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must be in the wet months of January To Derby, seventeen miles along a or February; an inclement season when level road, though in a mountainous genteel company cannot bear such ex- county, nearly following the course of posure as is necessary to see it. In dry the river Derwent. The road has lately seasons it has more the appearance of been cut through an extraordinary wall an immensely large giant's staircase, of natural rock near Mr. Arkwright's than a fine water-fall. Its removal would residence, and conducted along the be no disadvantage. The fountains skirts of high hills near the river. The round the border of a bason which per rocks have been cut down on the higher haps may be used by gold or silver fish, side, and walled upon the lower side, may be continued for the diversion of till a safe and spacious road has been very young persons, till the pipes be- obtained, and opened for the use of come in want of repair; and then the the public. This has been finished lead may be applied to a more useful within the last two years, and it is said purpose. The river has been so much to be one of several good roads which improved by art as to make it a very the Duke of Devonshire has provided fine object, and that with the extensive both money and land for the making. plantations, the park upon a dry soil of At Derby, we put up at the George decomposed lime-stone, and the deer Inn, which is the best of its kind, and for which this place is peculiarly fit, kept by a widow, with the meritorious made on us an agreeable impression. intention of supporting a large family.
On taking leave of Chatsworth, we We viewed the porcelain manufactory, desire to express our personal thanks and were much gratified to see it in a to the Duke of Devonshire, for the very flourishing state; by which it provides great improvements lately made in the employment for three or four times as roads which communicate with Mat- many persons as it did a few years ago. lock and Buxton, through the moun. The statuary manufactory of Mr. Brown tainous parts of Derbyshire.
is in a similar state of improvement. We proceeded to Matlock, and un- The silk-mills of Messrs. Sturt are conluckily, by controlling our post-boy, tinued, but they were not at work when we stopped at the first inn (instead of we were there, owing to a want of water. the second), which presents a long front, We understood the cotton-mills were but is ill conducted, and we were badly at work; and, on the whole, Derby seems accommodated. Matlock is much im. to be thriving, as new houses are erectproved since we were there ten years ing with surplus wealth. ago. The mining has been continued We then travelled towards Leicester; to much extent, and many new houses but stopped at Mount Sorrel, to examine have been built. Matlock dale is pic- the granite quarries; where twenty or turesque in a very high degree for a thirty men are employed in boring, mile or two on each side of the wells. blasting and raising stone, which they We ascended one of the heights, and square for paving streets, and sell the found the apertures to many pitts left chips for repairing roads. We found open, to the great danger of men and the turnpike-road, for twenty-five miles cattle. One or two of the deserted in length in perfectly good repair, by mines are now denominated caves, and the use of this broken granite, hard, shewn for money. The museum of and without any loose stones, a little Messrs. Brown and Maw is very much shaky, but excellent. Mr. Jackson and improved; it makes a grand display of Mr. Peet of Mount Sorrel contract for minerals and exceeds every other thing raising and selling these stones. This of the kind. We were so fortunate as granite is generally of a pale pink to meet with Mr. Maw, at Matlock, and colour, but some of it is grey; and it is felt ourselves both amused and in- admitted that the harder stones lie at structed by him. We walked through greater depths in the quarry. Either the grounds of Mr. Arkwright, past his of these granites would make the new chapel to a coal and stone wharf grounds of elegant chimney pieces, at the end of a canal ; where is a large which might be finished with statuary deposit of coal, as well as many grind- mouldings; as may be seen of the pink, ing stones and some gypsum, together at Castleton, and of the grey at Mr. with large slates and plain tiles of im- Wilson's, of Stockwell. The chrystals proved colour and shape. The undu- in the granite of this mount are of a lated surface with rocks, woods and smaller size, and perhaps more durable water makes Mr. Arkwright's resi- than the Aberdeen or any large-grained dence very beautiful.
variety. The high freight of stone by
the canals prohibit the conveyance of ourselves the trouble to examine; it from Mount Sorrel to London ; if though we suppose that to be the case. that was so much lowered as to be Wheat is much more generally cultinearly removed from only the chips of vated in England, and the crops of it this stone, they might be used with the are larger than they are in Scotland. best effect upon the roads near London, Oats are nearly equal in the two king. to the extent of forty or fifty thousand doms; but rag-wort, and knot-grass tons annually.
