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the windows of the castle, and from to be informeil of a method of getting this terrace. Thus, precautions have rid of ants, These insects frequently been taken that the massacre might infest cucumber frames, but a few be effected without danger to the branches of the common elder in full authors of it. We may see, by the leaf being put under the lights, they disposition of the picture, that the immediately take their departure, as chief personage is the Pacha, and that the smell of this plant appears to be the scene is but indicated; so that, very offensire to them: perhaps, if he were it not for the title denoting the was to try the experiment in respect subject of the picture, we should be to his dwelling-house, it may be folmuch perplexed to find out whether it lowed by the like effect. is a massacre or a revolt. “The sub May 18, 1820.

W. L. ject is never too soon explained.”

In another piece, “ Ismayl and Mn. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. ryam," the same painter transfers again SIR, the spectator to the East. The scene IN the Magazine for August, p. 24. here pusses in the middle of the desart. 1 The writer of a truly ingenious Ismayl, the son of a chief of an Arab paper, entitled “ THE ENQUIRER," has tribe, wounded and made prisoner by presented us with an exposition of the troops of the governor of Jerusalem, doctrine of a particular providence, repays the cares of hospitality by the altogether different from the common rape of the daughter of him to whom belief. Permit me to offer a few obserhe had been confided for the care of vations upon it. The statement, how- . his recovery. Maryam, struggling ever ingenious, and free from many of against the love with which Ismayl the difficulties incident to the popular had inspired her, and her religious notion, may nevertheless, be found inscruples, sinks under the weight of conclusive; and consequently incaher grief and her fatigues, and dies pable of producing the conviction inin the desart where Ismayl has carried tended. her: she is buried under some palm

STATEMENT. trees. The reddening cloud, the pre “Now as to the doctrine of a particursor of the terrible simoom, the ter- cular providence, it must mean either ror of the desart, is soon seen to rise. the violation of established order, to Every one flies: Ismayl alone, incon. suit the circumstances of individuals : solable for the loss he has sustained, a or, which is the only rational and intelprey to the most profound despair, does ligible sense, it must mean the parti.' not seek to escape from the death cular application of a general principle. which threatens him. He removes the Aud in this latter sense the doctrine of sand which covers the unfortunate a particular providence is not only conMaryam, contemplates her in bedewing sistent with the doctrine of a general her with his tears, and soon the general providence, for which I so strenuously ravager has made them both disappear. contend; but is in fact a branch of it, This was a subject difficult to express, and could not exist without it.” and the public, who look only to re In place of establishing the doctrine sults, do not seem to have welcomed of a particular providence, does it not, this picture so favourably as it deserves on the contrary, prove a general provi. The palm-trees, and the colour of the dence only? One part of an established atmosphere, appeared to me to be well order or succession of events, can with invented ; the person of Ismayl on the no more propriety be deemed the rewhole satisfactory, in regard to attitude sult of a particular providence than and expression ; but I cannot say as another; the union of all the parts much of Maryam, the execution of making up, or constituting what is whom is at least feeble. This artist has called a general providence. A general been very fertile in his productions; providence, and a particular provi. for, besides a number of other paintings, dence, unaided by each other, individue he executed a great number of litho ally constitute a complete whole': ma. graphic drawings.

nifestly therefore, the former may exist, . (To be concluded in our next.] and have an affecting operation sepa

rate from the latter, or the latter withTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. out the former; this, however, in no SIR,

wise prevents their mutual co-operaTN page 323 of your Magazine for tion, in perfecting the existing scheme I May inst. a correspondent wishes of things; any more than the links of a

chain being originally separate and sided a few miles from Manchester. I distinct, would impede their subsequent called on a medical, friend who was to union, and inutually effective co-opera- accompany me.Just as he was steption. A particular providence, accord. ping into my carriage, a gentleman ac. ing to the Enquirer, has no individua costed him, and detained him in condity; it is a link in the chain, but not versation about two minutes. We then a separate one, a dependent link only, proceeded; and on approaching the and of itself, wholly inefficient. Every bridge, which had been recently erect. whole, undoubtedly is constituted of ed, over the rirer Irwell, we heard a parts; but the point to be here ascer- dreadful crash, proceeding from the tained, is not, whether there be a strict fall of the central arch. Had we not conformity and fitness of the various been interrupted in our course by the parts to the whole, and a mutual depen- seemingly casual circumstance of my dency upon one another: but whether, companion's conversation with the genthe popular notion of the existence and tleman who accosted him, we should operation of two separate and indepen. probably have reached the bridge, and dent principles, be correct? Thus far, been buried in its ruins." therefore, we do not accord; never This case, to the best of my appretheless, with the utmost complacency, bension, so far from proving the doc

