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parts of Europe have their marquis; and styled esquire. To the wives of all peers, instead of count we have retained the and of baronets and knights, the terms old Saxon eorl or earl. The baron, a lady and ladyship are applied, with the title by no means a rarity in Germany, is addition of duchess to the wife of a duke; in fact that by which the emperor of that and as a gracious condescending dispo. country designated a freeholder of the sition is, that is to say, ought to be the empire; a liber baro, as he is styled in characteristic feature of persons exaltedthe imperial patent of creation; a person to the highest rank in life, your grace is who held of no subject superior, but im- a suitable monitory address to a duke mediately of the empire. The term is and his duchess. It is now an estabstill retained in Spain, where baron or lished courtesy to confer on the eldest varon denotes, not a title or rank, but a sons of dukes, marquisses and earls, truly valuable man, one indeed who de their fathers' second title; the younger serves to be called a man. In Germany, sons of the first two classes have the title the title duke, which includes that of lord prefixed to their christian and prince, properly belongs to a sovereign, family names; and the younger sons of subordinate to the chief of the empire. earls, together with all the sons of visHence it was that a British duke, in tra- counts and barons, have the epithet hovelling through that country, was re- nourable similarly prefixed. With respect ceived with peculiar military honours: to the daughters of peers, the custom is The earl or grave, also enjoyed occa- a little different, for all the daughters of sionally certain privileges. The Roman earls, as well as those of marquisses dux commanded in chief a certain terri. and dukes, are styled lady ; those of vistory, having under him several assistants, counts and barons, are honourable. or comites, because they were his equals, Now the distinctions here pointed out under whom were other officers or sub have nothing similar or equivalent on stitutes, thence called vicecomites, a name the continent. Thus, in France, the now used to denote our sheriffs, or pro- various degrees of nobility, as we would perly shire-reeves.

call them, are all addressed in the same If every head of a noble family in style : monsieur le duc, le marquis, le Scotland and Ireland do not actually comte, le baron, le chevalier, &c. matake his place in the peers' house of par- dame la duchesse, la marquisse, la comliament, equally with their, equals in tesse, la baronne, &c. In Italy, Il signor England, the distinction proceeds from duca, marchese, conte, &c. In Spain, El no intrinsic difference, but from con- senhor, duque, marques, conde, &c. But ventional arrangements made at the pe- in this latter country, a peculiar title is riods, when those kingdoms were seve- employed, which is strangely, although rally united to that of England. The very generally misapplied by some moonly nobles in our country are, there- dern writers in England, and, which is fore, those persons, who, as the heads of still less excusable, even in France. their families, have, or may have, a seat From the Latin dominus, a lord or master, in the house of peers, with the titles of came domnus, domno, and at last don, a duke, marquis, earl, viscount, and baron, title once naturally of high import, but But we have besides two classes of titled of late years so commonly applied to persons, viz. baronets and knights, to persons in all stations, that to refuse it which corresponding classes are to be is rudeness, and to bestow it is no comfound on the continent, and who are not pliment. It is to be observed, however, accounted nobles but gentry, but who ihat, like the English title sir to a knight are eligible as members of the commons.or baronet, the don ought always to preWith respect to the title esquire, from cede the christian, and never the surthe French écuyer, and in modern Latin name. Thus lord John Russel, would armiger, because it was his duty to at- in Spain be styled Don Juan R., sir tend the eques, or cavalier, or knight, Francis Burdett, would become Don and bear his ecu, or shield to battle: as Francisco B., and your humble servant the office has long ceased to be in exer- Mr. Editor, who has no title of any kind, cise, it is no wonder that the title itself would, nevertheless, be exalted to the should now have lost all meaning. It is rank of Don Pedro N. But even this still, however, retained in certain cases. confusion is not sufficient to satisfy Thus, when a young officer of the army modern courtesy in Spain. From their obtains his commission as an ensign and long and intimate connection with Italy, a lieutenant, he is described as a gent. the nursing mother of complimentary but in that creating him a captain, he is extravagance, the Spaniards have learned MONTHLY MAG. No. 339.

