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even there, fashion has established her took notice that, at Saibah, a few days' empire.

journey beyond Ras Sem, towards Egypt, In the voyage, only one seaman died,

there is a whole caravan, consisting of and this from the dysentery; some sailors

men, asses, and camels, which, from time deserted, but they were seduced by the

immemorial, has been preserved at that

place. The greatest part of these bodies allurements of a climate so delicious. ,

still continue perfect and entire, from the In the route from the Sandwich

heat of the Sun and dryness of the climate; Islands to Bourdeaux, the ship only and the tradition is, that they were all of touched at the port of Canton, and them originally surprised, suffocated, and at the island of Mauritius. One fact ap. dried up, by the hot scorching winds, that pears truly singular, that of the flesh sometimes frequent these deserts. meat substances embarked at Bour “ The Arabs, who are as little conversant deaus in 1816. whatever returned. was in geography and natural history as they are in a state perfectly sound and well pre

artful and ingenious enough in fable and served; this arose from making use

romance, had here a very favourable and of the process of M. Balguerie, which

lucky opportunity, by jumbling and con

necting together the petrifactions of Ras consists in placing the meat in three

Sem, with these preserved bodies at Saibah, successive sprinklings of salt, and after.

to project and invent the plan of the Petrified wards, in carbonised brine. Mutton City, in all the wild and extravagant dress, dried in the oven, has been well kept wherein it is commonly described. This, I in pulverised charcoal.

believe, is the true matter of fact; and all

that may be depended upon in this story. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

"It was, however, a subject much enquired into whilst Cassam Aga, the Tripoly ambas

sador, resided lately in London. He reported TN your Magazine för March last,

from a thousand persons, as he said, and par1 under the head of “ Literary and

ticularly from a friend of bis of great vera. Philosophical Intelligence," it is no

city, who had been upon the spot, that this ticed, that “ the enterprising traveller scene of petrifactions consisted of a large Mr. Ritchie, who proceeded some time town, in a circular figure, which had several since with an expedition from Tripoli, streets, shops, and a magnificent castle befor the purpose of exploring the inte longing to it. That this friend of his saw rior of Africa,” has communicated an there different sorts of trees, but mostly the account he received from one of his olive and the palm ; all of them turned into friends of what he knew respecting

a blueislı or cinder-coloured stone. That

there were men also to be seen in different 6 the Petrified City," of which Dr.

postures and attitudes ; some of them exerShaw (in his Travels or Observations

cising their trades and occupations; others gelating to several Parts of Barbary

holding staffs, others bread, &c. in their and the Levant), gives the following

hands. The women, likewise, were, some particulars, which perhaps some of the of them, giving suck to their children; others readers of your widely circulated Mis- were sitting at their kneading tro cellany who may not have that, now That, in entering the castle, there was a scarce, book to refer to, will be pleased man lying on a magnificent bed of stone, with having the opportunity of perus- with the guards standing at the doors, armed ing; I have therefore transcribed it, if with pikes and spears. That he saw different you think it worth the trouble of in

sorts of animals, such as camels, oxen, asses,

horses, sheep, and birds, (nay, the very dogs, serting, and am, yours, &c.

cats, and mice are enumerated in other ac. Of RAS SEM, or the Petrified VILLAGE

counts :) all of them converted into stone, in the CYRENAICA.

and of the above-mentioned colour. " I shall conclude this branch of the na

In one

of these histories, some of these bodies are tural history of Barbary with some remarks

said to want their heads, others a leg or an upon the pretended Petrified City at Ras

arm; and so far agree with the caravan of Sem, in the province of Dacka, in the king

preserved (not petrified) bodies above recited. dom of Tripoli. “This place, then, which lies six days' jour

It is further related, that several pieces of

petrified money had been brought from ney to the S. of Binguze, the ancient Bere

thence; some of which were of the bigness nice, in the greater Syrtis, has been occa

of an English shilling, charged with a sionally taken notice of in the former edi.

horse's head on one side, and with some tion, where it was observed that nothing

unknown characters on the other. This is was to be seen there, besides some petrifaç

the substance of that variety of reports, tions, as might well be accounted for from

which have been given and related of this the Deluge; which likewise had been al

place, at different times, and by differens ready discovered in other parts of the world.' In treating likewise of the violent heat which

i persons.”

