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For the Monthly Magazine.
five or six miles the soil is of excellent NOTES made during a JOURNEY from quality; the surface undulates agree
LONDON to HOLKHAM, YORK, EDIN- ably, and on the west side of the road BURGH, and the HIGHLANDS of scot- it forms a vale of considerable beauty LAND, in July and August 1819, by all the way to Penrith. But the road JOHN MIDDLETON, esq. the author of itself passes over ground which is rather an AGRICULTURAL VIEW of MID- hilly and increases in poverty till it is DLESEX, and other works.
not worth five shillings per acre, for [Continued from p. 313.)
several miles before we arrive within a N the south side of the line which mile of the town, and from that place
divides Scotland from England is a rapid descent to it. On this postlies Solway Moss; a peat ground of stage we met many parties of women great extent, which is said to belong to from the corn harvest, all wearing shoes Sir James Graham and the inhabitants and stockings. These things mark the of Longtown. They dig it ten or different characters of the females of twenty feet in depth, in the latter case England and Scotland ; in England in two depths, of about ten feet each; they are clothed, in Scotland they are the peat is dry towards the top, but half-naked. holds some water below. The subsoil The entrance to Carlisle from the was shewn to us, and it is a mixture of south is marked by a new court-house, infertile clay and sand. The stumps erected on each side of the street in a and branches of alder and other wood singular style; namely, two very large are occasionally dug up near the bottom castellated round towers, with their of the peat; and hazle nuts have also appurtenances, which approach each been found. Small quantities of this other so nearly as rather to encroach on moss have been brought into cultiva- the turnpike-road. If this had been tion. A specimen of about a dozen the first town on entering Scotland by acres, west of the road, was shewn to this route, these buildings would indi. us; it is in grass and makes a poor cate bulwarks to defend that country pasture. It is reported to have been against being invaded by the English; pared thick, then dried and burned; but as Carlisle is the second town in the ashes being spread it was ploughed England on coming from the north, and sown with rape. It produced a and the military character is placed good crop of seed, and it did so the towards the south, threatening the second year; after that a crop of oats friends of the place, it is wholly out of with grass seeds. These crops would character. certainly put money into the pocket of Appleby stands in a fertile vale, but the cultivator, but they had the per- at the end of one mile the road ascends nicious effect of exhausting the soil. a hill, and then the land does not aveWe found it to be a common practice rage more than seven shillings per acre to place the dust and fragments of peat all the way to Brough. as a bottom for dunghills; and as a Brough is said to be a manor which receiver of urine from the cattle. These belongs to Lord Thanet. The houses are commendable instances in the right and street are clean, mostly whitemanagement of dung heaps which de- washed, and the New Inn is tolerably serve imitation; as does the mixture of respectable. But such persons as alight some other soil, when they can obtain from a carriage at this place, are immeit, with the ashes and peat in order to diately attended by one, two, or three render the improvement more certain. women, teasing them to buy worsted But the rape should not stand for seel; night caps. And at the same inn we on the contrary, it should be eaten were accosted by a poacher, with “ Sir, while it is green upon the land by sheep, do you want any birds,” (meaning even two or three years in succession, grouse). From Brough over Stainmore, and then if laid down in the spring it is nearly a barren district for ten or a should be sown with one bushel per dozen miles; but a small race of horned acre of oats, and treble the usual quan- sheep, and many grouse subsist upon tity of grass seeds for a permanent the most lofty of these hills. We depasture.*
scended from our carriage to view the From Carlisle towards Penrith for remains of a Roman camp, of a square
figure and large size upon the line which * When the grass seeds are grown in divides the counties of York and Westautumn, it is not advisable to sow any corp moreland. The south side of this camp with them.
