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* At Venice, Mr. Murray, the English himself from the mistress of all artminister, and Mr. Smith, the British general and unchangeable Nature. consul, obtained for him the same pri- In his Agrippina we see the Roman vilege of study in the academy of that matron, the grand-daughter of Auguscity.

tus, bearing in her arms the ashes of her In 1792 Mr. West was complimented husband Germanicus, her children by with a diploma as a member by the Phi- her side, the pledges of her husband's losophical Society of Philadelphia. love, and the only object of concern to

In 1779 the Prince of Waldeck ho- her maternal feelings : we see her in the noured him with a gold medal, and a midst of Roman ladies, and surrounded whole length portrait of himself and his by a Roman people, with all their propainter looking at the death of Wolfe, per attributes. which Mr. West painted for that prince. In the Regulus we see the stern and

In the year 1781 the Duke of Cour- inflexible Roman, deaf to all the ties of land complimented him with a gold nature, but that of heroic devotion and medal, and rewarded him with great love to the cause of his country, and liberality for two pictures which he was that in the midst of all that was Roman, commissioned to paint for him; the except the Carthaginians. subjects were, Romeo and Juliet parting In his Wolfe we see a British hero, in the morning, and its companion, the on the heights of Abraham, in North couch scene of King Lear and his America, expiring in the midst of heroes daughter,

and of victory, with all the characterisIn 1786 he became a member of the tics of Britons, in 1759. society established at Boston for the en- In the Penn we see the legislator, couragement of arts and science

with the simplicity and dignity of a man In the year 1802 he was, without any administering justice to others, and difprevious knowledge, elected a member fusing his bounties in the midst of saof the National Institute at Paris, in the vage tribes, and disarming their ferocity department of fine arts.

by his rectitude and benevolence. In the year 1804 he was appointed a In the picture of Alexander the Third, member of the Academy of Arts at New king of Scotland, attacked by a stag, we York.

remark a Scottish people, fierce and In his first discourse to the Royal brave in rescuing their king from the Academy on his being chosen president, threatened danger. (a discourse which he permitted to be In the picture of Moses receiving the published) he lamented, when in Italy, law on Mount Sinai, we see the Jewish to observe the decline of the art of sages with humility in the presence of painting in that country. The more he God, whilst their lawgiver, with a coninvestigated the cause of such degene- scious firmness, raises the tables into racy, contrasted with the glory and heaven for the signature of the Deity. splendour of the art a century and a In the picture of Cressy and Poictiers half before, the more inclined was he to we behold the juvenile hero, his paterimpute it not only to the imbecile and nal sovereign, and the nobles with their corrupt taste of the patrons, but to the heroic vassals, in proud triumph, their selfish manner of inculcating the prin- gothic banners waving in the wind; and ciples of the art by those professors who in the battle of Poictiers we behold the elevated themselves to the dignity of same hero, with manly demeanour, re-, masters, and erected their petty schools ceiving the vanquished king, expressing in every town and city. The professor an air of weleome, and treating him was almost always the disciple of some more as a visitor than as a captive. such school as that over which he pre- ' In the picture of St. Paul shaking the sided, and was retailing manner after viper from his finger, in the chapel at manner, till the whole sunk into man Greenwich, we see that apostle unnerism and insipidity:

shaken in the midst of bands of armed It was the duty of Mr. West, in the Roman soldiers, and the poisonous repstation which he filled, to reprobate this tile hanging to his hand : the multitude mannerism, as well by precept as ex- of men, women, and children, cast on ample; and it becomes us to remark shore by the wreck of the ship, bespeaks that, in the productions of his own the deplorable situation of such a mixpencil, he has imitated no master, but ture of sex and ages, composed of Jews, been content to draw his knowledge Romans, and islanders. from a higher fountain, and instruct I n the picture of the Battle of La MONTHLY MAG. No. 338.

2 H

Hogue, tory.

Hogue, we see all that marked the cou- the works of a man verging on his rage of the English and the Dutch on eightieth year. Of this circumstance the memorable event of that sea vic- he was proud; and he often quoted

the old age of Titian and Michael AnIn the Interview between Calypso gelo, evidently hoping that the renown and Telemachus on the sea-shore of of his own old age would thus be renOgygia, the passion, character, and pro- dered equal to theirs. priety are equally preserved. The as- These feelings resulted however from tonishment of Telemachus at the sight the enthusiasm with which he cultiof the majestic goddess and her nymphs vated his art, and not from vanity. Of is pourtrayed so masterly in the counte- all men he was the most modest. He nance of the young Ithacan, that the was the last person in his own painting beholder reads his whole course of room, surrounded by his finest producthoughts upon the canvas.

