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principle of this theory, by alledging, are brought within a certain angle of that the water does not fall when raised each other, the points most intercepted in tubes or between plates, after they are driven together, and the drops have been placed under an exhausted coalesce. receiver. And why should it fall ? . Similar, also, is the principle of the For, if the atmospheric pressure is in attraction of fluids by the sides of great part taken off the exterior surface solids, only with this difference, that the or sides, it is equally removed also from solid cannot advance to meet the fluid, the upper surface of the raised fluids. and all the phenomena take place on The fluid being once raised, it retains the part of the fluid. And from this its station, because it is mechanically cause it is, that a boat is moved to-, supported, each side serving as a but. wards a ship, and all small bodies totress to the other side, so that one side wards large ones, while floating, and cannot give way to the law of centripe easily moved in a fluid medium. In tation without some partial distur- regard to the pressure of the elastic bance, and the taking off the atmo- atmosphere, they get into each other's spheric pressure is not partial but equal wake, or intercept the force of that and general; and as no complete ex. pressure on their nearest sides ; and haustion can take place, the sligthest the force being unintercepted on the force tends to maintain a state already opposite sides, the undisturbed force acquired, i. e. in other words, an arch overcomes the diminished force, and the has been created which stands after its bodies are driven together with a vecentre pieces have been knocked away. locity which increases with the angular

Of the general principle here adduced degree of interception. no reasonable doubt can be maintained; MM. Monge and La Place, have at the same time the effects of the local abused those sublime mathematics of atmospheres of bodies have not been which they are masters, by some che brought into the consideration ; nor has rious distinctions between the phenothe necessary mechanical influence of mena of such bodies and the laws which radiation and evaporation been consić govern them; but none of their obdered, in bodies which have different servations prove the existence of any powers of receiving heat or atomic power not strictly mechanical, and motion; and these differences are doubt. which may not be easily traced either less concerned in the production and to intercepted pressure, to the combivariation of the phenomena, while none nations of the different local atmoof them have any connection with any spheres of bodies, or to their varied principle of attraction, introduced as a power of evaporation, and of radiating convenient solver of difficulties, and as a atomic motion or heat. short road to wisdom in all modern

COHESIVE ATTRACTION. disquisitions on physical subjects.

The experiments of Mr. Daniell, of It is from the same principle of in- M. Haüy, M. Link, and others, prove tercepted pressure, that drops of fluids, incontestibly, that all solids are varie. as water or mercury, move towards ties of crystallized forms; while it reeach other and unite. Every body quires a very slight exertion of intelbrought very close to another is neces- lect to perceive that crystallized forms sarily affected by its interception of the are necessary consequences of atoms pressure of the medium in which it is being packed together by the action of situated, but the affection is not sufi the atoms of any elastic medium in ciently powerful to produce sensible which they are immersed. The powers phenomena in all. A great facility of re- of the latter are varied only by the Våtó ceiving motion is necessary, or the de riable form of the atoms which are its licate force of the intercepted pressure, or force or motion of the atoms in • I confine the observation to the atmoselastic action, is not sufficient to operate; phere as the medium which is the object of and the angular interception must be

vulgar observation ; but in truth many of adjusted to the impulse of the medium,

these phenomena belong rather to that uniand the inertia of the subjects. Per

versal and omnipresent medium within which

the heterogeneous atmosphere itself floats, haps, however, nothing is more easily

which medium penetrates diaphanous bodies moved, when surrounded by dissimilar

in right lines, is the subject of those undulabodies, than a globule of mercury ortions which produce the phenomena of light, water- hence, if two globules of the and whose varied interceptions by bodies of former be laid upon a table, or two of different structure are the cause of many the latter upon the down of a leaf, and chemical and minor phenomena.

