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incarcerated by the Inquisition, and higher and nobler order, and that, they agree in stating that torture is no while they bask in the sunshine of longer administered. But its influence intellect and knowledge, they may be on literature is perhaps greater than well content that the uninstructed mass ever; for though Spain possesses at the should trudge on in darkness below. present moment a great number of Why should they throw their pearls admirable writers, the press was never to senseless swine; or shower down so inactive. The despotism exercised truth and virtue on those who fatten over authors and publishers is so into- on vice and error ? lerable, that few have courage volun But perhaps a larger class, which tarily to submit to it. Often after would include too the majority of the authorizing the publication of a work, learned clergy of Spain, are they whose they order it to be suppressed, and every honest opinions are made up of heresy copy to be burnt, and never think of and infidelity; but their worldly inreparation to those who are so cruelly terests are so inwrought with the existinjured. Their presumption in con- ing system, that the thought of sacri. demning whatever they cannot under- ficing those interests to the higher stand, their domiciliary visits, their claims of right, has never occurred to arbitrary decrees, against which there them; or, if it has occurred, has never is no security and no appeal, make obtained a moment's attention. To them fearful enemies and faithless them it is a glorious and gold-giving friends.

superstition. If they can persuade With the difficulty, delay, expense themselves that, on the whole, it is and frequent impossibility of obtaining harmless, they are satisfied. They do a licence for the publication of any more-they say it is beneficial, and valuable work, may be well contrasted they have repeated this so often, that the ridiculous trash which daily issues they, perhaps, almost believe it is true. from the Spanish press. Accounts of Would they look round them they miracles wrought by the different vir- might see the melancholy effects which gins, lives of holy friars and sainted superstition and intolerance have pronuns, romances of marvellous conver- duced in their hapless country. What sions, libels against Jews and heretics is Seville—the once renowned Seville, and Freemasons, histories of appari. with its hundred and twenty-five tions, and so forth, are generally intro- churches and convents? The very duced, not by a mere licence of the shrine of ignorance. It was there that inquisitor, but by long and laboured the Spanish chart of liberty was trameulogiums.

pled under foot, amidst ten thousand It is no novel observation, that the shouts of 66 Live the King and the most cruel and intolerant persecutors Inquisition !" 66 Perish the Constituhave often been men wholly devoid of tion !" Or Cordoba, so long the cradle religious principle; men, who consider of the arts, the favourite seat of reviving the religion of the state only as a part wisdom? It is become the chosen abode of its civil policy, and who treat the of vice and barbarism! The press, denial of a national creed with the same which was established there in the severity as the infraction of an esta- short era of Spanish liberty, has been blished law, or rather as a species of torn in pieces by a frantic mob, who, treason against the supreme authority. excited by the monks, paraded the No plea of modest inquiry, of conscien- streets of this unfortunate capital, tious doubt, or honest difference of threatening death to every individual opinion, is allowed to oppose for a whose name had been connected with moment their sanguinary and despotic that of liberty. How many a town and sway. There are no terms of safety city, once illustrious, has sunk into but those of unresisting, instant, abso- nothingness! “ What remains of their lute prostration. Such men are gene- ancient glory ? The ruins of palaces, of rally the prime movers of the gagging fabrics, of store-houses and dwellings; engine of religious intolerance; and and undilapidated churches and mosuch men are to be found too abun. nasteries and hospitals, outliving the dantly in Spain. Others there are who misery of which they have been the imagine they see in the pomp and cause." parade of the Romish ritual, a system One might surely expect that in a of delusion admirably adapted to be- country possessing eight archbishops, guile, or even to bless the ignorant. more than fifty bishops, and more than They fancy themselves beings of a a hundred abbacies, with a jurisdiction


