« PreviousContinue »
bv shrinking should make the coate why an object seen wth two eyes apyield. I know not whether you would pears but one is that ye fibres in ye two have ye succus nutricius run along y eyes by which 'tis seen are unisons ? marrow. If you would, 'tis an opinion then all objects seen by unison fibres not yet proved, and so not fit to ground must for ye same reason appear in one an argument: if you say yt in ye came- and ye same place, that is, all the oblion and fishes ye nerves only touch one jects seen by ye line of fibres E B'H, another without mixture, and sometimes running from one side of ye eye to yé do not so much as touch ;'Tis true, but other. For instance, two stars, one to makes altogether against you: Fishes ye right hand, seen by ye fibres about looke one way with one eye, ye other way H, the other to the left, seen by the with ye other; the Chamelion looks up fibres about E, ought to appear but one with one eye, down with t’ other, to star, and so of other objects. For if ye right hand with this, to the left with consonance unite objects seen with the yt, twisting his eyes severally this way fibres of two eyes, much more will or that way as he pleases. And in it unite those seen with those of ye those animals which do not look the same eye. And yet we find it much same way wth both eyes, what wonder otherwise. Whatsoever it is that causes if the nerves do not joyne. To make the two images of an object seen with them joyn would have been to no pur- both eyes to appear in ye same place, pose, and nature does nothing in vain. so as to seem but one, can make them But then whilst in these animals, where upon distorting ye eyes separate one 'tis not necessary, they are joyned in from ye other and go as readily, and as ye one and not in ye other. For God in far asunder, to ye right hand and to the frame of animals has done nothing ye left as upwards and downwards. i without reason.
You have now the sum of what I can There is one thing more comes into think of worth objecting, set down in my mind to object. Let the circle a tumultuary way as I could get time D' I represent the retina; or if you from my Sturbridge fair friends. If I will the end of ye optick
have any where exprest myself in a nerve cut across; A the / A
more peremptory way than becomes ye end of a fibre, above of/ D G
weakness of ye argument, pray look on most tension. C the end & B H that as done not in earnestness, but for of one below of least' f I ye mode of discoursing. Whether any tension. D and G the c
thing be so material as that it may ends of fibres above on
prove any way useful to you I cannot either hand almost of as much tension tell. But pray accept of it as written as A. F and I the ends of others for that end. For having laid philosobelow, almost of as little tension as CE, phical speculations aside, nothing but the end of a fibre of less tension than ye gratification of a friend would easily A G, and of more than C or I.. And invite me to so large a scribble about between A and C, G and I, there will be things of this nature. fibres of equal tension with E, because
Sir, I am yr humble servant, between them there are in a continual Trin. Col. Camb. Is. NEWTON. series fibres of all degrees of tension, Sept. 12, 1682. Bibl. Birch. 4237. between ye most tender at A and G, and least tender at C and I. And by Verses written by Dr. Stukeley, under a Picthe same argument that three fibres,
ture of Sir Isaac Newton. C, B, and H, of like tension are noted,
Ora viri, Knellere, tua bene picta Tabella let ye whole line of fibres of some de
est; gree of tension running from E to H, At mens sola suis cognita Principiis. be noted. Do you now say yt ye reason
Cole's MSS. 31.
THE CALEDONIAN CANAL.
constitute an undertaking truly gigantic. (From the French.)
The depth to be 20 feet; width at the MTVE Caledonian Canal now carrying bottom, 50, and at the surface of the 1 into execution in Scotland, will line of water, 110. The dams or sluices from 162 to 172 feet in length, and from measure the whole extent of the work. 38 to 40 in' width. Dimensions of this Vessels of from two to three hundred magnitude will cease to excite wonder, tons can pass underneath. when it is known that one main object RECOVERY OF THE EXECUTED. of this canal is to be serviceable to “ Sir William Petty," says Evelyn, the Royal Navy, so that frigates of 22 “was the sonn of a mean man, somewhere guns may be enabled to navigate it; in Sussex, and sent from schoole to Oxon in other respects, to furnish shipping where he studied philosophy, but was with the means of avoiding a tedious most eminent in mathematics and meand dangerous navigation round the chanics; proceeded Dr. of Physic, and northern and western coasts of Scotland. was grown famous, as for his learning, The whole expence about 20 millions so for his recovering a poor wench that of franks, of which 14 have been had been hanged for felony; and her already laid out. One part of the navi- body having ben hegged, (as the cusgation will be supplied by the means of tome is) for the anatomic lecture, he lakes. These labours commenced in bled her, put her to bed to a warm wo1814, and are to terminate in 1821. man, and with spirits and other meanes
THE IRON BRIDGE AT SUNDERLAND, restored her to life. The young scholars (From the Journal of a Tour, by a joined and made her a little portion, Frenchman.)