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to outdo themselves by prefixing senor assemble together in the towns; they to the don; as in the title (well merited seem to have an invincible dislike to the however) of the very learned gentleman, labours of the field, as rural occupations who, when I was in Madrid, presided would recall too forcibly the painful over the royal public library, Illustris. recollections of their former bondage. simo Senor Don Francisco Perez Bayer. The preference thus given to the towns The humble mechanic in Madrid would has long excited jealousies on the part be offended to be addressed in any of the government and the intelligent lower style than senhor maestro.

inhabitants; but the evil is now without - These remarks, Mr. Editor, may ap- remedy, and the observation has been pear to be of little importance in them made too late. The free negroes are too selves; but in the established relations numerous to be compelled, by authority, of society, such trifles come to deserve to go and live in country places, the attention of men in all situations of where, scattered over an immense terrilife. It may not offend our ears to hear tory, they could have no means of of the notorious Don Godoy, the Prince mutual communication, and would be of the Peace; but a Spaniard would in- entirely ignorant of their collective force. stantly call him Don Manuel Godoy. I At present, they know one another, and remember when even the government can calculate the aggregate of their paper of France, the Moniteur, used to strength, nor will they much longer recount the acts and speeches of our two endure, as I conceive, the present state great orators, Sir Pitt, and Sir Fox. of things, which, notwithstanding their London, March 10, 1820. P. N. emancipation, seems ever liable to some

reverse. With their liberty, they have For the Monthly Magazine.

acquired the dignified sentiments of LETTERS from the HAVANNAH, descrip. men, and the time, I think, is drawing

tive of the state of soCIETY, and near, when the whites will no longer embracing ORIGINAL INFORMATION enter into explications with the negroes, relative to the ISLAND of CUBA. cane in hand. IJI. .

In Rome, emancipation was attended M Y friend, I dare say, by this time, with no inconvenience; the complexion M I thinks I am safely wafted on the of the slaves being white, like their Stygian shore; verily, such may be the masters, on a declaration of manumisissue. However, I have a strong presen- sion, they amalgamated with the people, timent that an early tomb is not marked and every freedman added one more out for me in the rolls of destiny. And citizen to the republic. The stain of here, methinks, the very idea is an ex. colour not striking the sense, other stains cellent preservative against the vomito were soon forgotten; but it is not so in negro. That pityless ravager has not our modern colonies. The black still yet visited my prenises, though there is remains a black, and his colour will ever not a single house that I know of where prove an insurmountable obstacle to his he has not been to levy his annual tribute, admission to public honours; he cannot

I have already descanted on the cha- even rise to the lowest fiscal offices, racter, &c. of the free negroes; the ele- which in all countries are left to the gance of their costume, and even of their inferior classes of society. The white manners, indicates that they are in cannot think of any political equality affluent circumstances. In fact, they between himself and the black ; this, it are generally rich; and their wealth is will be said, is a prejudice, and I allow derived from an honourable source, for it; but it is rooted in the mind to an they owe it to their habitual industry. inconceivable extent. I wish you, my The indolence and pride of the Spa. friend, to make an experiment with that niards have transferred to the free abhorrer of all social distinctions, M. negroes, the monopoly of the mecha- Destrett de Tracey; set over him a black nical arts, wherein they labour, without for colonel, and see whether he will obey ceasing. As they are far more sober than orders, with resignation and promptiany workmen from Europe, and wages tude. Philosophy is beautiful in its here are very high, their peculium accu- theories; but come to make an applicamulates rapidly, and they soon become tion of them, and you will start back. masters of a considerable capital, espe- The capitalists of France and Germany, cially in a country where interest at the in spite of their liberalism, revolt against lowest, is 20 per cent.

their own doctrine ; when it is to portion The whole population of free negroes out a daughter or to seek an alliance by

marriage :

marriage: to ennoble their descendants, it. He has only to reimburse his master, they look out for the purest and most the price of his ransom; and money is illustrious blood they can find

got here so rapidly, that if a negro reAs these free negroes are every day mains long in slavery, one might deem it getting richer, they bestow on their his own choice. I have seen a slave sell children a more cultivated education; to his master, in a few months, three they also keep a table, they have their hogs, at the rate of twenty piastres a parasites, and the petit blanc, who is not head; with a dozen more, and some above taking a seat there, by way of little profit that he may make out of his paying his scot, enters into a declama. garden, a sum would accumulate equi. tion against the prejudices that attach valent to his ransom. difference of consideration to a diffe- These emancipations multiplying ad rence of colour. He fails not to pro infinitum, prove a source of uneasiness, nounce that black soldiers have an air in another point of view. The abolition as martial as white ones, and look as well of the Slave Trade will, in time, put a on the parade; to this, he adds, that stop to the importation of slaves, the Christophe wears the crown with as plantations will then decline in their much ease and dignity, as if born heir population; the products of the soil to a throne; in short, that a negro may will be less and less, and the whole be a count, marquis, and even duke, like · colony will become an immense desart, any other man. All this oratory is not overrun with brambles, and incapable of lost in the air; the free black begins furnishing Europe with a single article already to talk of the enjoyment of poli, of exchange. The whites, who are intical rights; he aspires to places and adequate to the toils of cultivation even honours. He is listened to, be- under so burning a sun, will quit a cause he begins to be an object of alarm, country where they have been attracted and it is to humour him, as well as to merely by motives of gain; and thus, by raise money, that the court of Spain has means less violent than revolting, the lately granted to the Mulattoes permis, negroes will reign sovereigns in a terrision to purchase the right of wearing tory to which they were originally transepaulettes; a step ratherimpolitic perhaps, ported as slaves. than otherwise, in the present state of Slaves were formerly treated by the things, as the Spanish officer will feel him. Spaniards, with more humanity, than self degraded, the whites in general will any other nation; this character Robe affronted, and it will let the blacks bertson has conceded to them, as an act see the alarm which they inspire