April 10, 1820. NORVICENSIS. attends the Deserts of Libya and Arabia. I.



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Mr. Jackson on the Niger and the Nile.
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. the Reviewer further says, the objec.

tion to the identity of the Niger and YN the 25th Number of the Quarterly the Nile, is grounded on the incon

Review, (article Park's Travels;) the gruity of their periodical inundations, hypothesis there laid down, as almost or on the rise and fall of the former indisputable, is the noncontiguity of river not corresponding with that of the two Niles of Africa, or (according the latter. I do not comprehend whence to the European phraseology of the the Quarterly Reviewer has derived day) of the Niger and the Nile. this information; I have always under.

This hypothesis, founded on the stood the direct contrary, which I have theory of Major Rennel, carries with declared in the last editions of my acit no evidence whatever, but the specu- count of Marocco, page 304, which has lative geography of that learned geolo- been confirmed by a most intelligent gist. The identity or connexion of the African traveller, Aly Bey, (for which, two Niles, and the consequent water see his Travels, page 220.) communication between* Cairo and I may be allowed to observe, that Timbuctoo receives, (supposing the although the Quarterly Reviewer has Quarterly Review to be correct,) as our changed his opinion on this matter, intelligence respecting Africa increases, I have invariably maintained mine, additional confirmation; and even the founded as it is on the concurrent tesQuarterly Reviewer, who denominated timony of the best informed and most the opinion recorded by me, the gossipp- intelligent native African travellers, ing stories of Negroes, (vide Quarterly and I still assert, on the same founReview, No. 25, p. 140,) now favors this dation, the identity of the two Niles opinion!

and their contiguity of waters. The Quarterly Reviewer appreciates I have further to remark, what will Burkhardt's information on this sub- most probably, ere long prove correct, ject, and depreciates mine, although viz. that thet Babar Abiad, that is both are derived from the same sources to say, the river that passes through of intelligence, and confirm one ano the country of Negroes, between the ther; the Reviewer says, Mr. Burk- Senaar and Douga, is an erroneous hardt has revived a question of older appellation, originating in the general date, viz. that 6 The Niger of Sudan ignorance among European travellers, and the Nile of Egypt are one and the of the African Arabic, and that the same river: this general testimony to a proper name of this river is Bahar physical fact can be shaken only, by Abeed, which is another term for the direct proof to the contrary."

river, called the Nile-el Abeed, which This is all very well. I do not object passes south of Timbuctoo towards the to the Quarterly Reviewer giving up an east, (called by Europeans the Niger.) opinion, which he finds no longer ten- It therefore appears to me, and I able, but when I see in the same Review, really think it must appear to every (No. 44, p. 481,) the following words, unbiassed investigator of African geo66 We give no credit whatever to the graphy, that every iota of African disreport, received by Mr. Jackson, of a covery, made successively byt Horneperson, (several Negroes it should be.) mann, Burkhardt, and others, tends having performed a voyage by water, to confirm my water communication from Timbuctoo to Cairo." I cannot between Timbuctoo and Cairo; and the but observe with astonishment, that theorists, and speculators in African the Reviewer believes Burkhardt's geography, who have heaped hypothereport, that they are the same river, sis upon hypothesis, error upon error, when at the same time, he does not who have raised splendid fabrics upon believe mine.

pillars of ice, will e'er long close Is there not an inconsistency here, their book, and be compelled by the somewhat incomparable with the im- force of truth and experience, to admit partiality, which ought to regulate the the fact stated about twelve years ago works of criticism?- I will not for a mo- by me, in my Account of Marocco, &c. ment suppose it to have proceeded from viz. that the Nile of Sudan and the a spirit of animosity, which I feel myself unconscious of deserving. But f Babar Abiad signifies White River ;

Babar, Abeed signifies River of Negroes. - . Vide Jackson's Account of Morocco, I Vide my letter in Monthly Magazine on đc. Chap. 13.

this subject for March 1817, p. 124. MONTHLY MAG. No, 339.