(two pernicious weeds) are far more The King's Head Inn, at Loughbo- prevalent among oats in Scotland than rough is well conducted by Mr. Fowler. they are in England. The ley lands in
The Bell, at Leicester, is without Scotland abound with rag-wort, docks, fault.
thistles, and knot-grass. The Three Swans, at Market Har- From this comparative statement of borough, is well conducted, and so is the agriculture of the two kingdoms, the Angel, at Northampton ; but we and from what is said in other places happened to drive to the Saracen's in this narrative, it appears that the Head, at Newport Pagnell, and expe- Scotch excel in the cultivation of bar. rienced a great falling off.
ley; they equal the English in the The George, at Wooburn, is of first management of turnips and potatoes ; rate excellence; at this house genteel and that England is superior in all the persons may occasionally take up their other points of good husbandry. quarters, and have the great pleasure of Every agriculturist of any eminence driving, riding and walking in the between London and Yorkshire cul. Duke of Bedford's beautiful park. tivates turnips in such rows as have
Wednesday, 1st Sept.-We passed long been denominated the Northumalong a valley between high grounds of berland method ; and these roots are, chalk; covered by a vegetable mould with the exception of a sloven here and of dry turnip and barley land as all there, grown in that manner in all such soils are. The Dunstable end is places in both England and Scotland rather narrow, but towards St. Albans, on the north side of the town of Don. it is spread into a valley of considerable caster. We found all such men as width, All in a state of enclosures.. excel in the cultivation of turnips do
Intending to close our local observa the same by potatoes; that we expected, tions at this place, we shall now add as the operations are similar. briefly some things of a more general We are sorry there are not many exnature, viz. :
ceptions to the well deserved censure, As all agricultural crops ought to be which we are about to pronounce, on a entirely without any other than cul- very large proportion of the agricultutivated plants, so no weeds should be rists of these kingdoms, viz. : At any suffered to perfect their seed; on the greater distance than a post-stage or contrary, they should be either cut two northward from London, the occudown, hoed out, or drawn up by the piers of the soil know very little of the roots, and the soil left to expend itself most perfect methods of cultivating and in the support of cultivated crops. This harvesting, as well as making the most is one of the means which the most money of any other crops than potatoes sagacious men resort to in order to and turnips. Even hay is included in obtain crops of the greatest bulk and this censure. grain of the best quality ; by which In September, 1819, when we apthe whole is rendered agreeable to the proached within one post-stage of Lonview as well as in the reflections which don, we found excellent crops of potait occasions.
toes and turnips (not mixed) upon land Barley seemed to us to be later by a which in the early part of that summer week or ten days on the English side had yielded a full crop of either autumnof the boundary, than it was in Scot. sown tares, rye, cole, or cabbages, or land; and the Scotch crops of this spring sown white peas. The potatoes grain appeared larger than those in were planted after one or other of the England. Whether the difference may foregoing crops during the last three be occasioned by barley of four rows of weeks in June, and they were dug up grain in the ears, and its being sown in by tridents '(three-tined forks) not by autumn in Scotland, contrary to the the spade, nor by the plough, about the method in England of sowing the more middle of November; consequently, tender sort with two rows of grain in they had occupied the ground about each ear in the spring, we did not give a week less than five months. Their
produce was estimated at seven or power, capable of being applied to a eight tons per acre, after tares, cab- purpose so benignant, as to provide spe. bages, or peas, carried off. A judicious cial protection against evil, if exerted selection of two of these green or root at all, should not be uniformly excrops may be made, and their produce erted ? That such, however, is not reaped every year, as long as it may be the case, every day's experience proves, the pleasure of the cultivator; and by since multitudes are constantly suffera just distribution of the manure which ing under the injurious effects of direthey are calculated to yield, the soil ful and often incurable evils: each of may be enriched and continued very which might without doubt have been fruitful. This high degree of excel. prevented; or, if not so, instantaneously leuce is only to be seen in the south of removed. Contemplating the balance England; excluding Holcombe, as it of evil unremedied, even upon the adbas not even extended to that in other mission of the popular system of relief, respects enlightened place.
might it not be urged with equal proThe system of obtaining three or four priety, that an independent evil prinlarge crops every two years, without ciple opposed the good principle, and the senseless intervention of a fallow prohibited its benignant exertion on year, is the mark to be aimed at, in these more numerous occasions ? Or, order to gain the prize of no less value might not every individual sufferer than doubling the quantity of human justly infer, that we are under the gui. food obtainable from the soil. And as dance of a capricious and partial, if not it has been demonstrated by Mr. Mal- an inefficient Providence also ? Even thus, that population keeps pace with the special favourites of Heaven could the means of subsistence, these are ob- not but regret the direful effects so jects which would enable the cultivators often resulting to others, from the atroof the soil to pay their rents and live cious conduct of individuals. respectably in the worst times; in ordi. If the popular application of the doc-nary and favourable times they may in trine were true, crimes of magnitude that manner accumulate fortunes. The could have never taken place at all: to importance of these things to the nation instance, murders ; more especially the is immense. Therefore, it is vastly murder of unoffending and innocent into be wished that so superior a practice dividuals. For, if the uplifted arm of -may become general over every part of the cowardly assassin, had not already the British nation.
