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mestic manufactures; and parliament an understanding which could catch itself looked no further than to alle- the moment propitious to exertion, and viate the pressure of the immediate proportion its zeal to its object, his parevil. Mr. Grattan, however, whose liamentary speeches taught a subjumind was formed to embrace something gated nation to pant for independence; beyond present objects, perceived that while the public voice, highly animated the root of those calamities was not a by the subject, and seconded by the temporary stagnation of trade from the loud assent of 80,000 men in arms (for American war, but rather to be found to so inany did the volunteer associain the unjust restraints imposed by tions amount), kindled, even in the Great Britain on the exertions of the cold bosom of parliament itself, a decountry.

sire to assert its dignity, and rescue its He was the first, therefore, who had authority from the gripe of British the boldness and the wisdom to urge usurpation. the legislature to complain of those ren of this sentiment, so novel in an straints: his efforts were seconded by Irish legislature, that had long forgotthe unanimous voice of the country; ten the pride of independence, Mr. and such was the efficacy of a political Grattan availed himself; and by one truth, thus urged, and thus supported, of those extraordinary displays of imthat even the whole force of British in- passioned eloquence, to which even the fluence was found unequal to resist it. eloquent cannot rise unless assisted by The Irish legislature adopted, and de- the inspiration of a great subject, he creed the sentiment; and, after some obtained the celebrated declaration, that hesitation on the part of the British the King, Lords and Commons of Ireparliament, the commerce of Ireland land only, could make laws to bind Irewas, in part, opened to her children, land, in any case whatsoever. A temporary gleam of satisfaction was Mr. Grattan's popularity was now at shed over the country by this conces- a height almost without example. The sion, as it was called, of the British achievement of a nation's independence parliament: for so accustomed had the by an individual, unaided by any force people been to exclusion, to penalties, or any influence but that which genius and to restriction, that a relaxation or and which truth afford, was considered suspension of any of these was looked as the result of talents and of virtue on as the conferring of a positive benefit, almost above the lot of humanity. The rather than the cessation of an actual legislature itself seemed for once to injury.

participate in the feelings of the people, Mr. Grattan's name was now become for in the fervour of admiration it was an object of adoration to the people, proposed that 100,0001. should be voted and by the volunteer associations which him, as a mark of approbation. the dangers of the war had called forth, · In its full extent this proposition he was looked up to with peculiar re- was not adopted, for on a subsequent spect. In this state of affairs, the re- sitting, when the vote was before the action of popularity upon patriotism Committee, they reduced it, at the exseemed to impart new energy to his press instance of his own particular mind.

friends, to 50,0001. ; to that amount, · Mr. Grattan continued to exert him.. however, the grant was confirmed, and self with indefatigable assiduity in the Mr. Grattan actually received the senate; and by leading the mind of the money. public, and even of the legislature itself, The declaration of rights of the Irish to the consideration of national rights, legislature, however unwelcome it must and the actual political situation of have been to the minister and parliatheir common country with respect to ment of England, was received here England, he was clearing the way for with that kind of placid acquiescence that measure which he me litated with which we assent to what is ineri. declaration of the legislature in favour table. A negociation was immediately of national independence. His elo instituted between the two nations, quence, of a cast more warm and ani, which terminated in the repeal of the mated than either parliament or the 6th of Geo. I. the act by which the people had usually felt, and exerted British Parliament declared its right upon subjects on which the human to bind Ireland by British statutes. mind is susceptible of the greatest de. On the subject of this repeal a quesgree of enthusiastic fervor, was grati- tion arose, which suspended for a confied by complete success. Directed by siderable time Mr. Grattan's popularity. It was contended by Mr. Flood, that as Though Mr. Grattan, during this pethe 6th of Geo. I. was an act only de- riod, did not take an active part in poclaratory of a right asserted by the Bri. litical affairs, he remained still in partish parliament, the “ simple repeal” liamont, and voted as his conscience of the statute did not involve a renun- bade, sometimes with, and sometimes ciation of the right: and he insisted against, the minister. Towards the that, notwithstanding the repeal, Great close of the year 1785, when, under Britain might, and from her former cover of a commercial arrangement, it conduct towards Ireland, probably was supposed a design had been formed would, resume the exercise of it. He by the British ministry to subvert the therefore advised the legislature to de- newly-acquired independence of the mand of the British parliament a full Irish parliament, we find him again and explicit renunciation of all claim alert and vigilant at his post. Among in future to bind Ireland. This opin the celebrated proposals which were nion was adopted by the people, and then offered to the House of Commons met very powerful support even in both in Ireland, by an agent of the Crown, houses of parliament. Mr. Grattan, and which are still remembered and whose sagacity this objection to a simple execrated in that country by the name repeal had eluded, or who really did of 6 Orde's Propositions," one was, not deem it of sufficient importance for 66 that the Parliament of Ireland, in which to hazard the disturbing of the consideration of being admitted to parlate happy arrangements, applied all ticipate equally with Great Britain in his power of reason and eloquence to all commercial advantages, should from combat this doctrine of Mr. Flood. time to time adopt and enact all such