and married her to a man who had seOn the tenth of December, we could veral children by her, she living fifteen not proceed in our visitation of the yeares after, as I have been assured.” manufactories, it being Sunday, and we The editor of Evelyn's Memoirs adds repaired in the afternoon to Sunderland. in a note, “ For a full account of ys This town stands on the right bank of remarkable event, see a pamphlet, enthe river, which passes on to the sea, titled, • Newes from the Dead, or a between heights closely bordering. Near true and exact Narration of the Miracuthe town, perpendicular rocks create a lous Deliverance of Anne Greene, who, sort of walls, and here it is that the iron being executed at Oxford, December bridge, so justly celebrated, has been 14, 1650, afterwards revived; and by constructed. It was erected in 1794, by the care of certain phisicians there, is the subscriptions of a Company. To now perfectly recovered. Oxford, the avoid an arch of too great width, two second impression, with additions 4to, piles of masonry were raised to the 1651. Added to the narrative are seheight of the rocks; these piles have a veral copies of verses in Latin, English, visible exterior; they consist of several and French, by a gentleman of the Unistories, and serve in part to support the versity, commemorative of the story; bridge. The chord of the arch is 236 amongst others, one by Joseph Williamfeet 8 inches, and the height above the son, afterwards Secretary of State; anoriver is 100 feet, at low water. The ther by Christopher Wren, the famous total weight of the bridge is 900 tons, architect, then of Wadham College ; on which are 260 of iron, whereof 46 Walter Pope; Dr. Ralph Bathurst, (the are forged, and 214 cast. The breadth last under other names;) and many of the passage for carriages is 32 feet, more. This was reprinted, but very and on both sides are flagged pavements negligently, from the first and worst and neat ballustrades of cast iron. On edition, in Morgan's Phænix Britanthe middle of the bridge appears the fol- nicus', 4to." lowing inscription: Nil desperandum, INTERVIEW BETWEEN B, CONSTANT AND auspice Deo. *Carriages pass over, on a NAPOLEON, IN 1815, REPORTED BY round trot, without occasioning any sort THE FORMER. of shaking. The whole construction is “Of what he said, (says M. Constant,) truly beautiful, uniting solidity with I shall only give what I consider indislightness and simplicity. An individual pensible; but, in what I do give, it of the name of Burdock, contributed, will be his real words that I shall report. on his own account, towards the erec- He did not attempt to deceive me ; tion of this bridge, the sum of 23,0001, neither as to his views, nor in regard to sterling. A toll is paid on it which the state of things. He did not all prenow brings in 5 per cent. of the capital sent himself as corrected by the lessons expended. The prospect from it over of adversity. He shewed no wish to the left bank of the river, is highly take to himself the merit of returning to agreeable, and there the eye can best liberty through inclination. He coldly
examined, examined, with reference to his own did not surround me the less ;---they interest, and with an impartiality too did not the less cry Vive l'Empereur? akin to indifference, what was practi. The reason is, that we are of the same cable, and what ought to be preferred. nature. They regard me as their sup• The nation,' said he to me, • has port and salvation against the nobles. reposed twelve years from all political I have only to make a sign,-or rather to agitation: during one year it has rested turn away my head, and the nobility also from war: this double quiet has are massacred in all the provinces : given it a need for fresh activity. It and this is what they have brought them. accordingly demands a tribune, and selves to, by their pretty management popular assemblies. It has not always during the last ten months. But, how, wished for these. Did it not throw ever, I do not wish to be the mere king itself at my feet when I first came to the of a Jacquerie. If there are means of government? You ought to recollect governing constitutionally, with all my this, for you are one who then attempted heart-let them be tried, and welcome. opposition. Where was your support, I certainly did covet the empire of the where your strength? No where. I took world, and to secure it, unlimited less authority than I was invited to power was necessary. It is very pos. take :--but to-day all is changed in this sible that to govern France alone, a respect. A feeble government, at vari- constitution may be better. My wish ance with the national interests, has was to hold the sceptre of the world! given to these interests the habit of hold. Who would not have wished it it in my ing themselves on the defensive, and place! The world invited me to take has permitted the questioning and teaz- charge of it. Sovereigns and subjects ing of authority. The taste for con- rushed, faster than my desires, to obey stitutions, debates, and harangues, ap- me! I have but rarely met with repears to be revived :and yet, don't sistance in France; yet I will say, that deceive yourself,—it is only the mino. I have experienced more serious opposi. rity that has this taste. The people, tion from a few disarmed and obscure or, if you like it better, the multitude, Frenchmen, than from all these kings, has no wish but for me. You were not now so proud that they have no longer there to see the croud pressing around a man of the people as their equal my steps, precipitating itself from the Let us see, then, what it may be postops of mountains, calling to me, sible to do. Bring me your ideas. seeking me, saluting me! In my jour. Public discussion, you say,-free elecney from Cannes, here, I had no need tions, responsible ministers, the lito conquer—I reigned. I am not the berty of the press :-Well, I have no Emperor of the soldiers only, as has objection to any of these things. A free been said of me, but of the peasants, press, above all, seems to me absolutely the plebeians of France. You accord. necessary: to think of stilling it now ingly see, in spite of all the past, that would be absurd. I am quite convinced the people return to me. There is a on that point. In fact, I am the man of sympathy between us. It is not the the people, and if the people really wish same thing with the privileged orders. liberty, I owe it to them. I have recogThe nobles have served me, it is true; nised their sovereignty,--and it is my they poured by crowds into my anti- duty to listen to their will.