I can agree to differ in opinion; con- trine of a particular providence, id est, · vinced, “ from the good" temper and according to the popular notion of it, liberal spirit which characterize his “the violation of established order to paper," we have but one common object suit the circumstances of individuals," in pursuit: viz. the investigation, and proves the contrary: since in the relaelucidation of the truth. In one point tion, no circumstance is said to have indeed we perfectly agree: in the po- happened, which needs to be referred pular notion of a particular providence to miraculous agency, or which may meaning an interposition, whereby not be satisfactorily explained on na4. the settled course of nature is not tural principles.-That an arch of a un frequently disturbed; and the action bridge should give way is no very exof those great laws by which the world traordinary occurrence; much less, is governed, is occasionally suspended;" that an eminent physician should be or in other words, what is generally called to see a patient, when his road understood by the doctrine to be this: thither lay over this identical bridge; 6 the violation of established order, to that he should call on a medical friend suit the circumstances of individuals.by the way, who was to accompany

I now proceed to a more minute inhim; or that this friend should have vestigation of the popular notion. The been detained a few minutes in converpopular belief of the doctrine of a sation : or in fact, for here is the only particular providence is uniformly as- semblance of any thing extraordinary, sociated with the belief of a general that, delayed a minute or two in their providence, inasmuch as it is con- progress, they should have approached sidered a corrective to some sup- the bridge at the identical time the posed defects in the ordinary adminis- arch gave way. If there be any thing tration of the latter; both, however, really remarkable in the case, it is not, according to the common belief, must their having arrived there at that crihave a separate and distinct being; tical moment; but, that they should since an imperfect, or defective dispen- not have passed it at some other : when sation could not possibly either correct we reflect, that for 14 hours of the 24, itself, or supply its own deficiency. it is highly probable there was conAnd provided the instances adduced in stant passing and repassing. So far proof of the doctrine are found to be from invoking a particular providence exactly in point, inexplicable, or not to to their aid, would it not rather argue be accomplished by the ordinary opera- the absence of it, that they had not tions of a general providence ; nothing escaped the danger altogether. On the farther is wanting to establish its truth. supposition of 12 hours passing and re

Our next step, therefore, will be, an passing only, the chances were 718 to 2 attentive and candid examination of They had done so: and as medical men cases.

are liable to be called upon at all hours, Enquirer, p. 26. We find the fol. in this particular case it possibly might lowing:

have proved even 1438 to 2, or the “ I had a professional visit (says Dr. chances have been doubled. Had we Percival) to make to a lady who re- no better evidence of a particular pro

vidence

vidence than the foregoing, little credit equally be adduced in proof of a parcould attach to the belief of the doc- ticular providence, or against it. — In trine; and it is remarkable, that of the the very commencement of Mahomet's numberless cases adduced in proof of wars, a stone thrown from a sling - it, most of them, on examination, will struck him on the temple, when he be found equally vague and indetermi- fell senseless to the ground. A little nate. With a slight variation in the harder, and Mahomet, with the Mahocircumstances of the preceding case, medan religion would probably, togethe inference, although not warranted, ther, have ceased to be: for his death would at least be admitted to have been at that time would not have been the both specious and imposing. Suppose, loss of an able general only; but must, for instance, an enemy of Dr. Perci- in the estimation of his followers, have val's, who had wanted to injure or to amounted to the privation of a divinely have assassinated him; willing to commissioned leader; to the loss of avoid suspicion, and make it appear the founder of their religion. Conthe Doctor had come to his death by sistently with the popular notion, the accident; lraving gained intelligence disciples of Mahomet would naturally . that he was to pass the bridge at a cer- have considered his escape a signal one, · tain hour, had lain a train of gunpow- and the result of an actual interposider, or used other adequate means, to tion ;-admitting, too, his commission have enabled him instantaneously to to have been divine, not altogether complete his fell design. Again, sup without reason as an occurrence highly