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patients during the process of evapora. Commentators mistook Newton, in calling tion and reduction of bulk. The pa. Gravity an inpate and universal property of tient atoms, therefore, are packed as it matter. The Professor then quotes a letter were by the incessant activity of the of Newton's, wbo denies that gravity is an elastic medium in which the process

innate property, merely to prove that it is a takes place; and they are dovetailed

constant miracle, capable of being produced

only by some power not material. Newton's and glued, or bound together by the

reference to supernaturals, however, does not atoms in other forms, which mingle

improve Playfair's case ; he still maintains during the process, thereby producing

the , universality of the property, and his uniunited crystals, which crystals consti versal projectile force would be useless, tute what we call solids, whose density,

without the universality of the other power. impenetrability, and resistance of fo- When secondary causes are not apparent, reign action or motion, are varied ac it is the business of Philosophers to endeacording to the original form of their vour to trace them, and not cut all enquiry atoms; to the accidents by which they short by referring to the FIRST CAUSE. Such are dovetailed, and to the forms of the

reference is not PHILOSOPHICAL ; nor is it other atoms by which they are en

logical to assign a secondary cause, which twined together. Atomic forms, and

cause implies in its nature the proximate

and immediate agency of the first cause. the relative action of other circumjacent atoms are, therefore, the sole cause of all To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. those phenomena of cohesion in bodies

SIR, which superstition and a fondness for THE 'following is the copy of a petimiracle has clothed with the name of tion which has been presented to the attraction, or has explained by a prin House of Commons in favor of universal ciple, acting for its own sake, between emancipation, from the Protestant Disbodies in different places, without a

senters of the Borough of Cockermouth, mechanical cause or connection.

in Cumberland. And it is to be la. It remains, that in some future paper

mented that so few protestants are ready I shew, that appearances of attractions

to follow their example. Let us hope, in ELECTRICITY are necessary effects however, that this is the dawn of emanof the gazeous decomposition of elec

cipation : and that since Protestants trics, the force of which is determined and Diccenters too. heqin to netition for by intercepting conducting surfaces, the Catholic Claims, their cause is asand condensed in any light body when I it diminishes the thickness of the elecit diminishes the thickness of the ele suming a very promising posture ; and

shall hereafter be found the cause of tric plate; and even if I should fail to TRUTH.

A. P. D. explain with equal precision, that the ap Cockermouth, May 16, 1820. pearance of attraction in MAGNETICAL To the Honourable the Commons, &c., the experiments is a mechanical effect of humble Petition of the undersigned Proascertained combinations, I should be testant Dissenters of the Independent Deas weak as he would be, who not un. nomination, residing in the town and neighderstanding Seamanship, on seeing two bourhood of the Borough of Cockermouth. vessels at sea approach each other Sheweth, under the influence of the same “ That with confidence relying on the wind, as precipitately as superstitiously

justice and liberality of the British Senate, ascribed their approach, not to mecha

your petitioners beg leave humbly to lay nical contrivance, but to some occult

before your honourable House the unmerited

stigma which has long been impressed on a power, or innate principle of Attraction.

body of subjects, whose loyalty and fidelity Yet, in such a one, may the learned

have yet been constantly demonstrated. teachers of doctrines of innate Attrac “ That in the imposition of civil disabilition and universal Gravitation see them. ties upon the account of religious opinions, selves as in a glass !

your petitioners deprecate an infringement of COMMON SENSE. the primary law of mental freedom; the *.The writer of this paper communi. right of each to worship God according to cated his views on these subjects to the late the unbiassed dictates of his conscience.illustrious Playfair, of Edinburgh, because That considered apart from this great law of he had written some able papers in the native freedom, the present restriction of the Edinburgh Review, in which he had been Catholio Christians is evidently injurious to less dogmatical on these subjects than most the best interests of the country; by the par. Newtonians. Instead, however, of acknow tial exclusion of men of integrity from offices ledging their force, he has left behind him of state ; and by causing dissentions and insome observations printed in the Introduction vidious distinctions between the several deto the fourth volume of the Supplement to the nominations of religious creeds in the British Encyclopedia Britannica, in which he evades empire at a time when the prevalence and the question by stating, that Cotes and all the triumph of Deism and infidelity demand the