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almost episcopal; “ in which,” to use the plainest truths of revelation, and on
the language of a Spanish writer," there the hallowed charter of Christian li-
are more churches than houses, more berty, they have even erected the altar
altars than hearths, more priests than of civil despotism!
peasants ;' in which every dwelling 6 In the fictions and falsehoods they
has its saint, and every individual his have invented to deceive their followers,
scapulary;--one might expect to see in their pretended visions and spurious
some benefits, some blessings resulting miracles, they have even ventured to
from this gigantic mass of ecclesiastical compromise the terrible majesty of
influence. Let us, then, look upon a heaven. They shew us our Saviour
picture drawn by the hand of an ac. lighting one nun to put cakes into an
knowledged master.

oven ; throwing oranges at another from
66 Our universities are the faithful the sagrario ; tasting different dishes
depositaries of the prejudices of the in the convent-kitchens, and torment-
middle age; our teachers, doctors of ing friars with childish and ridiculous
the tenth century. Beardless novici- playfulness. They represent a monk
ates instruct us in the sublime myste- gathering together the fragments of a
ries of our faith; mendicant friars in broken bottle, and depositing in it the
the profound secrets of philosophy; spilt wine, to console a child who had
while barbarous monks explain the let it fall at the door of a wine-shop.
nice distinctions of metaphysics. Another, repeating the miracle of Cana

6 Who goes into our streets without to satisfy the brotherhood, and a third meeting cofradias, processions or rosa- restoring a still-born chicken to life ries; without hearing the shrill voice that some inmate of the convent might of eunuchs, the braying of sacristans, not be disappointed. the confused sound of sacred music, They represent to us a man preentertaining and instructing the devout serving his speech many years after with compositions so exalted, and ima- death, in order to confess his sins; gery so romantic, that devotion itself another throwing himself from a high is forced into a smile ?. In the corners balcony without danger, that he might of our squares, at the doors of our go to mass. A dreadful fire instantly houses, the mysterious truths of our extinguished by a scapulary of Estareligion are commented on by blind mene. They shew us the Virgin feedbeggars to the discordant accompani. ing a monk from her own bosom ; ment of an untuned guitar. Our walls angels habited like friars, chanting the are papered with records of' authentic matins of the convent, because the miracles, compared to which, the me- friars were asleep. They paint the tamorphoses of Ovid are natural and meekest and holiest of men torturing credible.

and murdering the best and the wisest 66 And ignorance has been the parent, for professing a different religious creed. not of superstition alone, but of incre- “We have indeed much religion, but dulity and infidelity. The Bible, the no Christian charity. We hurry with argument and evidence of our Chris- our pecuniary offerings to advance any tian faith, has been shamefully aban- pious work, but we do not scruple to doned, or cautiously buried beneath defraud our fellow-men. We confess piles of decretals, formularies, puerile every month, but our vices last us our meditations, and fabulous histories. lives. We insist (almost exclusively)

6 Monkish influence has given to the on the name of Christians, while our dreams and deliriums of foolish women, conduct is worse than that of infidels. or crafty men, the authority of revealed In one concluding word, we fear the truth. Our friars have pretended to dark dungeon of the inquisition, but repair with their rotten and barbarous not the awful-the tremendous tribunal scaffolding, the eternal edifice of the of God!” gospel. They have twisted and tor- This is the representation of a Spatured the moral law into a thousand niard. Though the colouring is high, monstrous forms, to suit their passions it is a copy from nature, and the shades and their interests. Now they describe might have been heightened had he the path to heaven as plain and easy, witnessed the conduct of numbers of now it is difficult,—to morrow they the monastic orders during the late conwill call it impassable. They have vulsions of Spain. There are, indeed, dared to obscure with their artful com- few examples of such infamous want of mentaries the beautiful simplicity of principle as was exhibited by many of the Word of God. They have darkened them on the king's return. Those who