pose from some trifling mismanage- corroborative of it; with moreover, an · ment he had found himself not quite ulterior object, worthy the divine inready; but, knowing that a friend of terposition.—The disbeliever of Mahothe Doctor's was to accompany him, met’s authority, on the contrary, would and delay necessary to his purpose, had have hardly failed to express the utcontrived to have him detained a few most regret and astonishıment, that in minutes in conversation. Suppose far- a moment so critical, some additional ther, that, on seeing or hearing the ap- energy, or unusual vigour, had not proach of the carriage, he had set fire been infused into the arm of the asto the train a few moments too soon :- sailants; whereby the full accomplishthe Doctor's escape would certainly ment of his design in throwing the have been a signal one, and might have stone would have been effected, in given some countenance to the idea of the destruction of a false prophet. An special protection : but even these cir- ulterior object, too, of the utmost imcumstances would have afforded no portance would also have been obtained, proof of a particular providence. -an attainment even worthy of the • Had, however, the arch given way, divine interference; since multitudes whilst the carriage was upon it, and then unborn would have thus escaped they had not fallen together; but the the thraldom, the persecutions, the decarriage had remained stationary in gradation, of the Mahomedan superstithe atmosphere, until effectual assist- tion. Nevertheless, the impartial enance could have been given, or that it quirer, and dispassionate observer, had been made to float, cautiously, would, in the event, have seen nothing and easily, to a secure landing ; then, more than the ordinary operation of indeed, a violation of established order general laws, without attaching any would have taken place, a suspension particular importance to the occurrence; of the operation of general laws, an it, in fact, having left the cause in actual interposition: a particular pro- question, unaltered. vidence would have been exerted, to In this, equally with the Manchester suit the circumstances of individuals. case, we discover « no violation of es-Your attention will now be required tablished order, to suit the circumto a case of a different kind, affording stances of individuals;" no suspension a greater scope for reflection, and in its of the ordinary operation of general consequences of infinitely more impor- laws; neither do we find any unusual tance than the preceding; since the 'energy, or unnatural vigour, to have comfort and future religious hopes and been communicated, or exerted in their expectations of millions have depended execution. Had either of the latter upon it. I allude to an occurrence in suppositions been realised, unquestionthe life of Mahomet-an occurrence ably a particular providence would which, by the believer, or disbeliever, have been exerted in such an exigency: of the Mahomedan religion, might but without the slightest evidence of

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such interference, the only practical exerted in the most effectual manner inference from the occurrence will be possible. . SAM. SPURRELL. found in the inconclusiveness and in- . Hackney, Dec. 1819. consistency of the popular application [The remainder of Mr. Spurrell's paper will be of the doctrine. Any act of a particular.

given in our next. Its length has led to its being

80 long deferred. In discussions of this nature providence having taken place, the we are of course no parties; and we should ill event cannot possibly be such, as to

perform our public duty if we refused our pages

to all discussions and doctrines except to such as admit of doubt, whether it had really aocorded with our own opini done so or not: or whether it had been . BIOGRAPHY OF EMINENT PERSONS.

tification of an insane passion for military display and public influence in every sense foreign. Be this, how'ever, as it may, Mr. Young was the genius who pointed out the powers of Land when judiciously cultivated ; and he proved that the soil of Britain was competent to diffuse luxury and plenty among the entire population. But it was not his fault that the increased produce was seized on by landlords, tythe-collectors, and tax-gatherers, as their exclusive share; that a silly policy of manufacturing for all the world drew the population from the healthful employments of the country to those of the forge and the loom; that high

rents destroyed small farms, and led to ARTHUR YOUNG, Esq. F. R. S. Secre- their universal engrossment; and, in

tary to the Board of Agriculture,&c. fine, that the depopulation of the counDERHAPS the pursuits of no man try, where nature supplied all with

I in this active age have more in- enough, and the swarming of the towns fluenced the habits of the people, and where superabundant labour caused the policy of the state, than ihose of subsistence to be precarious, and led to the late Arthur Young. He laid the famine, disease, and every variety of foundation, by his early writings, of misery! These were not the faults of that SCIENCE of agriculture which had Mr. Young or his system, but they before his time been left to chance or have been engendered by the selfishprecedent, and which ignorance or ness of power, upheld by the pride and prejudice was considered as competent cupidity of legislators, and kept in counto direct. His Tours created a spirit tenance by the hardness and wickelof enquiry; his Annals of Agriculture ness of the human heart. kept it alive, and extended it to the Mr. Young was born Sept. 7, 1741; highest classes; while his Farmer's his father was Arthur Young, D.D. a Kalendar embodied all improvements prebendary of Canterbury, rector of and discoveries, and conveyed them to Bradfield-Combust, in Suffolk, (where every farm-house and fire-side in the was the family estate), also of Bradempire.