anited

united energies of all persuasions in the de- the fashion for ladies and gentlemen fence of truth. Nor can the limitation of to go the first Sunday of every month religious liberty be defended on the ground of to San Gallo; and that rather for dipolicy; since loyalty and attachment to the version than devotion. On one of constitution of the land were declared, on

these Sundays, as Giotto was going enquiry, by the Catholic Universities of Louvaine, Douay, Alcala, Salamanca, Val

with a party to the church aforesaid, ladolid, and the Sorbonne, to be incumbent

he stopped in Cucumber-street t to reon those who profess the communion of

late some anecdote ; and while thus Rome : and the antiquated absurdity of their engaged, a pig ran hastily between his keeping no faith with heretics has been po legs, and threw him down. Giotto neisitively and indignantly disavowed by the ther uttered any imprecations against College of Cardinals de Propaganda, under him, nor shewed any other symptoms the immediate sanction of Pope Pius VI., as of wrath ; but getting up quietly and well as by the catholics of the united king shaking himself, observed to his friends dom.

with a smile: 'Tis really no more than .“ That your petitioners should consider

I deserve, for though I have gained so themselves unworthy of the names of Protestants and Dissenters, could they for one mo

many good florins by the bristles of ment deny to Anglicans or Romans that

these creatures, I do not know that I sacred liberty which they hold to be the

ever gave them so much as a spoonful birthright of man; and for which our fathers of broth. suffered by the prison, the axe, and the Most people go with their mouths faggot !

open rather than their eyes: so that a ." That your petitioners therefore beg leave man can never be wrong in seeking humbly to entreat your honourable House to the society of intelligent men like take into consideration the claims of our ca- Giotto: for by so doing, he will be altholic brethren for universal emancipation ; ways learning something. I . and to extend to them those rights and immunities to which they are so justly entitled, as

NOVELLA 109.
Of a Cask of Wine which a Man left in

a
a loyal and pious portion of the British em-
pire ; and thereby to conciliate the affections

charge of his Wife while he went to of a large proportion of his Majesty's sub serve the office of Mayor. § jects, in these portentous times of political. A gentleman of good property, who ferment.

lived near the Church de’ Servi, in Flo“That while your petitioners pray your rence, was appointed Mayor of the honourable House to grant that liberty to the town of San Lorenzo.ll Before he left Church of Rome which is the RIGHT of Eng- home, he strictly charged his wife not lishmen, the distinction which severs the Pro

to broach a particular cask of very fine testant Dissenters from the great body of the

red wine, but to keep it till his return. people cannot but excite them to entreat of

He had been gone about two months, your candour and bounty, the extension of civil immunities and political honours to all

when a certain friar, the lady's conthe subjects of the Crown of Great Britain, fessor, fell sick. One day, when she without respect to their religious opinions : called to enquire after his health, he since

and constitutional disposition said he thought he should be better if has ever been characteristic of those men to he could find some wine that he could whom the historian* attributes the preserva relish. 6 Dear me," said the · lady, tion of that liberty which should ever be dear 66 we have a capital cask at home, but to the freemen of Britain.

my husband has left particular orders And your petitioners will ever pray, &c. that it should not be tapped. The (Signed)

friar, hearing this, was seized with a · L’APE ITALIANA.

great longing for it, and begged he

might be allowed to taste it, if it were No. xvi.

but a single glass. 6 Well,” said she,
Dov' ape susurrando
Nei mattutini albori
Vola suggendo i ruglodesi umori.

Guarini.

• A diletto più che a perdonanza. Where the bee at early dawn,

+ Via del Cocomero. Murmuring sips the dews of morn.

More, it seems, than might do him good, SACCHETTI (continued.)

for Giotto, though very smart, was not very NOVELLA 75.

scrupulous. Bons Mots of Giotto the Painter.f.

§ Podestà. I have given the nearest EngW H OEVER is acquainted with lish translation, but the office was one of Florence, knows that it is greater authority, having in some case the

power to inflict capital punishment. • Hume, Vide Hist. of Eng. v. 189. 8vo. edit. 1763. · + Giotto flourished about the year 1276.

|| A small town in the vicinity of FloHe is considered by Vasari as the restorer of

cari as the bestorer of rence. the art.