of justice. The Abbé Gregoire confirms An official public census, in 1811 the testimony of the Scotch historian, estimated the number of freemen of remarking, that the most religious people colour at 114,000; that of the slaves ought ever to be the most humane. The amounted to 212,000, forming an aggre- colonists of Cuba were entitled to this gate of 326,000 individuals; the white eulogium, without reserve, so long as population was 274,000; thus, of a hun. they limited their ambition to the reardred heads, the proportion of whites to ing of cattle; then their slaves lived blacks is 45 to 55. The proportion of among them like children of one family; slaves to the emancipated is about 1 but since the island has become an to 2; before the revolution, the propor- asylum to the planters of St. Domingo, tion was 1 to 33, in the French colonies, an insatiable cupidity has succeeded to and 1 to 65, in the English colonies. those moderate sentiments that once The latter, of all the colonial systems, pervaded the colony. The grounds are is undoubtedly the best. But if the now covered with sugar canes and boilend sanctifies the means, and if it be ing houses; upnatural exertions are sound morality to quench the thirst of extorted from the negro, scourge in gold, regardless of the black man's suf- hand; and bloody streams irrigate the ferings, the negroes should be all alike soil from which more is looked for than --and no frightful odds be seen between it is competent to produce, one part in irons, and another at full. It is not the land-owners that in liberty, getting rich by their industry, general are chargeable with cruelty ; it and adding to their stock of intelligence, is very seldom that they reside on their by education.

plantations, which are besides so exThe negroes have one advantage in fensive, that it would be difficult to the Spanish colonies, that a black may get at the knowledge of the ill treatbecome free almost as soon as he wishes ment the negroes are exposed to; it is


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the overseers that do all the mis- tions of pit coal, at Aubin in the dechief, and abuse the poor slaves without partment of the Aveyron, will be intemercy. These officers are here called resting to those who have perused the majorats. It is a truly afflicting spec. account of similar phenomena, near tacle to see these majorats, armed with Wednesbury, in Staffordshire, by Mr. long whips, conducting to their labours, Finch, Miss Hutton, &c. and particularly a score of negroes, with countenances to those who have visited that terrific fallen, and a look that proclaims their district. sensibility of degradation, lashed on one N o province in France, contains such side or the other, to quicken or retard immense beds of pit coal, as that of their speed, and the blood spurting Upper Guienne; now in the department from wounds ever open from daily fus of Aveyron. These beds extend through tigations. I have seen such spectacles, a superficies of more than 63 square petrified with horror. Henceforth I miles. They are uncommonly proshall drop all thoughts of turning planter, ductive, and of very superior quality. and shall try some other way to gain The mineral is found but a very little the temple of fortune.

below the surface, and in such abundThe most terrible of these fustigators ance, that it would require several ages are your Europeans, whom the success to exhaust even the upper parts, and to sive revolutions of the old continent remove entire mountains. More than a have driven into the colonies. You hundred pits have already been opened, cannot well conceive how easily these and no doubts are entertained of finding liberals, who in Europe will have no others equally rich. compromise with principles of any kind, In all the districts where coal pits are enter into terms of composition here. excavated, it has been found, that there You may read in their looks their extra are or have been conflagrations in the vagance of joy, in first getting a planta interior. Geldom is any discovered on tion to govern. Bonaparte was not the exterior surface, especially where more intoxicated, when he placed the the effects produced, (independent of crown on his head. You know that he the alum, lavas, and heated waters,) began with being a leveller; and fortune are so curious, as the varied productions pushed him on, in that grade, to a pretty in the Canton of Aubin. prominent elevation; had he not been The exterior surface of Fontaynes, thus seconded, I may be allowed to presents a spectacle like the Solfatara conjecture, from examples before my of Naples. It is an aggregate of ruins eyes, that he might have become a of substances of every description; no planter, or perhaps not higher than a regular stratum, or layer appears on the simple majorat.

