syria, by into seven books. The first treats of Bibras, the sultan of Egypt, and the Mahomet, as the founder of Islamism, gradual extirpation of the doctrine of and only dwells on such principal the Ismaelites. The author concludes points as have not been noticed by by a summary retrospect of the remains Voltaire, Gibbon and Muller. It con- of this sect which yet exist in Persia tains a synopsis of the doctrines of and Syria, though unable to realise Mahomet. The second book narrates their horrible system of politics.
PROCEEDINGS OF PUBLIC SOCIETIES. The MEDICAL and CHIRURGICAL SO. the chief paper of general public inteCIETY OF LONDON.
rest, by SIR GILBERT BLANE, we proTHIS active and public spirited ceed to lay before our readers. It is I association has recently published entitled a Statement of Facts tending a tenth volume of its Transactions, and to Establish an Estimate of the True
Value and Present State of Vaccina. striking as not to be mistaken by the
middle of the last century, when inoIt is now twenty-one years, says Dr. B. culation had made considerable prosince vaccination was promulgated in gress, that is, from 1745 to 1759, both the country by Dr. JENNER, and fifteen included. In comparing this with the years since it began to produce a sen- preceding series, with regard to absosible effect in diminishing the mortality lute numbers, it ought to be taken into from small pox.
account, that eleven parishes were It seems almost needless to premise, added to the bills of mortality, between that the small pox is of all maladies the years 1726 and 1715, both included: that, which, during the last thousand so that the progressive improvement of years, has destroyed the largest portion general salubrity onght to be estimated of the human species, and been produc- still higher than what is indicated by tive of the largest share of human the diminished mortality, as it stands misery. There is, perhaps, no disease in the Tables. over which medical art has less power, The third series comprises the fifteen and this power, such as it is, has con- years previous to the introduction of sisted more in abolishing pernicious vaccination, when inoculation had made practices than in ascertaining any posi- still greater progress; that is, from tive methods of controuling its fatality, 1785 to 1793, both included. unless we except the inoculation of it The fourth series comprises the time with its own virus. But, though the in which the vaccine inoculation has beneficial effect of this on those on been so far diffused as to produce a whom it is actually practised is unde notable effect on the mortality of small niable, it has no tendency like vacci- pox; that is, from 1804 to 1818, both nation to extirpate the disease; and included. from the impossibility of rendering it . The result of these computations universal, it has actually been found to stands as follows: add to the general mortality of small Ratio of the Mortality of Small Pox to pox, by opening a new source of diffu
the Total Mortality.' sion to its virus.
From 1706 to 1720, 78 in 1000. . • In order to bring this to the test of From 1745 to 1759, 89 in 1000. calculation, in order also to institute a From 1785 to 1798, 94 in 1000. comparison of the mortality of small From 1805 to 1818, 53 in 1000. pox as influenced by vaccination, as Assuming, therefore, that vaccination well as by inoculation from itself, I had not been practised the last fisteen have selected from the bills of morta- years, and that the mortality, from lity four periods, each of fifteen years, small pox, within the bills, had in that for the purpose of exhibiting the mor- time, that is, from 1804 to 1818, been tality of small pox in each of these the same as from 1784 to 1798, that is series in regard to each other. These 27,569 in place of 14,716; and assumare thrown into the forın of Tables, ing that there has been the same proand annexed to this article.
portional diminution of deaths in the The first series is the fifteen years districts without the bills, and among immediately preceding the introduction the unregistered subjects, the account of inoculation, that is, from 1706 to of lives saved in this metropolis, by 1720, both included. Previous to this vaccination in these fifteen years, will period, no. account that could be de-' stand as follows: pended upon regarding the small pox,
Within the bills of mortality 12,853 could be derived from the bills of mor
Without the bills of mortality 2,570
7,711 tality; for down to the beginning of last century such was their imperfect con
Total 23,134 struction, that small pox, measles, and Alux were blended under one head.. T'he first of these numbers is found Exception may be taken against the by subtracting the amount of deaths by accuracy of these bills, even in this small pox, in the bills of mortality. improved state, particularly with re- during the practice of vaccination, from gard to the discrimination of diseases. the amount of them, during the same This objection, however, is certainly number of years, immediately before less applicable to small pox than any the discovery of vaccination. other disorder, its character being so The second number is found by di
viding the first by 5. The population pox. The first proof of this was at of the metropolis without the bills is Vienna, where, in 1804, no cases OCstated at one-sixth of the whole, which curred, except two strangers who came is evidently one-fifth of that within the into the city with the disease upon them. bills.