is steep and covered with large stones,
and there it is inaccessible. The other and in this manner afford an agreeable three sides of it have been ditches and shade in hot weather.* The home mounds, and they are nearly oblite- grounds of Rokeby are not entirely rated. It stands upon a dry hill of secluded from public view, and they free-stone rock, part of the coal mea- are rendered very beautiful by an arsures, and lately worked as a quarry. rangement of lawn and well-grown Thence the road descends a little to a trees, with shady walks, and the rotoll-gate; near which stands West mantic beds of two rivers. The Tees Spittal, a tolerably respectable looking and Greta, with their rocky sides and inn, but much frequented by poachers, bottoms, aided by their well-wooded and five of them walked out in a body banks, are very picturesque. The rewith about eight dogs as we approached. mains of a small camp, said to be The morning was damp, and these men Roman, close to the bridge at Greta, directed their course towards the highest as well as the ruins of an abbey, at ground; the birds were shy and the the distance of a mile, are calculated dogs started a covey of grouse as we to gratify the antiquary. The house of passed, but too distant for shot. These Mr. Martin, east of the bridge, is the persons are said to keep together for more pleasant of two good inns. mutual protection, and it is also said From Greta Bridge to Catterick they have been known to stop car Bridge the road passes over ground riages on this part of the road to in- rather highly elevated; but even there quire if the parties want any birds. what was a miserable moor covered by The next house is called the New furze bushes fifty years ago, is now Spittal, and it is the middle one of bearing a variety of agricultural crops. three of this name. This house is kept The soil is poor most of this stage, till by a Mr. Hammond, and it is supposedl we came near Catterick Bridge, which to be the best of the three; but our crosses the river Swale, where there is curiosity induced us to ask permission an excellent inn; and inuch good land, to view the best bed-chamber, which the property of Sir Henry Lawson, bart. was granted, and in it were four beds; who resides near this place, and is the landlady informed us they were spoken of in terms of much praise. used by eight or ten persons during the The gate fastenings of this gentleman first week of grouse shooting, com- are peculiarly his own, and they have mencing the 12th of August. Mr. much merit. His wheat will yield a Hammond informed us he is the free- good thirty-two bushels per acre, quite holder of this house and fifty acres of clean, though sown broad-cast. Sir land; he also pays rent for a hundred Henry has taken a second step towards acres more. A Doctor Edwards has a excellence in agriculture by cultivating houseand about fiftyacres between these- tares. He also has many bullocks and cond and the third Spittal; he has shewn sheep fattening, as well as Scotch wehis superior skill as an agriculturist by thers to supply short-grained mutton draining and liming a peat soil covered for his own table. with a mixture of heath and coarse 23d Aug.-From Catterick Bridge to grass ; for in that manner he has made the New Inn in Leeming Lane. In his land without ploughing much supe- this post-stage we observed with some rior to any of his neighbours. It is degree of surprise the large proportion agreed on all hands that peat should be of turnips compared to the other crops drained, but we were told that should upon arable land on each side of the be done with moderation, and limed road; this induced an inquiry, and plentifully ; to which we will add, it then we were in fornied 6 they cover would be better if good loam, as well as one moiety of all the land in tillage;" animal manure was spread upon it. this surprised us again, but the matter
Greta Bridge is rendered very agree was easily understood on being told, able by T. B. s. Morrett, Esq. M. P. 6 the rotation in that district is turnips who has done much towards embel and corn alternately.” The turnips lishing the property about it. Rokeby, were particularly luxuriant; all in the residence of Mr. Morrett, has been rows, and perfectly clean. No agrinearly immortalized by the pen of culturist can doubt the crops of corn Walter Scott. Trees, which I remem- would be equally clean and large. ber the planting of rather more than sixty years ago, by the late Sir Thomas • These trees are now about seventy years Robinson, have been protected till in old, numbering from the time of sowing the some places they meet over the roads, acords and other seeds.
Turnips in rows universally free the to be in a thriving state. The manu. soil from weeds; and eating them upon factories are now extended to the whole the same land always enriches it. This process of carding, spinning, weaving, is as perfect a preparation for wheat fulling, shearing, and pressing, all by (or any other corn) as can be made; steam. We were told there are about therefore the crops of that grain are as six hundred persons employed in one great as they can be, in that climate manufactory here. and upon that soil. This most short W e viewed a road-roller, said to rotation is very excellent, and it is weigh about six tons, in one piece, six only one small step short of perfection; feet long, four feet diameter, rim upviz. the addition of winter tares put wards of six inches thick, which, with in after broad-sharing and cleansing all pierced ends and axle, are in one piece. the corn stubble, and giving it one A scraper to cleanse the rim, and an ploughing, as soon as possible after har iron tray to hold ballast, belong to it. vest, would secure a good crop of tares The use of it has been discontinued, the following spring, upon the land in- as no frame has hitherto been contended for turnips. By which the ro- trived, which can turn it without being tation would be tares, turnips, and strained and broken. If the ballast wheat, in two years; which is the were put within the roller, and one most excellent that is known; unless end of it was closed, and the other prethat may be disputed by the advocates pared with a door, the tray might be for tares, potatoes, and wheat, in two dispensed with. That would permit years; on which subject more will be the shafts turning over, and drawing said when we arrive near London. We the roller the contrary way without then travelled through Boroughbridge turning it; but this would occasion the and Weatherby, to Leeds, without horses being unyoked, turned the remeeting with any thing worth noting: verse way and reyoked. This roller except that two thirds of the corn har. complete is said to have cost about vest was housed, and the rest ready. 1301.; its frame was of stout oak, but The country was beginning to suffer it broke by the strain of turning, and by drought.