surface of either of these, but the whole I'frequently meet with a Polish co. is a mass of rubbish, ashes, baked clay, lonel who was aid-de-camp to the famous and burnt or vitrified stones. At every Kosciusko, and who received more than step, you meet a precipice, fissures, &c. thirty wounds in defending that noble formed by the subterranean fires, and cause. He lives at the Havannah in from their orifices issue exhalations of high repute; and it is incumbent on me smoke and flames, that in the night to add, that he is not undeserving of may be seen at considerable distances, consideration, as no one is better skilled attended with a stench of sulphur almost in the art of governing. His whip is the insupportable. As on the Solfatara, sceptre he wields, and I can assure you, there are lavas of every different degree that it will not fall from his hands. He of hardness, and clouded with all the is however just; and the firmness of his colours of nature : so on the burnt character does not prevent him from mountain of Fontaynes there are argilbeing a favorite with the negroes.but laceous stones, presenting every known woe to the shoulders of that wretch who modification and gradation of form shall come to implore some concession and colour, that clay is susceptible of, or mitigation! Our Polish patriot has such as slate, schist, quartz, jasper, imbibed a relish for power, and he will iron-dross, &c. Both at Naples and at not be easily persuaded to renounce it. Aubin, the fissures are covered with in

crustations of sulphur, and vitriolic salt, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. ammoniac and aluminous. You meet SIR,

with sublimates in the form of needles, THE following notices, relative to red and glittering, with sulphur and 1 certain subterraneous conflagra- arsenic; also with different combina

tions of all the above salts, and per- tersected with gaps and crevices, like haps several other substances, hitherto Fontaynes, and the Solfatara of Naples. unknown: these minerals are garnished. The fires here have sometimes ocwith the most beautiful colours and casioned explosions, which lasted for diversified forms.

some minutes, accompanied with a The principal difference pervading the report like that of thunder; and then, two mountains, is, that on Fontaynes, with cinders, and all sorts of relics of the red colour of clay, converted to the minerals, large stones would be hurled condition of bricks, is predominant, into the air, of the weight of a quintal, whereas the Solfatara is incrusted with and would fall again, at the distance of the white tinge of lavas reduced to clay. about 1,000 yards: but these explosions

M. Febber and M. Barnillon have are very rare. described the manner, wherein basalts. It would be a misconception to assiand the hardest lavas are turned to clay milate them with those of the volcaon the Solfatara. The burnt mountains noes, that vomit torrents of fire for a of Aubin will best explain another great length of time, scattering flames through phenomenon, how argillous and schist- a vast expanse of air, with burning ous substances assume, not only the ashes and ignited stones, and spread consistence of basalt and lava, but also ing their contents over a surface of that of the hardest vitreous stones, jas- 60 or 90 miles, in fact, inundating whole per and quartz,

regions with aqueous and boiling lavas; How does nature operate by fire then forming hills and vallies, far more phenomena so contrary? Does the fire extensive than all the mines of Aubin of a burnt colliery produce a formation put together; for here the fires are inwhich it destroys on the Solfatara ? cluded within spaces of from 120 to 160

The fire of Fontaynes occupies a yards, and the discharges never extend sloping tract of about 140 yards on beyond five hundred. one side, and sixty on the other; the To the south of the fires, in a newly whole surface thrown up and down, and found quagmire, intersected with a furrowed into crevices, and boggy, or great number of clefts, a subterranean sinking patches. Some eminences are noise has been heard not unlike that composed of all the substances, that of some liquid boiling in a cauldron, the fire has transformed, destroyed, or or that of a distant cascade. altered ; here you see them scattered The neighbouring inhabitants have about, separated, and often united again observed that the fire is much greater in by a cement of baked clay, nearly re- the rainy seasons, and is sure to augsembling that produced by brick dust. ment during the rain. The same phe

The conflagration is moving in its nomenon has been observed at the progress, but slowly, advancing only Solfatara and in burning volcanoes; and on the side of the top of the mountain the same effect takes place after rain in It will extend yet some distance further, the pseudo volcanoes of Staffordshire. as we may judge by the smoke, seen

R. T. to issue from the earth, at the distance of 80 or 100 yards from the burnt To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. part. The writer of this description, SIR, (M. de Richeprey,) mentions his having T HAVE been particularly gratified by traversed the whole area of the burnt la perusal of the remarks of your space, without danger; every step is on Correspondent, W. W. St. Ives, p. 29. solid ground, till you arrive at the edge of your Magazine for February, and I of the crevices, from which the fire intend, with your permission, to comply escapes.

with his invitation. I agree with your By advancing with precaution, you Correspondent, that a comparison of may cast any thing into the crevices; the state of the air, character of the some green wood thrown in, was in- weather, &c. in various parts of the stantly consumed, and a branch of a country will be very interesting, and I tree was found there, remarkable for am persuaded, if accurately communithe manner in which it had become mi- cated, will ultimately much facilitate neralized.

our endeavours in the art (at present in Stones thrown into the crevices, glitter its infancy, perhaps) of prognosticating and sparkle at the points where they atmospheric variations. For several touch in falling. This also takes place years no inconsiderable portion of my at the crater of Vesuvius, which is in. leisure time has been devoted to this


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