He contended that the repeal of a acts of the British Parliament as should declaratory law, accompanied by such relate to the regulation or management circumstances as had attended this, of her commerce,” &c. The proposimust be considered, and would by the tion, it was contended, would sink the world be considered, as implying a re- Parliament of Ireland into a mere renunciation of the right; but, even if it gister to the British legislature; and were not so, and Great Britain should this opinion was entertained not only be so unjust and impolitic as to resume by the public in general, but by some the right, when she should recover of the ablest men in both Houses; means to support it by power, an ex- among them by Mr. Grattan, who gave plicit renunciation would be but a to the whole system the most unquali. slender defence against injustice sup- fied and strenuous opposition. This ported by force; that in such circum- opposition proved successful, the meastances, the true security of the people sure was relinquished, and Mr. Grattan would consist, not in an act of parliament, thenceforward continued to resist, with but in that patriotic energy which would the most zealous and persevering firmenable them to defend, as it had already ness, what he called the principles of enabled them to assert, their independ the “Old Court,”—principles which he ence; and that to force Great Britain looked on as tending to degrade Irein this, her hour of distress, to confess land, by corruption and influence, to herself an usurper, by an express re- the same despicable and miserable state nunciation of a right which she had in which she had been reduced preexercised, would be as ungenerous to viously to the year 1783. her as it would be useless to Ireland. From this period we find Mr.Grattan

With the people these arguments had an active leader of the country party no weight, and in the senate they were in the House of Commons; loved by borne down by the irresistible force of the people, and dreaded by the cabinet. that pride for which they were indebted His popularity, which had so suddenly alone to the recollection of Mr. Grat- sunk on his acceptance of the parliatan's victories.

mentary boon, and his support of the Frustrated in the hope of carrying simple repeal, had now risen to its on exclusively to its completion a revo- former level; and the nation found lation (for such it may be called) which that he was still an upright and indehe had so successfully and honourably pendent senator Among the various commenced, and finding the tide of measures which now occupied his atpopularity now running against him, tention, was the establishment of a proMi. Grattan seems for some time to vision for the clergy, independent of have completely secluded himself from tythes. For many years the Catholic politics.

peasantry of Ireland had been disconMONTHLY Mag. No. 341.

3 Y

tented, tented, not so much with the payment Orde's system, and his subsequent of tythes to Protestant pastors, as with exertions in the popular cause, prothe rigid and oppressive manner in cured for him, in the year 1790, an which they had been collected by honourable and easy election as repreproctors and tythe-farmers. The coun. sentative for the metropolis. try had been kept by this cause for During the existence of the parliaalmost half a century in disturbance. ment which then commenced, there Mr. Grattan proposed a measure which occurred, however, a question on which would have removed every discontent, Mr. Grattan and a very considerable and at the saine time have secured a proportion of his constituents mateprovision for the clergy equal to that rially differed; this was the claim of which they then possessed, easy and the Catholics to the elective franchise. certain to them, and to the peasantry From his first entrance into parliament, neither oppressive nor unplešsant. he had always been the decided friend This plan was, however, opposed by of every measure which tended to the collective influence of the Esta abolish 'those political distinctions, blished Church, and of course rejected which were founded only on a dif. by the Legislature. Another measure ference of religious tenets; for he conwhich he proposed to Parliament about ceived that such distinctions had rethe same time, viz. a bill to promote tarded the progress of the country tothe improvement of barren land, by wards civilization and industry. exempting reclaimed ground from the The corporation of the city of Dubpayment of tythes for seven years— lin, prone by situation and habit to rewas but little calculated to restore the ligious bigotry, looked on the Catholics favour of the priesthood; they accord- at once with suspicion and contempt. ingly resisted and defeated the project, Enjoying a monopoly of municipal hoand continued thenceforward to hate nour and emoluments, by the exclusion and calumniate its author.

