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and promising as any,) and prairie, or as much hospitality in them as I ever meadow ground, where the grass grows did in the best dining or drawing-room from six to eight feet high, consequently in England. coarse ; yet I have seen many tons of As to the breed of cattle, &c. the very sweet fodder for cattle, and I have horses, generally speaking, are not no doubt. but with a little good English such as could be wished for cart horses, husbandry, it may be greatly improved. being very slender, and partaking of The woodlands provide the farmer with the blood. The oxen work well, and timber for his buildings, utensils, fire, some of the cows are good for the dairy. &c. in the greatest abundance, and will Pigs are in abundance, but not of the continue to do so for many years to first quality; a few, if any, of the farcome. This timber land, when put mers know how many they possess, the into cultivation, is cleared of all the sows commonly running and farrowing wood under twelve inches, for 15s. 9d. in the woods. I might here remark, an acre, and the trees girded, or cut that what tends to injure the breed of round through the sap, to destroy the all the cattle in this country, is their vegetation; and then the plough pre- being at large in the forests. When pares it for a crop of Indian corn, of they shall be kept in inclosed grounds, which it requires not more than one and the proper methods adopted in rebushel to sow ten acres, and produces gard to breeding, great alterations in from forty to sixty bushels, of eight their size and strength may be expected: gallons per acre, which now sells at nay, there is no reason that they should is. 9d. to. 2s. 3d. a bushel. The bar. not be as efficient here, in all respects, rens are generally cleared by grubbing, as in any other part of the world. which costs about 18s, an acre. All the Horses sell at from £9 to £25 each ; fencing is done by split rails, laid in good working oxen £12 to £18 a pair : angles one on another, for which the steers, £3 10s. to £5 a pair ; cow and timber is felled, and the rail split at calf, £3 to £4 10s. ; store pigs of about 3s. 4d. a hundred ; and it takes about 120lbs. from 15s. to £1; beef and pork, 5000 to inclose in a ring fence 40 acres, from 2d. to 2}d. a pound. During so which I am now preparing for the en- short a residence in these parts, I have suing spring. As to the prairie or mea- not been able to collect much informadow land, little or no trial has yet been tion on the subject of natural history. made on it. The produce of wheat has I have learnt, however, that there are not yet been ascertained, but ihe crops few bears and panthers; many wolves; look very promising; and from what opossums and racoons, not many; stags is obtained within ten miles of us, we and hares are very abundant. We can have no doubt but we may reasonably purchase a deer for 4s. 6d. the skin of expect from twenty-fiveto forty bushels, which is dressed at a triling expence, of eight gallons per acre, which now and makes excellent trowsers for counsells at from 3s. 4d. to 4s. 6d. the bushel. try use. Turkies are plentiful, and Barley and oats have not yet been tried, sold for ls. 1}d. each. Pigeons, pheabut we see no reason to fear succeed- sants, partridges, woodpeckers, hawks. ing in our attempt at cultivating them. red-birds, and various other birds, of All the extra produce of the farms meet the richest plumage, are found here. a ready sale, if not on the farms, at the The rivers abound with fish, but very town of Evansville, on the banks of the few are caught, as every person appears Ohio, at about ten miles from the centre to be better employed for the present. of this settlement, which is a very

SAUNDERS HORNBROOK. thriving place, and likely to do much business with New Orleans, &c. The To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. price of labour row in the winter, is SIR, 3s. 4 d. a day, or 2s. 3d. a day, and TN the Christian Observer for Febboard. Our houses or cabins, are ge- 1 ruary last, there is a review of nerally built of logs of timber, cut to Mr. Plumtre's Original Dramas; aud certain lengths for the sides and ends, the critic takes the opportunity of disnotched at the corners into each other, cussing the subject of the lawfulness and when these do not come close to- of dramatic writing and acting. I am gether, a piece of wood, roughly hewn, not about to offer any objection to the is put between, and fastened on the moral and religious reasoning that is outside, with a kind of cobor mud; introduced, but I would notice an omisand I must acknowledge, that rude as sion, into which these very good people are these buildings, I have met with are continually falling: it is this--the