the whole is now on sale. There is * Leeds. Tuesday (Market day), the such difficulty in turning rollers of this 24th August. Viewed the cloth mar weight and length as renders them useket, and found it filled by sellers and less in one piece; they should either cloths to a great amount in number be divided into three lengths, or preand value. There were few or no pared for double shafts to turn over buyers, at least not more than six the roller as before spoken of. The persons could be buyers, as the rest road on which it has been used is were obviously attending their cloths without loose stones, but it is beginfor sale. They generally had the ap- ning to show symptoms of flutes, and pearance of countrymen and poor, but these, probably, cannot be effectually we suppose many of them may be re- repaired without picking it up, then spectable manufacturers; however, in arding fresh materials and pressing one part of the market they were poor the old and the new materials together; and offered their cloth publicly to us and that is done in the best manner by as we walked slowly by. I expressed rollers. Messrs. Swan and Clay, of myself 66 we suppose you would not Hunslet, near Leeds, are said to be the sell less than a whole piece: to road-makers of the place. The White which several voices replied, “ Yes; Horse, opposite the church, is the best half a piece.” Finished goods on the inn in Leeds. ground story are offered for sale from
[To be continued.] half past eight till ten minutes before ten o'clock; and at ten the market up
For the Monthly Magazine. one pair of stairs for white or undyed goods commences. In this town but
STATE of the FINE ARTS in FRANCE ; cher's meat of good quality, together
written in PARIS, after viewing the with roots and other vegetables, as well
late Exhibition at the LOUVRE, by as fruit, are exposed in great abundance
DAVID CAREY, esq. for sale. Dyed yarns and even cart. HE poets have often furnished tlie loads of the plant woad, for making I painters with their finest ideas. dve, were exposed in the market for In fact, painting is mute poetry. It sale. New buildings were being erected delights in illusions that are pleasing which are thought to indicate a town to the eye, as poetry does in imaginations that speak to the mind. Both are Phocion was at the same time drawing the daughters of Pleasure, and should water out of his well, and his wife was both have the same object. As every baking bread: yet he wisely refused age has. been productive of improve the presents. He took up arms in ment, if in progress of time Virtue has defence of his country, and was sucborrowed the charms of both, to make cessful against Philip of Macedon; yet a sweeter and more lively impression the Athenians condemned him to death, on our hearts, as Juno did the girdle of and ordained that his body should be Venus, that she might appear the more carried out of the bounds of Attica. amiable in Jupiter's eyes, care should They also forbade any citizen from be taken that the moral effect of this lighting a fire to perform his obsequies. benefit conferred upon the arts, and so. A poor man, who was to bury bodies, ciety should not be lessened by injudi- took upon himself the execution of the cious displays of objects calculated to sentence. Having conveyed the corpse militate against the purer passions. of Phocion beyond Eleusina, he took The French are fond of classic sub some fire on the territory of Megara, jects, but in borrowing from the ima and burnt it. A woman from Megara, gery of the uncontrouled minds of the an eye-witness to these rites, collected ancients, they are not sufficiently at the bones, took them by night to her tentive to the proprieties of more chas. house, and buried them near her hearth, tened times. Painting addresses our saying, “ I deposit these relics of an minds by means of the senses, and by honest man, in the hope that they will its effect upon these the French seem thus be preserved, in order that they may to appreciate the merit and value of a one day be restored to the burial of his picture. Among the various attempts ancestors, when the Athenians shall which I remarked to give a delineation have found out the fault they have on the canvas of the fine allegory of committed.” This scene is the subject Psyche, my attention was particularly of M. Meynier's picture. He has not, attracted to Picot's “ Love quitting however, strictly adhered to the cirPsyche during her Sleep." It is a cumstances of the narrative. He supbeautiful picture, the imitation is good, poses that the Megarian woman buries but perspective and dimension are not the ossals (bones) of Phocion at the sufficiently studied. We see in what foot of the altar of her household gods. Socrates reports of the skill of the This alteration is happy and poetical, artists in his time, what Leonardo da for the Lares are thus made interested Vinci tells us in his treatise on paint in the fate of innocence and virtue; ing, ought to be done in these parti- and it seems to say, that the ashes of culars. We ought to arm ourselves Phocion were considered by the woman with the rule and compass. The bed, as dear to her as her household deities. a witness to their embraces, lies the The husband of the woman, a young length of the picture. Love faces the girl, a still younger boy, their children, spectator just as he is spreading his are also introduced into the picture; wings to fly. He casts the last amorous and a slave is seen moving off in the glance on his beautiful mistress, and back-ground. The piece is skilfully seems to bid her adieu, as if for ever. executed, and the affecting scene of Psyche, unconscious of his parting, re
f his parting, re- these rites is made to convey a fine clines in perfect, but naked, beauty. moral lesson. The painter intimates The King, on seeing this picture, said that the father is pointing with his to the author in Italian, t. Your Love hand to his son the pious work in has exhausted all his darts, but will which his mother is engaged, and is soon find more."