of all who professed a different faith The Whig-club had for some time from the franchises of the capital, they become a political body of considerable considered every attempt to restore consideration. Mr. Grattan was one them to those franchises as an attack of the first, if not the very first mem- on their property, or a violation of bers, in point of talent and popularity. their rights. Besides these causes the At his instance it was that the members then administration had, by some rewho had been since its institution the cent institutions, obtained a paramount advocates of a liberal system, which influence in the corporation; and to they considered necessary to the secu. perpetuate religious distinctions, which rity of the constitution and independ had hitherto kept Jreland weak, was ence of the country, came now to a re- still the court policy. This influence, solution, by which they publicly pledged therefore, operating in conjunction with themselves never to accept offices under other causes, rendered the municipal any administration which should not officers of Dublin incapable of particoncede certain measures to the peo- cipating in that increased liberality of ple:—these consisted principally of a sentiment which had now every where pension-bill, a bill to make the great begun to dissipate prejudice, and disofficers of the crown responsible for pel bigotry. On the question of ad. their advice and measures, another to mitting the Catholics to the privileges prevent revenue-officers from voting at of the constitution, the corporation and elections, and a place-bill. This ex. Mr. Grattan accordingly differed ; and plicit declaration of a sincere and fixed had not circumstances occurred which purpose respecting these essential sub- prevented him from becoming again a jects, gave the society much weight candidate for the capital, there was no with the public, and enabled them, chance of his being a second time after a long opposition on the part of elected its representative. . . administration, to effect their purpose; The war with France had now taken a pension-bill, a place-bill, a responsi: place; Mr. Grattan approved of it, or bility-bill, were at last yielded by the rather he considered Ireland as bound, court-party as concessions of the first with all its might, to assist Great Briimportance, though they had for so tain, when once engaged in the contest. many years resisted them as unneces. This, at least, was the opinion entersary and unwise.

tained by him during the short admi. The celebrity which Mr. Grattan nistration of Lord Fitzwilliam; and in had attained by his opposition to Mr. this opinion he remained, until he

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found that the continuation of hostili. patriot and reformer who had half won
ties threatened the empire with ruin, back the liberties of his country..
either from the incapacity of those by His speech in 1815, on the occasion
whom it was conducted, or the mur- of the cheering and glorious return of
murs which it occasioned. In Ireland, Napoleon from Elba, in which he gave
indeed, discontent had been spreading countenance to the cause of legitimacy,
with incalculable velocity, and deepen- and whetted the sword of European
ing as it spread. The pertinacity and despotism against the independence of
insolence with which the administra France, astonished all his friends, and
tion had rejected the petitions of the filled with indignation every one who
Catholics, and the rapidity and in considered the new order of things in
consistency with which they granted France as inimical to the usurpations of
the prayer of those petitions, at the the feudal system. He was playing
first suggestion of the British cabinet; the part of Burke, but he seems to
the obstinacy with which they refused have done it without attaining the
ever to hear of a reform, the advocates same end ; except, indeed, that he fur-
of which were blackened with abuse, nished the war-faction with arguments,
and calumniated as traitors ; the enor- and with the colour of his sanction,
mous increase of court-influence, by and thereby led to the second triumph
the shameless increase of sinecure of. of the Legitimates, and to that Holy
fices, the lavish profusion of titles, and Alliance, whose fruits have not yet
above all, the trick which it was sup- matured. In like manner, he latterly
posed the British cabinet had played compromised the cause of reform, and
off on Ireland, by sending Lord Fitz- was steady only in one point-the great
william with concessions, which were one of Catholic Emancipation.
revoked when the supply was voted ; A question forces itself upon our at-
all these causes had already generated a tention here, which we will not shun.
degree of discontent in the country, of The enviable honour of being the
which no instance had been known in author of Junius, has been successively
former times.

given to various public characters; but
During the debates on the Union, more especially to Mr. Burke, Mr.
Mr. Grattan was returned for Wick- Hugh Boyd, and Sir Philip Francis.
low, for the express purpose of oppos- The genius of Mr. Burke was more
ing a measure so hateful to Ireland; than equal to all the finest qualities of
which he did with peculiar force, and that delightful work ; but the character
with that success which commands the of his style is so different, that even
silent assent even of those who venally the facility of his powers could not
vote against the demonstrations of the have borrowed a style, and used it with
speaker. In the British senate, some the ease and grace that adorn Junius.
of Mr. Grattan's countrymen, who had Neither Mr. Hugh Boyd nor Sir Philip
been transplanted from the Irish to the Francis possessed the extent of the
British House of Commons, seemed to powers and talents of Junius. They
sink beneath their former rank; but were inferior men ; and look more like
Mr.Grattan in England displayed all the pigmies than giants, when placed beside
force of eloquence, and splendour of such a colossus as Junius. Mr. Grattan
thought and diction which had so often possessed all the qualities which distin-
been hailed by his countrymen in their guish Junius, and some of them even
own capital. The genius of Mr. Grat- in a greater degree—that is to say, the
tan could live and bloom, when torn occasions of his orations were some-
from the beloved spot which gave it times of a more elevated nature. All
birth. Some of his speeches on the the strongest lines of Junius's Style
Catholic question have not been excel- were in those of Mr. Grattan. We have
led by the greatest of native British no room to develope this ; but we
orators. Yet Mr. Grattan did not, of should be surprised, if no person of ex-
late years, indulge in the full expres- perience who reads this should recollect
sion of that passion and feeling which their saying to themselves and friends,
distinguished his early eloquence. He when listening to Grattan-66 THAT IS
had adopted a principle of moderation, JUNIUS 1-Junius could be no other
caution, and apparent equivocation, in man!"
all extreme questions, from which his The early years of Grattan, at the
latter speeches never departed; and to time Junius appeared, has been ob-
some he did not latterly seem to be the jected. But Grattan was then about