--I may say chambers. There was not a place at even caprices. I have never found a my disposal, which they did not accept, pleasure in oppressing. I entertained solicit, demand! I have had the Mont- great designs and fortune has settled morencis, the Noailles, the Rohans, the them to my disappointment:-I am no Beauvais, the Mortemarts ;--but there longer a conqueror; and can never be one never was a fellow feeling between us: again : I see clearly what can be, and the steed pranced gallantly, he was well what cannot. One mission only now broken-in, but I felt him tremble under remains to me; that of raising France me! With the people it was another from its present position, and giving it thing :-the popular fibre corresponded a suitable government. It is a mistake with mine, for I came myself from the to think that I hate liberty : I have, to popular ranks, and my voice acted on the be sure, removed it when I found it in popular feeling. Look at these con my way; but I comprehend it perfectly, scripts, these sons of peasants ! I never for I was brought up in that school, flattered them; I have been accustomed you know. Besides, I have no alternato treat them even harshly ;-but they tve: the work of fifteen years is de. MONTHLY Mag. No. 339.
stroyed, stroyed, and it can't be begun over hand. This was a reply to an assertion again. For this purpose twenty years, made by Lord Castlereagh in parliaand two millions of men, would be ment, that the success of the expedition wanted. But my wish is peace, which from Elba was entirely owing to the at present cannot be obtained but by French military. Napoleon wished to victories. It is not to you that I would prove to Europe, that the soldiers were give false hopes :- I let people say that by no means his sole, or even principal there are negotiations on foot, but supporters. The style of this piece, Mr. the plain truth is that there are none. Constant says, “was distinguished by I foresee a difficult struggle, and a long warmth, by expressions irregular but war. To sustain it the nation must strong, by much rapidity of thought, and support me; and, in return, I suppose some touches of true eloquence.” it will exact liberty. Very well-it PRICE OF A BIBLE IN 1274. shall be given. Circumstances are all In the year 1274 the price of a small new: I wish nothing better than to be Bible neatly written was 301.; which put right if I have been wrong. In fact, sum, no doubt, was equal to 2001. of I feel myself getting older; we are not our money. A good Bible may now be the same persons at forty-five as at thirty had for two or three shillings! It is The quiet of a constitutional monarch said that the building of two arches of might suit me very well now; and it London Bridge cost only 251.; which is would be still better for my son.' 51. less than a copy of the Bible many · Mr. Constant tells us in a note, that years afterwards. Of what incalculable Napoleon, at this interview, entrusted value is the art of printing? We see him with six pages of manuscript, which its beneficial effects more widely exhe had himself either written or dic- tended than ever, by means of Sunday tated, and which, at all events, he had Schools, Bible Societies, and Christian most carefully corrected with his own Missionaries.
NOVELTIES OF FOREIGN LITERATURE.
NHOROGRAPHIE Brasiliense, &c. the primitive inhabitants, whom he
or a Translation of descriptive handles, in a manner not very consisnotices relative to the kingdom of tent with charity. The vegetables of Brazil, from a work presented to his Europe are found to thrive very well in most Faithful Majesty, &c. has been Brazil, especially the peach tree and printed at the royal press, Rio Janeiro, the vine, but the wine made from the and therefore merits European notice, latter, not being prepared, as it should as a literary curiosity.
be, is of an inferior sort. All the kinds This production, though incomplete of cattle, including horses and mules, in its materials, is the most pregnant are in prodigious numbers, although the with information that has hitherto ap- rearing of the woollen tribes is but negpeared on the subject. The author, ligently attended to. Don Manuel Ayres de Cazal, is a secular The author amplifies on the capital priest of the priory of Crato. The in- cities of Portalegre, San Pedro, and troduction contains a summary of the Monte Video, and particularly on the discovery, and aboriginal population of different ecclesiastical or religious estaAmerica, to which is added a synopsis blishments to be found therein. of the history of Brazil, particularly in- . In his notice of the province Parana, teresting from a report of Pedro Vaz de he highly extols the meritorious exerCaminha, one of the companions of Ca- tions of the Jesuits, to convert and civibral, in the first discovery of the country. lize the Guaramins. The tea of ParaThis has been taken from the archives guay or Matte constitutes the most imof the marine, at Rio Janeiro, and it portant production of the country; the certainly serves to rectify a number of inhabitants have made use of it from errors in the ordinary relations.