Grandissima volontà gli venne d'averne.

::. a single

66 a single glass cannot matter, you gling them. Dante walked into the shall have a taste, come what will of shop; and without saying any thing, it.” Marvellously did the generous began to throw the man's tools into liquor please the friar: the very first the street. The blacksmith, starting glass seemed to restore him to new up with a menacing gesture, asked him life; * and by dint of entreaty he pre- if he were mad, or what the devil he was vailed on the lady to send him bottle about. “I may rather ask what are after bottle, till at length the cask got you about,” rejoined the poet. “ I am empty, and he got well.

minding my business,” said the man, The time of the good man's return " and I wish you would do the same, now drew near, and the lady, full of and not spoil my tools in the way you trepidation, consulted the friar as to are doing.” 66 Well,” said Dante, « if what she should do. Make thy vow you will not spoil my things, I will not to the Annunziata," said he, 66 and spoil yours.” “ What things of your's trust the matter to her." And some have I spoiled," asked the blacksmith. how or other--whether by accident, or “ My verses,” replied the poet : 6 you that his public business had made him were singing out of my book, and did forget his private affairs-it so hap- not sing it as I wrote it.”* The man pened that the husband never made astonished, made no reply, but picking any inquiry about it; and the lady up his tools, resumed his work, and the presented to the Virgin a waxen model, time to come confined himself to in grateful acknowledgment that she Tristrem and Lancelot, and left off had enabled her to empty the original Dante.t without his knowledge.

At another time he met a dustman Vows of this sort are made every singing his poetry as he drove his asses, day. I knew a man who made a sis and at every two or three lines he stopmilar one when he had lost his cat, ped to beat his cattle, crying out, and dedicated an image of it to the Ge-up !Dante hearing this, gave him Annunziata in St. Michael's Gardens. a stroke across the shoulders, saying: Surely this deserves to be considered That is not in the text.ß The man, not as a breaking of our faith, rather than knowing who he was, nor why he an observance of it—as idolatry rather struck him, cracked his whip, and than Christianity. t The worship which called Ge-up again, and when he had God requires is that of the heart and got to a little distance, lolled out his mind : he takes no pleasure in these mi- tongue, and madegrimaces at him. The serable vanities ;I and to offer them is to poet, instead of losing his temper, as insult rather than to honour him. But many would have done, merely obserwhoever honestly consults his own ved, I would not give you one of mine heart, will find that many things which for a hundred of yours la calm and are considered as ladders to heaven, gentle reply which confounded his opare rather steps to go down the contrary ponent, and drew upon him the apway.

plauses of all who were present. NOVELLA 114.

NOVELLA 125. Anecdotes of the poet Dante Allighieri. Of King Charlemagne's attempt to conAs that excellent poet, Dante Al

vert a Španiard. lighieri, whose fame shall never fade,l! At the time of the conquest of Spain, was going by St. Peter's Gate, in Flo- by the emperor Charlemagne, there felí rence, he heard a blacksmith singing into his hands a certain Spaniard, who his verses, as he worked at the anvil, was a man of great ability and intelliand miserably transforming and man- gence, but a Jew, or rather a heathen

in his religion. The emperor having a

a high opinion of him, was desirous of * Gli parve gli rimettesse la vita addosso.

+ Più tosto una idolatrica che Fede Cris. * Tu carti il libro, e non lo dì com 'io lo tiana.

feci. I E' vuole il cuore e la mente nostra ; non + Cantò di Tristano, e di Lancilotto, e va caendo immagini di cera, ne di queste lasciò stare il Dante. borie e vanità.

. I Arri. The Italian word for exciting $ I have given the story for the sake of horses, &c. these reflections; not a little remarkable for Cotesto arri non vi miss 'io. the age in which they were made.

|| That is I think it beneath me to waste : il La cui fama in perpetus non verrà my words upon you. Non ti darei una della meno,

mie per cotito delle tue.