imparting to him the reflections which 66 The Ashes of Phocion," by M.MEYsuch a subject gives rise to. The NIER, of the Sorbonne. This is rather children appear to listen with holy and an odd name for a picture, yet it is attentive look, while the mother, in a what the artist has given to his piece, more prominent ground, deposits, on The subject is, however, not defective her knees, the bones she has collected, in interesting matter. Phocion, who in the burying-place assigned to them. possessed more virtue than generally The chief fault in this performance is falls to the lot of modern statesmen, the want of identity in the remains of was the only person in Athens whom the Athenian orator and general; for Alexander acknowledged to be an lo- they may be supposed to belong to any nest man. Alexander sent him pre departed worthy, as well as to honest sents as marks of his high esteem: Phocion.
66. The Samaritan succouring the horror, but it would assuredly have wounded Man of Jericho, by M. SCHE- fixed attention. M. Gericault seems NETZ, now at Rome. This was un- to have been mistaken in his object. doubtedly one of the finest pictures The end of painting is to speak to the exhibited this year in the Louvre. soul and to the eyes, and not to reM. Schenetz has evinced a strength of pulse. Horace has said, “ut pictura, colouring and execution, which place poesis.” If, then, poetry ought never kim in the rank of masters. Some to try, according to the rules prescribed parts of his figures, however, want pro- by Aristotle, to go beyond pity and portion. I thought I could perceive terror, it results from hence that M. some negligence in the drawing of the Gericault, whatever plan he might legs of the Samaritan, and a heaviness have adopted, would still have been in some less important objects, but beyond his aim. We sum up strength tlrese objects are overbalanced by the alone for what is horrible, for there is general merits of the piece. “ Jeremiah sometimes a kind of sublimity in the weeping over the Ruins of Jerusalem," horrible, as Dante has proved in his by the same artist, afforded also great episode of Count Ugolino; but we can beauties in colour and finishing: such have no affection for what is disgusting. a theme would have become the pencil When a scene or a story is in danger of West, and received justice from the of creating feelings of this kind, some conception of that departed genius: pathetic episode should be introduced but under the hands of the French to relieve the effect of the sombre mopainter, the prophet has not risen into notony. sufficient dignity and elevation. His The 66 Massacre of the Mamelukes," head wants nobleness, and force of ex- put in execution in the castle of Cairo, pression is wanting to his character and ordered by Mahommed Ali, viceroy and office,
of Egypt; by MR. HORACE VERNET. The dreadful account of the 4 Ship- The title in this instance should have wreck of the Medusa" affords a dis-, been-Mahommed Ali, during the Mastressing picture of calamitous and his sacre of the Mamelukes for which he deous circumstances to the imagina- had given orders. In fact, the aotion, tion; but a painter hazards much in too repugnant to be placed under the attempting to convey the particulars eye of the spectator, as Mr. H. Vernet of that event to the canyas. Lord has very justly felt, transpires on a Byron has tried his able and eccentric very remote scale, and much lower pen on the subject,- he has succeeded than that on which the Pacha is placed. in exciting disgust, more than commi- Here is, however, the manner in which seration, for the fate of the sufferers, or he has laid out the scene. On the admiration of his own talents. M. GE- fore-ground, on the left, the Pacha, RICAULT has had the ambition to pour seen on three sides, is under a kind of tray a shipwreck of this kind on an canopy, supported by two standards, extended scale. The raft and its nai- the insignia of his rank. He is sitrative are presented to us, and there is ting in the manner of the East, and enough of danger and dismay—“horror his right arm leans on a lion, who accumulates on horror's head,” — but faces the spectator. Three of his offistill the scene is not such as the public cers are standing behind him; a slave, recital has acquainted us with. Lord turning his back to the spectators, is Byron has striven to add to the anti- keeping alive the embers of his pipe: picturesque by the wantonness of his the motion of this slave's body, as well fancy; M.Gericault, in endeavouring to as the expression of a small part of avoid this effect, has weakened the in- his profile, seem to announce that, forterest of the piece. It is chiefly in en- getting the care which is intrusted to deavouring to get rid of the necessary him, he is wholly absorbed in the scene clothing, and giving distinct images to passing under his eye. From the spot the eye, that he seems to fail. The where sits the pacha, we are let down picture is a heap of bodies from which by some steps on a terrace which is the sight averts. Had he ventured to prolonged at the right angle in the represent those wretched shipwrecked depth of the picture, and joins the inbeings of the Medusa, urged by a re- terior of the castle, the top of which lentless sentiment of self-preservation, is indented. . At the bottom of this contending for the corpse of one of terrace is the court wherein are shut their species, to lengthen for a time up the Mamelukes, against whom a their existence, it would have created fire of musketry is kept up, both from . MONTHLY MAG. No. 340.