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point of contact is generally avoided. public-houses, and waiting in the streets, If the writing be really moral and reli- and where young children and female gious, there can be no sound objection servants are left unprotected at home, to it, by whatever name it may be whatever the mere exhibition may be, called ; and if this morality and reli- it can have little good effect on the gion be theatrically exhibited, it can head or heart that is callous to the real make no difference whether it be per- evils and apparent dangers that present formed by one man in a pulpit, or by themselves. It is not the name of twenty on a stage-persona or persone, Theatre or Drama that is evil-the according to p. 236 of Monthly Maga- Book of Job is a drama—and there has zine for April. No female will injure been many a theatrical exhibition in her own character by performing the our churches, chaste, correct, devout, part of a good mother, wife, daughter, and edifying; let us not, then, argue or friend, or by any declaration (how- about words, but make the discriminaever in fiction) that promotes virtue, tion at once between good and evil, and and diminishes vice: as long as the begin and proceed in our reformation in goodness is not spurious, it is to be removing the evil wherever we can discommended, whether by fable, by pa- cover it.

C. LUCAS. rable, or by similitude.

March 31, 1820. But if our plays were such as the best heart and mind could wish, is there no objection still remaining to their being To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, performed on the stage? Yes; but this

SIR, objection does not only concern the thea. "THE recent

THE recent wonderful and most tre, it affects other places of public exhi- 1 gratifying alteration of the system bition : I chiefly mean the promiscuous of administration of public affairs in company that is collected together. Spain demands and obtains the exerThe trifling nonsense, low wit, buf- cise of the pen of every journalist, and foonery, and immorality of our acted of the tongue of every political orator, dramas are a secondary consideration, however variously it may affect them, as long as the theatres are emporiums Perusing an evening paper yesterday, of vice, and offer a promenade for every in a coffee-house visited by gentlemen, vicious character. If the drama were who, in consideration of their profes-. composed of attic wit and learning, sion, and late opportunities of acquiring and improved by virtue and holiness some proficiency in the now highly enbeyond all that Socrates and Pythagoras nobled language of Iberia, it was not ever conceived, and collected to its ex. without sensible mortification that I hibition thousands in the place of hun- heard names of persons and places, and dreds, it would be still more objection- of other objects in that country, proable, with the present surrounding at- nounced in a way to be scarcely intelmosphere of evil contagion, because ligible by an inhabitant of Spain. By greater numbers would imbibe it. The the looks of some other persons present argument as to theatres is the same to I had, however, the consolation to disall places of scientific, moral, and reli- cover that I was not the only sufferer gious instruction, as long as there be on the occasion: but being quite a directly or indirectly connected with stranger to the company, my observathe institution the vicious temptation. tions were imprisoned in my own I am told that the chief theatres in breast. It is one of the many peculiar Paris (however corrupt the capital it- advantages possessed in London, that, self may be) are entirely free from this by means of the daily, weekly, and first objection to our theatres ; I would monthly miscellaneous publications, recommend, therefore, to the Reformers one may, without oifending l'amour of the Drama, not only to study a propre of any man, furnish him with proper exhibition, but a proper place a hint for improvement which, without for exhibiting, in which the egress, re, the humiliation of going to school, he gress, &c. &c. are included. În uight. may adopt and apply. On this account scenes, where families leave the safety I would request, Mr. Editor, if the subof domestic seclusion for the glare and ject shall appear to deserve its space in darkness, the bustle and pressure, that your most useful pages, that you would ensue at ill-arranged and crowded introduce the following brief observaexhibitions, where men-servants, car- tions on the sounds and representative riages, and horses, are (if not violating characters of the Spanish language; the Sabbath) going to and coming from expressed as nearly as may well be by


' corresponding sounds and characters in verbo (a word) may be seen as berbo, the English language.