been withered, and his dagger fallen Including visits made to places of pic. harmless to the ground, at least, turesque scenery, extraordinary quar- it would have struck his defenceless ries, mines, and the tops of extinguished and devoted victim, with nerveless vvolcanoes, this journey extended to energy, or blunted point! Moreover, about one thousand five hundred miles. the supporters of the popular hypothe
J. M. sis, have innumerable difficulties to en
counter. Considering the multiplied To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. instances in which Divine interfeSIR,
rences are assumed, no small proM HE belief of divine interpositions portion will be found both in them
to suit the circumstances of indivi. selves, and in their consequences, unduals, has by the multitude been con- meaning, or insignificant and contrafined to instances of excessive and asto- dictory. nishing good fortune, or to cases in One planter, in a country subject to which extraordinary and otherwise un- hurricanes, has a small part only of his avoidable evils have by these means buildings and estate, injured or debeen averted. The hair-breadth escapes stroyed his neighbour the whole ; daily and hourly attributed to such in- and not only so, but he is thereby totervention, are, however, by far too nu- tally ruined. The former consoles merous to admit of the appellation of himself with the idea of the special proparticular interferences; and the more tection he has experienced, and attrimultiplied cases, where evil is permitted butes it to the intervention of a partito take its natural course undisturbed, cular providence : now had this been would equally prove the absence of a really the case, would he not have particular providence, when most escaped injury altogether? And would wanted; and which manifestly, if the the regrets of the latter be entirely system had any consistency, could without reason, that the special protec-. never happen. Is it credible, that tion afforded so near at hand, had not MONTHLY MAG. No. 341.
been extended to his grounds also; or at of general laws, the attention of manleast, that in such a time of need, he kind would be excited to the highest had not been entirely overlooked.- pitch ou the occasion of every remarkCases of other kinds are sufficiently nu. able coincidence, whether of prosperous merous, and in point. Contemplate the fortune or of escape from peril; and one alluded to by the Enquirer, of un- unable otherwise to account for it, they looked for, and astonishing prosperous would naturally consider themselves, fortune: how often is not ultimate in- individually, the objects of particular jury, and utter ruin, to the individuals regard, and special protection. That themselves, the result of incidents of at such a time this should have been this sort ? which could surely, never the case, is by no means wonderful: happen, had the original benefit been now, in fact, that such a feeling should really induced by the Divine interfer- have been perpetuated to after ages, ence.–Again, the signal and almost in- and even be not obliterated, in our credible success of individual undertakmore enlightened day; when we reings, oftentimes terminate in the misery flect, that to the present hour, our addiand destruction of multitudes. Wit- tional experience has obtained for us ness the conquest of Mexico.—Who nothing beyond the knowledge of a ever read the life of Cortes; of the concatenation of effects, a knowledge unprincipled, the treacherous, the and observation of the uniform operacruel, the sanguinary Cortes, but with tion of general laws; which before, if the utmost abhorrence, however his not absolutely unknown, was at least presence of mind and matchless in- totally unheeded in those more rude trepidity may have been admired. and uncultivated ages:-A knowledge, Admit the numerous hair-breadth however, if attentively considered, that escapes he experienced to have been will convince us, the events, popularly the result of Divine interferences, and called acts of a particular providence, what other can it lead to, than the mon- and attributed to such interference, may strous conclusion, that a particular pro- be satisfactorily explained upon natuvidence is occasionally exerted for ral principles. evil, or even malignant purposes ? To constitute such an act, it becomes · Before we quit this branch of the sub- indispensably necessary to prove, that ject, one general remark of importance the effects produced were utterly unatmay be made: that in all the instances tainable by ordinary means, and incahere adduced, or that hitherto have pable of resulting from natural causes.: been adduced in favour of a particular in a word, without the intervention of providence, not one of them militates miraculous agency, or actual interposiin the slightest degree against a general tions, by which is meant Divine interferprovidence.-To doubt the correctness ence; it could never have been brought of the popular application of a doctrine, to pass. With these views, it is maniis not to deny the doctrine itself; but fest, consistently with the belief of a surely, when we contemplate the incon- general providence, such interpositions clusiveness and inconsistency of such must be both of rare occurrence, and an interpretation, it is expedient to re- exerted only for great and leading pursort to some more stable and permanent poses. basis for its support. I shall therefore : « Nec Deus intersit, nisi dignus vindice do so; first of all, venturing a conjec- - nodus ture, as to the cause of so extraordinary. Inciderit , a misconception on a subject of such and cannot, according to the popular importance, and its perpetuation for notion, be found correctives to some so many ages. The term particular, supposed defects in the ordinary adas applied to the acts of providence, has ministration of a general providence. necessarily no reference to the cases of They are introduced solely on their own individuals; but .might mean only, account, nearing us as it were in our that the divine interference with the approach to, and inspiring us with the established plan and order first adopted greater confidence in, our Almighty at the creation, would be of rare occur- Creator and Preserver'.