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had gone about preaching the rights of have been buried in its ruins. Ferdiman, proclaiming the wisdom and ex. nand, who has just as much of gratialting the blessings of the new consti- tude as of any other virtue, has already tution ; exhorting their hearers, often trampled on the miserable tools of his with a vehemence little becoming their early tyranny. It were well if those situation, to live and die for its pre- who“ put their trust in princes," servation, and hurling their bitterest would study the many impressive lesanathemas against those who dared to sons which the reign of the Spanish question the wisdom of a single article, tyrant affords. —when the king refused to sign that . It is consolatory to turn from the constitution, became the eulogists of profligacy and vice so often prominent every act of tyranny, the prosecutors amidst extraordinary political revoluof the liberales, and the chosen friends tions, to the spirit of truth and liberty of Ferdinand. They have had their which they always elicit; and Spain reward : and though a few of them have has had a most triumphant list of occupied the vacant sees, and have patriots. Their names must not be been caressed and recompensed with recorded : for, to receive the tribute of no sparing hand, the finger of hatred affection and gratitude from any hater and of scorn points them out to the of a tyrant, would be sufficient to subexecration of betrayed and suffering ject them to his merciless ferocity, millions, while their names will go How wretched that country where no down to posterity, accompanied with meed of applause may follow the track reproaches, curses and infamy. If those of talent or of virtue—where knowbe forgiven who have gone on in one ledge and the love of freedom are purconsistent career of servitude and de- sued and persecuted as if they were gradation; who have betrayed no cause curses and crimes ! Otherwise, with of liberty—for they are by habit and what delight should I speak of some by election slaves; who have sacrificed who, buried in the obscurity of the no manly principles—for manly prin- cloister, or retiring into solitude from ciples they had none;- still no charity the noisy crowd, sigh in secret and can wash away the stains of those silence over the wretched fate of the traitors to freedom, to humanity, to land of their birth, their admirable Spain, who so atrociously deserted the powers of body and mind fettered and banners of their country's welfare, to frozen by the hand of despotism! All range themselves around the standards around them is slavery and ignorance; of a profiigate and unexampled tyranny. to them remain alone the joy of holding

The most notorious of those, how- converse with the wise and the good of ever, who co-operated to establish that departed time, and the ecstatic hope fatal and ferocious despotism which that their country will one day burst now degrades and oppresses Spain, have from its death-like slumbers, and already become its victims. In their spring forth “ into liberty and life and sorrow and suffering and exile, let the light." unshaken friends of constitutional li. And let those illustrious exiles, the berty, who are scattered over Europe, martyrs of truth and freedom, who console themselves with remembering have been driven by an ungrateful and that their personal fate is no more cruel tyrant from their homes and their severe than that of the base tools of a country, and doomed 6 to wander wretched monarch, who have nothing through this miserable world,” take to accompany their wanderings but heart; for a brighter and better day is sadness, shame and self-reproach, dark about to dawn upon Spain. I have and barren prospects, and desolate re- expressed a hope, it should rather be a membrances; while those shall receive conviction, that this period cannot from all around them, the smiles and linger long. If the extreme of evil the praises of the wise and good. They brings with it its own remedy; if may look back on the 6 bread” of human endurance will only support a virtue which they have 6 cast on the certain weight of despotism; if t there waters," and forward in the confident is a spirit in man;" if there is a strength hope that they 66 shall find it again in virtue or in liberty—the intolerable after many days:" but they who sa fetters must be broken. crificed their country to their cold

¿Que es esto, Autor eterno hearted, and selfish avarice, have wholly Del triste mundo? tu sublime nombre erred in their calculations. Their

Que en el se ultraja a moderar no country is fallen indeed, but they, too, alcanzas?

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i á infelices venganzas

expatriated, it may be supposed liteY sangre y muerto has destinado el rature is at a very low ebb there. hombre !