bervo, vervo; yet the student must 6. We know no royal road to geome. have made great progress indeed, if he try,” said the philosophers of Egypt to be able to distinguish the sounds of the their sovereign : “ I know of no easy consonants in those different words, way to become a good painter," was The c is pronounced precisely as in the frequent remark of the first presi. English, never as ch, (as in Italian) dent of our academy of the fine arts to with this difference, that the pronunci. his pupils. Just so, Sir, however de- ation formerly confined to the South of pressing may be the fact, it may be Spain having of late years pervaded said that no royal road nor easy way the greater part of the kingdom, that can be pointed out to speak or read letter, before e and i, is uttered with a Spanish. I must, therefore, be for- sort of lisp, by advancing the tip of the given, if I require even grown gentle- tongue between the teeth. Thus the men, not to learn to dance, but to re- phișase cerca de el palacio (near the pasume their horn-book, and study their lace) is pronounced nearly as therca de A, B, C:--but to business.

el palathio. When c is followed by h, The vowels, the soul of all languages, it sounds precisely as in English in the are in Spanish pronounced altogether word church; as in chico'(little), mucho as in Italian, and (with the exception (much). In words derived from the of u, which, in Spanish as in Italian, Greek it sounds like k: but in several always retains the full sound of the instances the h is suppressed, as in croEnglish oo, as in good) altogether as nista for chronista (a chronicler or anin French. It must, however, be ob- nalist), arquitetura (architecture). The served, that, contrary to what may be consonant d occasions no small trouble asserted in grammars of merited re- to foreigners; for they hardly ever arpute, neither in the Spanish, nor the rive at that degree of softness in the Italian, nor the French, has the vowel sound which a Spanish ear can endure. a any sound at all similar to that of In some books of instruction the scholar the English words awe, law. Its sound, is directed to pronounce it like th; but even when alone, or closing a syllable, that is incorrect, for the d still retains is so short as to render it perhaps im- its proper value, but expressed with a possible to represent it on paper. It delicacy so peculiar, as in some cases, comes the nearest, in fact, to that sound in the ear of a stranger, to be almost which it would have when the syllable wholly suppressed. In the beginning terminates in a consonant, but the con- of a word its English sound is pretty sonant is suppressed. It greatly re entire, as in Don Diego de Durante; sembles that of the article a in the but in the body, or at the end, the sof. words a man: it will require a nice tening is indispensable. At the end, ear to discriminate between the a in indeed, d is almost quiescent; hence famine French and famine English. No our pronunciation of Trinidad is enough Parisian could endure to be told that to throw a Spaniard into fits: he sounds he lived in Pauris, although he call his that name nearly as Thrinitha. We city Paree and we Paris, the a is now come to those guttural sounds of sounded the same by both. No pecu. certain consonants, at which a South liarity of enunciation sooner betrays Briton is alarmed for the integrity of the Englishman (the South-Briton I his palate and larynx. And, indeed, mean) in Paris than his long, broad not without good reason, if his lanawe in his commaung vous-portéz-vous ? guage be, as he is ready to affirm, devoid

Of the Spanish consonants, those only of such vile harsh modes of locution. which differ from our sounds shall be His neighbours the Welsh, the Scotch, noticed. The first is b, which is ut. and the Irish, the Germans, the Hetered by a compression of the lips much brews, the Arabs, &c.; those he allows gentler than that employed for our to possess such rude emissions of the letter. In this respect it so nearly co, breath; but from his mother-tongue incides with the v, or rather the v ap- they have long been discarded. Were proaches so nearly to the b, that they people, however, to condescend to unmay be said to meet half-way between derstand one another, their supposed the sounds attributed to them by us differences would often wholly disapand other nations of Europe. Hence pear. In Spanish are three consonants, arises an equivocal orthography in Spa. , j, and X, of which the first and last nisk books, not a little embarrassing to in certain cases, and the second in all the student of the language. Thus, cases, must be pronounced with a gut