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eighteen; and if a youth of that age MAJOLA, preserves an American aneccould not be supposed to have all the dote of Maclean, which confirms the knowledge of Junius, especially of the fact of his participation. political position of affairs and parties, “I have no proof of Mr. Boyd's being such a youth as Grattan could receive Junius, my opinions being conjectural; howand understand all information re ever, long before Mr. Almon's suggestions specting it, and could cloathe the

attracted the publick attention, I was thoughts of others and of himself with

clearly of opinion, that Mr. Boyd was the a splendour which was exclusively his

joint author of those far famed letters.-

I surmised it before he left England, and own. Junius might have been the

above twenty years ago, in a confidential production of a little junta, and pro

conversation with a relation of great taste bably was; but one hand chiefly wielded

and superior talents, my reasons and conthe pen, and the hand seems most like

jectures were thought convincing. A celeto the hand-writing of Grattan. When brated character now living, I suppose to the Editor of this Miscellany was en- have written conjointly with Mr. Boyd the gaged, a few years since, in preparing Letters of Junius, for they were much toan edition of Junius, he addressed Mr. gether, the table was always covered with Grattan on the subject—but received papers, and they were always writing, being the following negation to the hypothesis

always disconcerted whenever I went near

the table.” that Mr. G. was Junius:

Margate, Oct. 11, 1805. Sir,- I can frankly assure you that I know

“A celebrated orator was acquainted notbing of Junius, except that I am not the

with Mr. B. from boy hood, and they adauthor. When Junius began I was a boy, and knew nothing of politicks, or the persons

mired each other's great talents, without

envy, often arguing, ever with temper, concerned in them. Our friend my country

criticism and politics their chief subiect. man was mistaken, and did me an honor I

During the publication of Junius he was had no pretensions to.

frequently at our house, and when I used I am, Sir, your (not Junius), but your

unexpectedly to enter the parlour, I found very good-wisher and obedient Serv.

them seated at a table, on which were vaDublin, Nov. 4, 1805. H. GRATTAN.

rious papers, that they would instantly cover. This denial the Editor communicated

and in polite terms request my absence, as to the widow of Mr. Boyd, who cer

they were particularly busy, and oftentimes tainly believed that Mr. B. Mr. G. and

Mr. B. would be writing at a desk, in a perhaps Mr. Eden and Mr. Lauchlin large inner closet, and which he generally Maclean, were joint partners in the bolted when alone." production of the letters signed Junius. “I should be sorry to impose on the It may be worth while to annex her publick, but there can be no imposition reply, as furnishing further elucidation in my believing, from the concurrence of of the subject.

many circumstances, that Mr. B. was Ju“ I am sorry you troubled Mr. Grattan,

nius, with the aid and assistance of bis friend. whose denial must be believed. If he

There was one letter bighly polished,

which I believe to have been Mr. B.'s, and was a boy when Junius began, what must

which I particularly admired, my praise of Mr. B. have been, who was a year

which he always seemed to be particularly younger than Mr. G.; but Mr. G. for

pleased with, and there is one of great sevegets dates, for he was in Englanil in rity, which I have always attributed to his 67, and I remember our dining with him friend.” in the autumn of 69, when he and the Margate, Oct. 16, 1805. present Judge Day resided in a cottage Of Mr. Grattan's private life there is in Windsor Forest."

but little generally known, because The Editor was induced to challenge little had occurred in it to interest atMr. Grattan by the following passages tention. It had passed on in a smooth in previous letters from Mrs. Boyd, manner, marked equally by the practice and also by recollections of Mr. Jesse of every conjugal and domestic virtue. Foot, the eminent surgeon, of Dean In his private intercourse Mr. Grattan Street, Soho, who knew Boyd, Grattan, displayed manners that were in a high and Eden, and believes they were the degree pleasing. Wit he seemed not joint authors of Junius. The Editor to possess, and he had a cast of mind conceives, however, that Lauchlin Mac- too lofty for humour; but if he did not lean was one of the junta, for in his " set the table in a roar," or dazzle with conversation with the late Marquis of the radiance of fancy, he diffused over Lansdowne, the Marquis asked him the convivial hour the mild charms of emphatically, 66 What does Almon say good-humour, and softened society with of Maclean 21 And Mr. Galt, in his unassuming gentleness.


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