time immemorial. To the principal : In treating of particular provinces, towns, are assigned the names of Asthe author begins with that of San sumpcao, Correntes, Corugunty, and Pedro, describing its limits, position, Villa Ricca. history, climate, soil, productions . The province Uragua, properly speakmountains, rivers, lakes, harbours and ing, is a colony of the Jesuits, that was islands; with some account of the mi. wrested from the Spaniards in 1801. neralogy, botany and zoology, as also of The matte is the only article exported.
The province of St. Catharine com- been taken. Villa Ricca, formerly prehends, besides the island of that known by the name of Oiro Preto, is name, about sixty leagues of the neigh- the capital. bouring continent. It has been peopled The Districto Diamantina, or Dia. in a great measure, by emigrants from mond District, still contributes to furthe Azore islands. The principal towns nish different kinds of precious stones. are Nuestra Senhora de Desteno, in In the centre of the country is a large the island of St. Catharine, Laguna on and flourishing town, St. Antonio de the continent, and S. Francisco, in an Tijuco, the residence of the public island that bears the same name.
Agents or Authorities, and especially The province of St. Paul is very fer- of the Diamond Junta. The exploitatile in timber; it is here that the Bra- tion, as the French term it, or the zilian Plu is found in the greatest working of the mines, employs 6000 abundance. All the western district negroes, under the inspection of 200 still remains in the occupation of the whites. ferocious tribe called Bugros. On the . Amongst the productions of the prowhole, the author speaks well of the vince of Rio Janeiro, one is thought to present Paulists; he denies that they be the same species of argile or earth ever constituted an independent re that the Chinese use in their manufacpublic, and contends that they have ture of porcelain, always been submissive to the Portu. Further on to the west, and in the guese Government. As to the Spa- centre of the province Espirito Santo, niards and Jesuits, their incroachments the Puris, a warlike, but crafty and have been successfully opposed; but in perfidious tribe, seem to have the asgeneral, the natives value themselves cendant. The capital is named Nuestoo highly on their noblesse. They are tra Senhora da Vittoria. scattered through a great number of '. The province of Porto Seguro, alsmall towns, and are easy to be distin- though the first wherein the Portuguese guished by a particular kind of bonnet formed an establishment, is still, in a which they wear.
manner, in a state of nature, presenting The author gives a detail of the con- every where a degree of rusticity in quest of the province of Mato Grosso. one almost continued forest. Gold was in such abundance, and was so The province of Bahia contains three little valued by the Indians, that one territories : that of the Islands, and of them exchanged six pounds weight of those of Bahia and Jacobina. The it for a pewter plate. As the rats made Mougogos, or original natives, were only great havock both in the houses and entirely reduced, in 1806. In the cafields, a pound of gold was paid for pital, St. Salvador, there is a printingthe first couple of cats to destroy them. office and a manufactory of glass. The province is divided into three dis. The original inhabitants of the protiicts :-the Northern; the Southern, vince Segeripe del Rey, so named from or Camapuania; and the Eastern. The the river Segeripe, are characterized as aboriginal tribe of Guaycuras are ex-, very ferocious. cellent horsemen, of a very warlike The province of Pernambuco is parcharacter, and haughty in their de- ticularly noticeable for a number of meanour. They have a custom of excellent harbours. Recife, the capital, turning to yellow the green colours of is large and populous, and is laid out a certain kind of parrot; this is done, in three sections or divisions. by plucking off all the feathers, and The Cahetes and the Potyguaras, rubbing the naked skin with the juice aboriginals of the province of Paraof the plant prucu.
hyba, have long since made profession The province of Goyas, at present of the Christian religion. The culture very abundant in cattle, was formerly of the sugar-cane has declined consivaluable for its gold mines, which are derably, which is imputed to the want now exhausted. It is given out, how- of moisture, but that of the cotton-tree ever, that the richest veins in the is augmenting in a like proportion. mountains have not yet been assayed. Parahyba is a pretty large town, tole
The province of Minas Geraes owes rably populous and agreeable. its name to the gold which it affords, . In the province of Rio Grande de with a number of other metals. Every Norte, the principal object is Natal, · where, says the author, we find a mul- the capital, situated on the right bank titude of deep caverns and ditches, from of the Rio Grande. which immense quantities of gold have Cattle, cotton, and salt form the