Nile of Egypt are identified by a con- the death of Mr. Watt in your Monthly tinuity of waters, and that a water Magazine. Your inserting this will be communication is provided by these two an act of justice, and oblige your obegreat rivers, from Timbuctoo to Cairo; dient servant, WILLIAM PLAYFAIR. and moreover that the general African London, April 5, 1820. opinion, that the Nile El Abeed (Niger) discharges itself in the Salt Sea, El WALLER'S VOYAGE in the WEST INBabar Maleb, signifies neither more nor DIES.—(Journal of Voyages, p. 93.) less, than that it discharges itself at the To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Delta in Egypt, into the Mediterranean SIR, Sea. JAMES GREY JACKSON. THIS is in many material points, London, April 7, 1820.

1 an erroneous statement, origin:

ating, it would seem, in a desire of To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. the author to excite an unfavourable SIR,

prejudice against the general treatT FIND that I am accused of having ment of slaves in the Island of Bar

improperly attributed to M. Riche badoes ; arising also from a misreprede Prony a want of candour and atten- sentation to him, and the consequent tion to truth, in publishing a history of blending of two circumstances, wholly the improved Steam Engine, without unconnected with each other.—The once mentioning the name of Mr. James fact is, that, the colonial law, making Watt, the real inventor, but giving the the killing of a slave murder in the credit to M. M. Perriers of Paris. Island of Barbadoes, did not pass the

In answer to that accusation, I have legislature, until two or three years to say, First, 6 that the truth may be after the murder referred to, nor was ascertained by inspecting Prony's His- the murderer a rich planter, but a cotory of the Steam Engine at Taylor's loured man, of the name of Mason, a Architectural library in Holborn, which sheriff's officer, who was intrusted with is my authority.”- Second, “ that in a writ to execute on another coloured 1810, or 1811, I saw Mr. Watt in Lon- man, towards whom, it appeared in evidon, in presence of Mrs. Watt, when on dence, he had long entertained great mentioning the injustice that Prony had enmity. done him, he said it was true, but that. The debtor, having for some time he had seen Prony in Paris since, when eluded the vigilance of the officer, was he promised to remedy the mistake.- at last discovered ; and the officer to

Third, I have in my possession a letter make surety double sure, of his own of Mr. Watt's son, in which he says, accord, took a corporal's guard for his that it would be better not to attack assistants. The debtor fled up a court Prony, but he does not say that it was in Bridgetown, where his person might not justifiable to do so."

have been secured, without the possi. Now, Sir, I think I have answered bility of resistance; but Mason, avail. - my accuser in a way that admits of no ing himself of this, to him favourable reply; but the fact is, I not only accuse opportunity, of gratifying his malice, Prony of the mis-statement, but I said, ordered the guard to fire; and the man and shall say, that it could not arise was killed. from mistake or error; for the Perriers For this offence, he was tried by the themselves, whom I know, never pre- then existing laws of Barbadoes, found tended to be the inventors, and Prony guilty, and sentenced to be hanged.. was nearly on the spot when the first The execution, which was witnessed steam engine manufactured in parts in by the person who gives this informaEngland, was erected at Chaillot, by tion, took place about the end of Dec. one of the Perriers of Paris.

1802, or early inJan. 1803, at which peAs I drew by Mr. Watt's directions, riod Lord Seaforth, (not Lord Seymour,) the plans from which that engine was was governor, whose manly and decided made, and know well the disposition of conduct upon the occasion, was, as it the French to monopolize the merit of merited, the theme of universal admiall inventions to themselves, I confess ration.—The conclusion of the anecI had a particular desire to set this dote is correct, with this addition, matter right. I did so first on the ac- that after the breaking of the rope, Lord count of Mr. Watt, in Public Charac- Seaforth requested General Grenfield, ters 16 or 18 years ago. I did so again then commanding the forces at Barba

in 1818, in Galignani's Guide to Paris; does, to attend with a detachment ' and lastly in the Memoir published on under arms, (the only troops called


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out upon the occasion) to support his vain tried various expedients to extirpate authority.