Melendez and Estála have died in i A tantas desventuras

exile,—while Maratin and Llorente Ningun termino pones ! i 6 el odioso

will probably never again revisit their Monstruo por siempre triunfará orgulloso ! native land. Marina, Quintana, Ar


güelles, Gallego, and other estimable

men, occupy the hopeless dungeons to The object for which the foregoing

which tyranny has consigned them; observations were written, made it

while this island, in particular, has had necessary to exclude some particulars,

the honour of welcoming and of shelwhich perhaps deserve record.

tering many a generous patriot and A correct idea of the state of learn

many an enlightened scholar, whose ing in Spain might be formed from the general decline of the public colegios

virtues and talents are lost to a country

which has so much reason to deplore and universities, and the almost uni

their removal. versal ignorance of those to whom the

· I trust, however, that a work which important business of education is in

· has been so long a desideratum, viz. trusted. At Alcalá de Henares, where

a History of Spain under the dominion there were formerly four or five thou

of the Moors, compiled from Arabic sand students, there are now less than

documents, will, ere long, be published, three hundred, and the number is

by Don José Antonio Conde, the yearly declining. A similar decay may

decay may


learned Orientalist, whose erudition be observed elsewhere. I found every

ery and diligent research promise a most thing in a melancholy state of derange

erange- valuable and interesting narration. ment and dilapidation at Bergara, The Spanish Academy are now though this, I believe, is now the only

printing, at Madrid, a new edition of public school which has been able to

Don Quixote, in five volumes, which maintain itself. The philosophical and

will be prefaced by a Life of Cermathematical instruments had been

vantes, by Navarrete. This piece of destroyed by rust, or rendered useless

biography will be peculiarly gratifying, by violence, and every thing connected

as many documents connected with the with instruction appeared conducted

history of Cervantes have lately been as if the dreadful apprehension that

discovered, especially the records of the too much wisdom might be communi

proceedings against him, before his imnicated were constantly present to the

prisonment. enlightened directors.

Herrera's celebrated work on AgriThere are few objects more touching, culture is also being printed by the more humiliating, than those scenes

Academy. The biographical notices sacred once to liberty and to literature,

are written by Don Mariano Lagasca, and associated with the names of the

whose name is a sufficient pledge for noblest and “ the wisest of our race,"

their excellence. but now become the fortresses of igno

The Spanish drama had been in a rance, profligacy and despotism. Who

progressive state of decay from the would not sigh over Cordoba ?

death of Candamo, till Moratin's atWhen I remember what thou wert of old,

tempts to introduce the regularity and Birth-place of Senecas ;-nurse of arms

unity of the Parisian theatre were and arts; When to thy schools from earth's remotest

crowned with complete success. It is parts

a different, and will be considered as a The nations crowded while thy sons un lower order of merit, by all who place roll'd

Nature and Shakespeare above Art
Thy chronicles of wisdom ;-when I see and the French drama. If, however,

The spot Averroes lov’d, and tread the sod Calderon and Lope, Moreto and Mont-
Maimonides and Abenezra trod;

alvan, Solis and Candamo, seldom ocOr seek the umbrage of some rev’rend tree,

cupy the Spanish stage, it is beeause Beneath whose shade Mena or Cespedes

the national taste, or the national inAt noon-tide mus'd :-- when I remember

difference, has chosen to sanction or these Or other hallow'd names, and see thee now

permit the puerile trifles imported Shrouded in ignorance and slavery :

from the other side of the Pyrenees, to O Cordoba ! my spirit weeps o'er thee,

occupy the seats which might be so And burning blushes kindle on my brow. much more honourably filled by native

While the majority of the most dis. genius. An active controversy is going tinguished writers of Spain have been on as to the respective merits of the


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French and Spanish theatres; but it To rescue-not our country—but mankind ? does not seem to excite much interest Did we not break thy prison-doors, unbind beyond the immediate circle of com Thy fetters, and with shouts of joy tbat rent batants. A new dramatic writer (Go. The very arches of the firmament rostiza) has lately appeared, and his Receive thee?-And is this our destiny ? first effort, “ Indulgencia para todos,"

Insults and slavery, and a wretch like thee! in spite of some improbabilities in the

The details of the population of Spain

The story, and some vulgarisms in the style, given in the Monthi

le style, given in the Monthly Magazine for April gives fair hopes for the future.