tural aspiration; but in no case with sounded like th English, in death, the forcible effort generally imagined. breath ; thus zozobrar (to be overset) Before a, 0, and u, the sound of gre. thothobrar; Andaluz (an Andalusian) sembles that in English, but sensibly Andaluth. In modern printed Spanish softened and declining a little towards books we often meet with the character the guttural English h. Hence the de- ç, called cedilla, which denotes the soft licacy of the Spaniard in naming Don sound of c before a, o, or u, where, Gaspar de Guzman will be obvious, without that mark, c would be sounded when compared with the full force of hard : but the truth is, that the chathe g: the term guapo (handsome) ap- racterç is only an ancient mode of proaches very nearly to huapo, or the writing %, and consequently ought alEnglish what. Before e and i the sound ways to be sounded soft. Many of our of g may be said to coincide with that Newspapers, Gazettes even, during the of our h in hell, hill: hence general late campaigns in Spain, astonished (heneral), Gibraltar (Hibraltar). The plain men with accounts of the exploits second consonant, j, in all cases sounds of a set of incomprehensible fellows like our h, as in Jamaïca (Hamaïca), termed cacadores: at last the mystery an island improperly named by us; for was unfolded, that those heroes were besides the aspiration of the j, the a just plain caçadores (better cazadores), and i ought to be separately sounded, from caça, the chase; what the French and not as a diphthong, making it a call chasseurs, and we light infantry. word of four syllables. The proper The largest of the isles Pityusae, in the names Jesus, José, Juan, are pronounced Mediterranean, was in former times hesus (that is, hesoos) hosé, huan. The styled Ebusus, a name which degeneletter h can hardly be said to have any rated into what our geographers and sound, but it is retained to point out map-makers have usually called Ivica; the origin of certain words, as hombre, but it is plain from its derivation, as from homo, a man. The consonant k is well as from the uniform practice of found in Spanish, as in Latin, in a few the Spaniards, French, and Italians, foreign words alone, and sounded as in that the name ought to be pronounced English. When l is single, it sounds and written Ivica, or still better Iviza. as with us; but when double, the sound London, 5th April, 1820. J. D. agrees with that of ly in English, of lli in French, and gli in Italian. Thus

For the Monthly Magazine. the great precursor of the circumnavi. NOTES made during a JOURNEY from gators of the globe, whom we call Ma- LONDON to HOLKHAM, YORK, EDINgellar, is in Spanish Magallanes, in BURGH, and the HIGHLANDS of scotPortuguese, his proper tongue, Magal- LAND, in July and August 1819, by hanes, in Italian, Magaglianes ; but all JOHN MIDDLETON, esq. the author of pronounced as Magallyanes. Single n an AGRICULTURAL VIEW of MIDsounds as in English; but double ng DLESEX, and other works. formerly written nn, as Espanna, but

[Concluded from p. 415.] now ñ with a mark over it, as España VIEDNESDAY, 25th Aug.-We (Spain) is pronounced Espanya ; baño

quitted Leeds and viewed a (bath), banyo ; Castaños, Castanyos, &c. small steam-engine and machinery In speaking of the letter c, it was men- raising coal from a depth of 165 yards tioned that the Andalusian lisp, or or 495 feet in square wooden cases, conversion of c into our th, was become which contain about fifteen cubical feet prevalent in Spain.. The same remark each; this quantity of coal is sold for may be generally applied to the manner twenty-pence on the spot, but much of sounding s; thus, Andalusia is com- the greater part is carried off by a monly pronounced as Andaluthia ; lay, rail-way to the ships. This was being at the same time the accent on the tween Leeds and Wakefield, where the vowel i, as well as on the first syllable whole country is worked for coal, which An. The letter å, already mentioned, as usual are found under free-stone and sounds before all the vowels, like the black shale. Some of the stone quarries Spanish g before e and i ; that is, it is are cleared of water by steam engines, aspirated. If x be followed by a con- and all the coal-pitts are drained in that sonant, or have a circumflex over it, manner. A Mr. Blackenstone, from the English sound (ks) is preserved, as near Newcastle' (Northumberland) has in extender (to extend), existir (to ex extensive pitts here, which are spoken ist). The consonant %, before all the. of as curiosities of their kind; his access vowels, and at the end of a word, is to the coal strata is said to be by an



inclined plane; the others are raised Lord George Cavendish is mining at vertically. We also heard of his using a depth which occasions his using a a steam-engine under ground.