- Whereas, had rence, and such is it literally found to we been under the guidance of a general be. In the earlier ages of the world, providence only, and all communicawhen as yet no correct notions had been tion with our Maker entirely cut off, entertained, or even formed, of the we might have both hoped and feared, • system of the universe, and of the uni- but, unable to see, we never could have formity now observed in the operation known God. One potent objection to
the popular system, the so frequent re- elastic medium in which the bodies are currence of Divine interferences, is thus situated, which effect is perfected, in the entirely removed ; and we continue to Torricellian vacuum. In the latter repose with the utmost confidence on water rises by the pressure of the elastic the constancy hitherto observed in the atmosphere 33 feet, but in the former fixed results of natural causes. Were only some fractions of an inch. In the it indeed otherwise, and according to attraction of cohesion, the pressure is the popular notion, that the uniform intercepted by the solid on one side only operation of general laws was altered of the fluid, and towards that side thereor superseded, to suit the circumstances fore, the unintercepted pressure from of individuals, on almost every emergen- the other side, raises the Huid. cy, the practical consequence would be, The incumbent air presses every to sap the very foundation of all know- atom of the surface of the fluid, except ledge and experience, and at the same those in immediate contact with the time to operate as a paralysis on all immersed solid, where on the side close human exertions.Would the farmer to the solid, there is little or no prescontinue to cultivate his land, and sow sure. Of course, then, these last atoms his grain, if there were any uncertainty are forced against the sides of the imas to the advantage to be derived from mersed solid, and the phenomenon of it ?-No.-His own reiterated experi- ascension appears, one film raising ence, however, confirmed by that of another, till the weight of the raised others, having convinced him, that films equals the force by which the although in subsequently ungenial sea- lowest film is pressed against the side. sons he may sometimes have failed, If the interception of the solid take yet, that had he neglected to do so alto place on two sides, as in the fluid ly. gether, he could never have succeeded; ing between two plates brought near he goes on.
to each other, then the pressure of The distinguishing marks by which the elastic atmosphere acts through to ascertain the real acts of a particular the open sides or ends only, raising providence, from imaginary ones, are the fluid between the plates, and of The following:
course it is highest in the middle, where 1. The effects produced must be in the angular interception is greatest. no sense of the word of a nature so equi. If the ends are closed, as in the case vocal as to leave us in doubt whether of a tube, then the ascent or pressure they had been accomplished in the is intercepted on all sides except the ordinary course of the dispensations of middle ; and the fluid rises till the a general providence or not.
angle of the downward pressure be2. They must be accomplishable only comes great enough to counterbathrough the intervention of miraculous lance it. If the top of the tube is agency, or Divine interference.
closed, then no ascent takes place, be3. They can in no case have relation cause the elasticity within the tube to individual advantage alone, without counterbalances that on the surface of an ulterior benefit of primary impor- the fluid, and if not so closed, the fluid tance in reserve, eminently productive rises to a less height, in short, than of the general good.
long tubes, because the angular pres· There is one act of a particular pro- sure from the top is as the length of the vidence of a most unequivocal nature, tube, and of course also the angle deof more importance to us than any presses the fluid in the middle. When other, and in the consideration of a fluid denser than glass is used, the which I trust our time will not be lost phenomena are of course reversed. in offering a few additional reflections. Such are the effects in ordinary cir-I mean Revelation, and more espe- cumstances, either in experiments cially the Christian Revelation.
in the open air, or in the processes of Hackney. SAM. SPURRELL. vegetation. But it may be presumed,
that peculiar circumstances of interFor the Monthly Magazine. ception, and greater powers of elastic The CAPILLARY and CohESIVE AT- media, generated in local situations,
TRACTION of FLUIDS, EXPLAINED become the sufficient causes of many on the THEORY of 'MATTER and of the phenomena of chemistry, which MOTION.
have weakly and superstitiously been THE attraction of fluids by solids is ascribed to a miraculous principle of
1 beyond question merely an im- innate cohesive attraction. perfect effect of the pressure of the Objections may be started to the