field St. Clair, and of Exning, near Yet in his time, though he survived Newmarket. He was a very active to a good old age, he did not live to magistrate for the county, and chaplain enjoy the fruits of his labours in the to Arthur Onslow, then Speaker of the expected improvement of society. Ei. House of Commons. Mr. Young's elder ther his systems were not matured, brother, born in 1727, was John Young, and sufficiently engrafted on the gene- D. D. prebendary of Worcester, and ral institutions of the country, or they fellow of Eton, who broke his neck have been 'abused by being rendered while hunting with the late King in subservient to the avarice and self- 1786. Their only sister, born in 1733, interest of individuals, or to the un. died soon after her marriage to Mr. principled policy of the state, which Tomlinson, of East Barnet. has made use of them for purposes of He himself was intended for comfoolish aggrandizement, or for the gra- merce, and apprenticed to a wine-mer

chant

chant at Lynn, in Norfolk. During this of a different stamp, and of but little engagement, his leisure was employed account at this time of day, have been in those studies which laid the foun- long since published and appreciated. dation of that celebrity in life which he The experience of nine seasons having has since attained. But in 1761 we convinced our inquisitive farmer that find Mr. Young's mercantile concerns he had already lost money enough, he were exchanged for a more congenial quitted his Hertfordshire concerns, and sphere-the cultured field; and he com- retired once more to his paternal home, menced farming at Bradfield Hall for Bradfield Hall. His excellent mother the family.

dying soon after, he came into possesInjudicious management, and con. sion as heir to the estate, and that insequent losses, produced family dis. dependence on the uncertain chances of putes, which in a few years were ended life, so congenial with his laudable amby the prudent intervention of a mother; bition, and so necessary to his views, the event, however, was a separation, was at once and for ever established. and his removal from Bradfield. Hap. We are no longer to consider him pily for the agriculture of this country, either as farming for his subsistence, or and indeed of the European world, the as much engaged in experiments, at mind of Arthur Young was too steady least on his own account. The plan of in its favourite pursuit, and too con- his tours, as has been observed, was fident of its own powers, to be deterred already laid, and the very extensive cirby this unfortunate beginning.

culation obtained by his writings, both As a second attempt in that which at home and upon the continent, gave had now become his profession, he him the highest degree of encouragehired a farm in the neighbouring county ment to persevere in a course so beneof Essex, known by the name of Samp. ficial to the country, and so full of ford Hall; but here a circumstance of credit and probable future emolument a truly unfortunate kind attended him: to himself. Mr. Young had now behe was prevented from taking posses- come a successful author, and had sion of his new bargain by being dis- begun to reap the most solid advanappointed of a promised loan of money, tages from that too generally precarious and ultimately obliged to forfeit his profession. agreement.

During the years 1776, 1777, 1778, Mr. Young now determined to travel and 1779, he performed his celebrated in search of a proper spot on which he Tours in Ireland, and his fame attracted might commence business with a pro- the notice of the whole body of landed bable chance of advantage. If this ex. proprietors: Lord Kingsborough availed pedition was not successful in its pro- himself of his abilities, and Mr. Young fessed aim, he however received ample remained upwards of twelvemon this in amends in another point of view, which the county of Cork, arranging and leasprobably had not before opened upon ing out a considerable part of his lordhis mind, but which has since proved ship's estate. About this period he the primary cause of his utility to his published the first edition of his Farcountry, and the basis on which he mer's Kalendar, which he continued to built his own reputation. It was in improve in successive editions through the course of these journies that he life, and which is too well-known to formed the plan of making an agricul. stand in need of eulogium. tural survey of England, which he after- In the year 1784, he commenced the wards so’ably accomplished in his suc- Annals of Agriculture, published in cessive Tours.

monthly numbers, which were uninThe farm which he at last fixed upon terruptedly continued for many years. was situated in Hertfordshire, near In this very voluminous work the North Mimms, and it appears that it author has given, according to his orirepaid him for nine years cultivation ginal proposal, his own opinions and with little else than experience and practice, joined with those of many of loss. It was not the kind of soil where, the ablest cultivators in the country, with the best culture, money could be upon almost every possible agricultural obtained in immoderate profusion, more topic, with an occasional introduction especially under the management of a of the subjects of political economy, warm-headed, professed, and as yet in- commerce, finance, and their various sufficiently seasoned experimenter. correlatives. His correspondents were

The improvements made at North men of the highest rank; and among Mimms, some useful and curious, others them, the late King sent him seven

communicatious

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