them. Possibly sonie herb, with the qualities. . This detachment was halted out of of which he is unacquainted, or some chesight of the place of execution, and mical process which has escaped his notice, the governor attended only by two aid. might be applied with success. de-camps, rode up, and issued his man

March 14th, 1820.

date in the following terms, “ Prisoner,
you have been legally tried for the crime

Can any of your numerous correspondents

give me sufficient authority for the following of murder, found guilty, and sentenced passage in Walker's Gazetteer, 5th ed. Lonto be hanged :-officer, do your duty," don, 1810. and drawing his sword, “Now let me “Wraysbury, Bucks, on the Thames, opsee who dares to prevent it.” The man posite Egbam. An island in the river, and was instantly hanged without further in this parish, is still called Charter Island ; opposition. This is a plain and cor- for in this island, it is said, the Great Charter reet statement in regard to Mason.- was signed by King John, although his con. The other transaction, with which

sent was extorted in Runny-Mead.” Mr. Waller's account is blended, refers

It will much gratify no doubt to the case of Mr. Hodges of

A NATIVE OF BUCKINGHAMSHIRE, Tortola, an opulent planter, who had

It is laid down by Euclid, B. 13. Prop. I. long been notorious for cruelty, and that “ If a right line be cut into extreme and was about four years ago executed on mean ratio, the square of the greater segment that Island, after considerable opposi- plus half the original line (taken as one line) tion, for the murder of his slaves under is five times the square of the half of the circumstances of unprecedented bar. original line." barity.

Again, Prop. IV. “ If a right line be di

vided into mean and extreme ratio ; then the QUERIES.

squares of the whole and lesser part toge

ther are three times the square of the greater To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. part." SIR,

Can any of your mathematical corresponA'N individual, who has for some years dents inform me what numbers will produce A taken in the Monthly Magazine, would the above results ? feel greatly obliged if some of your cor- respondents would recommend, through the Can any of your readers apprize an enmedium of your valuable publication, an quirer after truth, where a full and impartial effectual method of dislodging ants from account can be met with in the English lanbuildings. His dwelling-house is much in- guage of the physical philosophy of Descommoded by these insects, and he has in cartes?


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Written at Hertingfordbury, near Hertford,
formerly the Residence of Hughes, the

"; DEEP and alone all feeling lies,


It dwells not in brief agonies;
Poet, and where he wrote the Tragedy of

In anger's frown-in passion's start

But the whole impulse of the heart; W ITH pleasing awe I pace thy bowers It may not stoop to talk with men among,

Of thoughts they will not think again; Soft flowing Mimram! whose pellucid That were to hold a language, they stream

Conceive not, or would fear to say ;
Seems still to weep, as in poetic dream, Their's the light shadows of the mind,
The Bard who lull’d thee with his Tragic Reflected on the face we find;

Their joy, a smile !- their woe, a tear!
Tho' now no more be tread thy banks along, One moment marks their hope and fear.
Yet summer's flowers which fruitless never Their good — their ill — their rage -- their

And autumn's changeful light and shade, Brief as the lightning's passing flame.
Pourtray the varied subject of his song : Burn they at other's woes or ill?-

And as by pleasing sympathy I'm led, The thought like lightning passes still.
Musing on worth thus early snatch'd away, Does Indignation scorch the brow?-

I see the rose neglected droop its head, The flash is o'er, 'tis placid now.
And though I listen to the linnet's lay, Does Pity's tear hang in the eye?-
Methinks far lovelier flowers have here An April shower that passes by.
been spread,

Does Joy light up the giddy mien ?--
ad bere a sweeter songster lov'd to stray. The bubble bursts--por more is seen.


This is not feeling ;-'is the play

TOLERANCE. Of empty hearts; wbich turn away

. By the Author of the EMPIRE OF THE NAIRS. To each light breath of air and wind The surface of the sea may find.