• In 1805, there did not occur a single The third number is found by divid. death from it in Copenhagent. Dr. ing the sum of the two others by 2. Sacco, the indefatigable superintendant The unregistered cases being, as before of vaccination in Lombardy, stated, in stated, one-third of the whole.
his Annual Report, 3d January, 1808, It appears, therefore, that, even under that the small pox had entirely disapthe very imperfect practice of vaccina. peared in all tbe large towns in that tion which has taken place in this country; and that in the great city of metropolis, 23,134 lives have been saved, Milan it had not appeared for several in the last fifteen years, according to years. Dr. Odier, of Geneva, so favourthe best computation that the data ably known for his high professional, afford. It will be seen by an inspec scientific, and literary acquirements, tion of the table, that, in that time there testifies, that, after a vigorous persehave been great fluctuations in the verance in vaccination for six years, the number of deaths. This has been owing small pox had disappeared in that city partly to the small pox inoculation of and the whole surrounding district; out-patients having, by an unaccount- and that, when casually introduced by able infatuation, been kept up at the strangers, it did not spread, the inhaSmall Pox Hospital for several years bitants not being susceptible. The Cenafter the virtue of vaccination had been tral Committee in Paris testify, in their fully confirmed. The great number of Report of 1809, that the small pox had deaths in 1805 may chiefly be referred been extinguished at Lyons and other to this cause.. Since the suppression of districts of France. this practice, the adoption of vaccina. These are selected as some of the tion, though in a degree so incomplete, earliest proofs of the extirpating power. in consequence of public prejudice, but it is demonstrable, that if at the created by mischievous publications, first moment of this singular discovery, has been unable to prevent a consider at any moment since, at the present or able, though fluctuating, 'mortality any future moment, mankind were suffi. from small pox. This mortality, though ciently wise and decided to vaccinate the little more than one half of what it was whole of the human species who have in former times, might have been en- not gone through the small pox, this tirely saved, if vaccination had been most loathsome and afflicting of all the carried to the same extent as in many scourges of humanity, would instantacities and whole districts on the con- neously, and for ever, be banished from tinent of Europe, in Peru* and Ceylon. the earth. And in order to stimulate
It is now matter of irrefragable his. the good and the wise to aim strenu. torical evidence, that vaccination pos- ously at this consummation, let it be sesses powers adequate to the great end constantly borne in mind, that the adproposed by its meritorious discoverer, versary they are contending with, is in his first promulgation of it in 1798, the greatest scourge that has ever namely, the total extirpation of small afflicted humanity. That it is so, all
history, civil and medical, proclaims : • In the summer of 1811, the author was for, though the term plague carries a called to visit, professionally, Don Francisco sound of greater horror and dismay, we de Salazar, who had arrived a few days' should probably be within the truth, if before in London, on his route from Lima to we were to assert, that small pox has Cadiz, as a deputy to the Spanish Cortes. destroyed a hundred for every one that He informed me, that vaccination had been has perished by the plague. practised with so much energy and success I t is true that in its last visitation of in Lima, that, for the last twelve months this metropolis, one hundred and fiftythere had occurred, not only no death from, four years ago it carried off 70.000 but no case of, small pox; that the new born children of all ranks are carried as regularly
victims in a few months ; but since to the Vaccinating House, as to the font of
that time, the deaths from small pox, baptism ; that the small pox is entirely ex
recorded in the bills of mortality, have tinguished all over Peru ; nearly so in Chili; amounted to more than 300,000; and a and that there has been no compulsory inter like number of the survivors have been ference on the part of the government to promote vaccination.
+ See Pfaft neuen nord v. Archiv. B. Li