powerful steam-engine to clear it of Wakefield stands upon a hill, and water. And we were told another every street opens towards a well cul. engine must be set to work before his tivated country. There are two good Lordship can avail himself of the treachurches, a new court-house, and a sure (lead ore), which lies at a greater new asylum for the insane, together depth than his present means can exwith many very respectable dwelling. tract it from, houses near the new church. The · Friday, 27th August.We quitBlack Bull is a large handsome inn, of ted Stoney Middleton and drove along modern erection, in the best street; a chasm with lime-stone rocks on but we were taken to the White Hart, each side of the carriage, which are an old white-washed house near the of great heights and on the north side older church and were well off,

perpendicular; the road gradually asWe called on Mr. Yates, at Rother- cending for about two miles to the top ham, and he kindly shewed us the of land of very high elevation, where casting shops of Messrs. Walker, where there are lead mines on every side, and the iron-bridges of Southwark, Sun- in some case's close to the road. We derland and others were manufactured. then gradually descended through the At this time very little was doing by a village of Tideswell and rocky glens to few men who were kept together cast. Buxton. ing some war-shells. We then drove Buxton is an agreeable place, and at to the Tontine Inn, at Sheffield, for the the Eagle is a good inn. The company night; and the next morning being the at this place were amused by a band of 26th of August, we were politely shewn music at sun-set for an hour in the the cutlery manufactory of Messrs. crescent; which comprises eight uniRogers and Son, as well as the silver- formly fine houses. The stable buildplating works of Messrs. Gainsford, ings are placed at a proper distance Nicholson and Co.

' from the crescent, in a circle with a Sheffield is a clean town in a very covered ridge under a colonade; the agreeable valley, where cultivation and whole is the most complete thing of its plantations ascend the rising ground kind. The country and village are on every side. It has the advantage of fine; and with saddle horses we could Leeds in the cleanliness of its streets, have spent a few days, or perhaps and the appearance of the neighbouring weeks, here satisfactorily. country is far superior. Even the in- On quitting Buxton we passed along habitants and inns were more agreeable the vale of Ashford, and stopped to to us at Sheffield than they were at Leeds. examine the marble works of Messrs. · Thence along a finely cultivated dale Brown and Maw; where the labour of two or three miles, and over a heathy sawing, scowering and polishing is common of high elevation said to mostly done by machinery moved by abound with grouse, a few miles; then water. We then were accompanied into down a steep hill and along a very the marble mines, and there we viewed rocky precipice of free-stone and of the strata of grey lime-stone, as well as considerable length, to which must be the several marbles of entrochal, madreadded a mile along a beautiful dale to pore, and black in their natural situaStoney Middleton, where the rocks tions. This was a short but gratifying are all grey lime-stone, and the fissures visit. We then pursued our course to in it contain much lead ore. At a Bakewell, where there is an excellent smelting-mill we learned that a pig of inn. We changed horses and proceeded lead weighs one hundred and a half or to Chatsworth, where we viewed that twelve stone. We were a little sur- rather splendid seat of the Duke of prised that a rather lusty man now Devonshire ; the usual cascade, was exsixty years of age could have worked hibited, which in the dry season of in smelting lead ore upwards of thirty August served to shew its defects. Inyears. The condition for smelting lead stead of a continued cascade which ore is at per ton on the pig-lead ob- would require the constant running of a tained. The smelters find every rivulet, the artificial means only caused thing except the ore, and they smelt a fall over three or four steps at a time for any person. At this mill they in succession the whole way down a shewed us pigs belonging to four or long declivity. If ever this piece of five persons recently made.

art can be viewed with satisfaction, it


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