ENGLAND, this tolerance deserves a praise But, like that ocean's lowest deep,

To no Republic due in ancient days; Where darkness and where silence sleep;

We, when both priests and laymen fill'd the Where waters, massy waters, dwell,

hall, Yet no wild waves, nor billows swell;

Have heard one voice protest against them Where, in a world of loneliness,

all. The liquid weight of waters press-

Noi to a sceptre that such powers belong, One vast-o'erpowering-whelming weight; That only he were right, and others wrong ; Such is the wretch ;--so dark his state

But this alone can make and keep us free, Where feeling dwells ;-the sea may glide) To speak our sentiments wbatė'er they be; Above bim with a placid tide,

* Truth is at first in the minority. And men may mock him, and deride

But ere ten millions in a truth believe, The weakness of the mind that seems

A unit must a paradox conceive. As wav'ring as an ideot's dreams;

Can fickle France, of guilty triumphs vain, His wandering words that, light and vain, Or France still pure, as when she burst her Are rayless as the ideot's brain;

chain, * But in his bosom's lowest deep,

Still full of visions of Utopian bliss, Where darkness and where silence sleep;

In all her annals show a day like this, There, in his mind of loneliness,

When a mere citizen his thoughts express'd, • Where heavy thoughts of sorrow press;

And the same freedom left to all the rest. There may he seek for refuge,--dweil

No-her light sons, a race to different eyes Alone,—and to himself may tell

· Exceeding frivolous, or passing wise, All his dark, lowering thoughts, and brood

From this extreme to that will gaily pass, In joyless, unmixed solitude.

And now believe, now disbelieve en masse, And should the laugh of human kind

Now faith, now doubt the order of the day, Taunt at the madness of his mind,

Compell’d to worship, or forbid to pray, He views them with an unchanged eye; They greet each idol with respectful mien, Not his to answer, or defy;

And kiss the land of lazy capuchin, Content within himself to live

Now staggering home from patriotic feast Nor give them back the scorn they give.

Pollute the altar, and insult the priest.

A second Constantine with martial air

Proclaimed, Be Papists, and they Papists IMPROMPTU,

were; BY LIEUT.-COL. ---, AT BANKA PORE, Abjured each heresy of reason's school, EAST INDIES,

And welcomed both the Pontiff and his mule; On Mrs. Campbell's sayiny she never saw ll And should a bigot but express the wish,

real Beauty till Mrs. Buller walked past They'd fast on Fridays, or they'd dine on fisb.

her in a Drawing-Room at Calcutta. On Fridays fast! what superstitious slaves ! TRUE Beauty Campbell never saw

On Sundays dance! what sacrilegious kpaves! Till she saw lovely Buller pass,

So cry our Şaints, who in themselves can find From which we may conclusions draw, The only models to improve mankind. She never saw a Looking Glass !!! Our Saints, to glorify Creation's Lord,

Who drag a Sunday taylor from his board, TO ISLINGTON.

Who cry, Perdition! on each jaunting car, ALL bail, Saint Mary, Islington! with thee

And wage with apple-stalls a Holy War. 1, tbrice four years, have lived, thou balf

By each Procrustes, wbom the faith makes form’d bill

strong, Aspiring northward ;-hail! I love thee This creed is found too short, and that too still,

long. For the delights which thou hast given to me. We call Religion what ourselves believe, Thy spire conspicuous and melodious bells,

But Superstition what the rest receive. Tby river, ancient tower, where England's

In sable cassoc, or in surplice white, queen

All Sects proclaim their magpie is the right. Eliza spent her studious hours;—thy green, Angels, if they celestial sights forego Thy feasting taverns standing in thy dells;- For tragi-comedies perform'd below, Toy bealthy walks thro'parks to woody lanes Angels, inured to Truth's meridian light, In which Duval, and Straw, and Robin May know which martyr err’d, and wbich Hood,

was right; Perform'd strange feats of wild disquietude, But charity on earth and reason groaned, And arrows tried the skill of courtly thanes. For Eaton pillar'd, as for Stephen stoned. Peace to thy village !--plenty to thy poor!

To every bosom comfort and content ! For sorrow, joy; th’industrious, merri. • Mr. Owen, who avowed his religious ment;

tenets, at the meeting convened in 1817, to And all, sufficient:--- Heaven! I ask no more. consider his system for the support of the Jan. !$20. J. R. PRIOR. poor.


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