(p. 200) being extremely incorrect, it By way of conclusion, I would re

may be worth while to close this article mark, that ultra-royalism and bigotry

with a copy of the last official census, may receive from the present wretch

made in 1803. edness of Spain a salutary and correc

No.of In. tive lesson. They may there see the

Populat. to a unalloyed triumph of their principles,

Sq. Lea. and study the consequences, in the de

Prov. of Madrid .... 228,520 2078 gradation, the disquietude, and the

- Guadalaxara 121,115 743 wretchedness, of a once renowned and

Cuenca .... 294,290 311 illustrious nation. They have there a

Toledo ..... 370,641 505 king reigning in 6 all the glory" of

La Mancha .. 205.548 326 uncontrolled majesty, and a state-reli

Avila ...... 118,061 549 gion undisturbed by heretics or schis

Segovia .... 164,007 566 matics;—there is the dull death-like

Soria ...... 198,107 581

470,588 silence of abhoried submission, unbro


734 ken by any hated shouts of liberty,

-- Extramadura 428,493 6 the prostration of the understanding

Kingdom of Cordoba 252,028 724 and the will,” that neither dares nor

- Jaen ....


206,807 wishes to enquire.

Seville ..


746,221 As to the character of Ferdinand,

Granada 692.924 861 it has been greatly misunderstood or

New Settlements .... 6,196 · 57 greatly misrepresented. It has been

Kingdoin of Murcia .. 383,226 582 well said of him, that he has all the

Arragon 657,376 534 crimes and none of the merits of his

Valencia 825,059 1283 ancestors. He appears to care little

Principal. of Catalonia 858,818 856 about the church or the clergy, except

Island of Majorca .. 140,699 1256 inasmuch as he can make them the

Minorca . 30,990 1550 instruments of civil despotism. His

Iviza and
Formentera ....5

15,290 1019 habits are gross and licentious; yet he is inaccessible to any sentiment of be

Kingdom of Navarre 221,728 1082

Province of Biscay .. 111,436 1051 nevolence or generosity. - He never forgave a fancied enemy, and perhaps

- Guipuscoa 104,491 2009

- Alava .. 67,523 746 he never possessed a real friend.

Principal. of Asturias 364.238 From his very childhood his untame


Prov. of Leon able and barbarous propensities made

239,812 ......

486 him the object of fear and dread; and

- Palencia .... 118,064 814 adversity (that touchstone of character)

Salamanca .. 209,988 446

Valladolid .. 187,390 692 has served only to excite and heighten the dark ferocity of his disposition.

Zamora .... 71,401 537 What, indeed, could be expected from

-- Toro ...... 97,370 . 590 an ingrate, who rewarded those that re

Kingdom of Gallicia.. 1,142,630 859 placed in his worthless hand the sceptre

10,351,075 690 he had cast away, with persecution and

med. pop. exile, imprisonment and death?

The New Settlements are the coloWas it for this through seven long years of nies founded in the Sierra Morena in war

the last century. The principal towns We bore the miserable wants of woes are Carlosa, Carolina, and Luisiana. Pour'd on our naked beads by barb'rous The whole of the foregoing census is foes,

probably rated too low. The Royal While thou a patient captive-absent far, Nor beard'st our cries, nor saw'st the bloody

Society of Valencia, possessing neces

sarily peculiar local advantages for enstąr That o'er our helpless, hapless country

quiry, lately calculated the inhabitants rose ?

of that kingdom at 1,200,000. The Did we not break the intolerable bar Consulate of Corunna give 1,400,000 Forged by the master-tyrant? Interpose for the population of Gallicia. That of


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