· his

his conversion, and with this view in- may spare him, and give him long vited him to his table, where a portion life. Tis thus in a thousand other was daily assigned to some poor beggar instances. We offer to the Creator the or other, for the good of his majesty's refuse of his creation, and give to him soul.. "The mendicants to whom the from whom we have received every imperial bounty was distributed, par- thing, only that which we do not care took of it squatting on the floor, or at a table apart, at the lower end of the The Spaniard's reasoning was thereroom, and were not admitted to the fore just. Our faith is become nothing royal board. The Spaniard observing but hypocrisy. this singular practice, took occasion one

NOVELLA 127. day to ask the reason of it, and who A French gentleman, seeing many lawthose shabby persons were that he saw y ers in Florence, inakes.certain rethere. The emperor replied, that they marks thereupon. were the Lord's poor,t and that in be- A gentleman of Metz, in Lorrainet, stowing alms on them he considered being present at a wedding procession that he was giving them to Christ him in Florence, observed that those who self, quoting the words of scripture: walked first wore robes trimmed with Whatsoever ye shall do unto the least fur. On enquiring who those persons of these, ye do it unto me. “ Pardon were, he was told they were lawyers. me, sire," said the Spaniard, “but this 6 Lawyers !” exclaimed he, with astonappears to me to be one of the many in- ishment, looking round upon the magniconsistencies I have observed in your ficence of the city,“ is it possible you faith. If you really believe that poor can thus have flourished with such person yonder to be the representative numbers of these gentlemen among of your Lord, how is it that you oblige you? I really should not have ex. him to squat in that obscure corner, pected they would have left you one while you yourself are served with such stone upon another. In my country, a splendour To me it appears that

single one of them has sufficed to set you ought to change places.” The em- us by the ears, and keep us quarrelling peror defended himself as well as he ever since he came into it; and has concould, but felt at the bottom that the verted our ancient peace and prosperity remark was just; and the Spaniard, so into discord and declension.t" The byefar from being converted, was the more standers smiled, and allowed, that if confirmed in his ancient faith.

the truth were to be spoken, they did And is not what the Spaniard said mischief enough.§ 66 Think yourselves true? What sort of christians are we? well off"

well off," said the Frenchman, “ to

said the Frenchi and of what sort is our faith ? Prayers, have escaped thus; with us they have paternosters, ave-marias, have we in not only sown the seeds of dissension

not only sown th abundance. Most ready are we to cross

for the present, but have provided a ourselves, go to church, to mass, to

plentiful crop for the next generation." procession, any thing, in short, that

And indeed when I look at those costs us nothing. But if we be called who wear the bonnet,ll I cannot but upon to shew charity to a poor man, we think with the Frenchman, that there give him a little broth, and thrust him is small chance of peace where they into a corner like a dog. The worm- dwell, and less for him that trusts eaten sack-the worst cask in the cel. them.

them. The prosperity of that maritime lar, are reserved for the Lord : any wonder of our day, so celebrated for *thing, in short, that we cannot eat

the excellence of its government, is a ourselves, we give to him; and truly he proof of this. No Venetian ever was need have the stomach of an ostrich, a lawyer. And the little town of Northat can digest iron. If a man's daugh- cia, though insignificant in comparison ter be lame, squinting, or deformed, with the former, by rejecting the deshe is dedicated to the Lord; if she be straight and fair, he keeps her him.

• These remarks are cynical, but extraorself.f If his son be sickly and ill-con

dinary for the time in which they were ditioned, he prays that God would

written. take him unto himself: if the lad be

+ Meza dell' Oreno. stout and hearty, he prays the Lord

I Giudici.

E' ci danno la mala pasqua. • Per ben dell' anima sua.

il Questi con li vai in testa. + Poveri di Cristo.

s Considero aver poca pace il luogo dove 1 La buona, e la bella tien per se.

stanno, e meno chi a loro crede.

structive

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