tions, whom you would have taken for In the picture of Cicero and the Ma- the illustrious artist. His self-love was gistrates of Syracuse ordering the tomb subdued by his love for his art; and of Archimedes to be cleared from the having been educated a Quaker, though wood and bushes that obscured it, all is he retained none of their peculiarities, classical and appropriate in the design, he possessed their better traits of gravity the character, and the grouping

of manner, and sincerity of expression. In the picture of Phaeton receiving He lived much in courts, yet in polifrom Apollo his last commands how to tics he was an unfeigned republican; govern the chariot of the Sun, the bold- and though President of the Royal Acaness of the ambitious youth is sublimely demy, he suffered the frowns of royalty contrasted with the parental solicitude owing to the honesty with which he of Apollo. All the images of the poet never failed to express his abhorrence of are upon the canvas; the swift Hours all the wars in which, in his time, it harnessing the horses, and leading the was the ill-fortune of his patron to enfiery steeds with their silken reins; the gage. He belonged to the court, therepalace, the chariot, the four seasons, the fore, without being a courtier, and orzodiac, all have their place, their charac- namented the palace of residents, whose ters, and attributes: in one place we be- public policy he constantly and freely hold the rosy-fingered morn unbarring contemned. He was, in a word, supethe gates of light (the Pododakludos Nôs); •rior as an artist to all his contemporaries, in another the hoary, shivering winter, amiable in private life, liberal to rising the green spring, the plenteous summer, artists of merit, and modest in his adand the autumn---“ madidus uvis.dress and conversation; while he was ne

In the pictures from the Revelations, ver debauched by the smiles of courts and of Death on the pale horse, and the the personal confidence of royalty, to overthrow of the old beast and false swerve from his principles,or compromise prophet, the imagination is on the wings the truth. The writer of this knew him of fancy, and the indiscriminate ravages well, and though he loved and respected of Death are every where seen under him, as much as any public man of his appropriate characters. In the destruc- time, yet he never met with any one, tion of the old beast, the swiftness of who also knew him, who did not enterthe divine agents passes like lightning, tain for him similar feelings. and all is overwhelmed.

He died at his house in NewmanHis great picture of Christ Rejected street, where he lived for half a cenhas been already fully described in this tury, in the 82d year of his age, after a miscellany, and it will for ages rank severe illness of many months. His fuamong the finest productions of art. neral was public, and was splendidly atBoth the latter are more wonderful as tended.

THE BRITISH MUSEUM.

IVe have great satisfaction, in being enabled to lay before our readers, the following

Original Letters of our illustrious English Mathematician.
NEWTON to SIR HANS SLOAN. to call a Council, on Saturday next, at twelve

Wednesday Noon. o'clock, and beg the favour, that you would TAM glad Sir Christopher and Mr. Wren send it to him by the porter who brings you

I like the house, and hope they like the this. I am, sir, your most bumble servant, price also, I have inclosed a note to Mr. Hunt,

Is. NEWTON,

SIR, SIR,

SIR,

Thursday Night. put into an expectation of what perhaps Lady Betty Gayer being engaged for to- they are never like to have, I do not love morrow, and at liberty on Munday or Tues to be printed upon every occasion, much less day, I beg the favour that we may wait to be decerned and teazed by foreigners upon you, on either of those days, at twelve about mathematical tbings, or to be thought o'clock, and that you will let us know by our people to be triflingt away my time which of those two days you can be most at about them, when I should be about the leisure. -I am, your most humble servant, king's business. Had, therefore, I desired

Is. NEWTON. Dr. Gregory to write to Dr. Wallis against Jermin Street,

printing that clause, which related to that Monday, Sept. 17, 1705.

theory, and mentioned me about it. DR.

You My Lord Halifax, the A.B. of Dublin, and may let the world know, if you please, how Mr. Roberts, are out of town, and therefore

well you are stored with observations of all 1 desire that Mr. Hawksbee's shewing his

sorts, and what calculations you have made experiments bere, may be put off for a while.

towards rectifying the theories of the hea

venly motions. But there may be casesg I am, sir, your most humble servant,

wherein your friends should not be published Is. NEWTON.

without their leave. And, therefore, I hope 'DR. Jermin Street, Sept. 14.

you will so order the matter, that I may not I beg the favour of you to get Mr. Hawks.

on this occasion be brought upon the stage, bee to bring his air-pump to my house, and

I am, your humble servant, Is. Newton. then I can get some philosophical persons to Dr. Flamstead to Sir Isaac Newton, in see his experiments, who will otherwise be

answer to the preceding. difficultly got together. But first, now when My Lord P. can be at leisure, and let me Your's, dated Jermin Street, June 6, know the time, and let Mr, Hawksbee bring arrived last night, the 9th, with the his air-pump that evening by o porter, and

general post mark and charge upon it, as I will give him two guineas for his pains. if it had come from some place, less than I am, your humble servant,

eighty miles from London; I waited for it For Dr. Sloan.

Is. Newton. from the 2d to the 7th instant, Saturday SIR,

night, and then wrote to Dr. Wallis, that I thank you for giving me timely notice I thought he needed not take any notice of of the Caveat, I think we should stick Dr. Gregory's letter to him, to forbear printat no charge for defending the legacy. ing that clause in mine, wherein I had menWhat money shall be wanting for this tioned you, since you took no notice of two purpose, I'll advance till the council shall of mine I had wrote to you that week be called. If you should see Dr. Harwood concerning it, which made me think, you before me, pray desire him to have an eye thought it not worth your while to concern upon this matter. I do not know the method yourself about it; now I find you did desire of proceeding in these cases, but he can tell Dr. Gregory to write so to him, I shall write us. I will take the first opportunity to inform to him myself to alter that passage, so as he myself of what is to be done.

first advised, and so as I believe you will I am, your most humble obt. Servt.

find no just cause of offence in it. My letter For Dr. Hans Sloan, B. Is. Nowson. goes to him this night, the altered paragraph SIR,

Tuesday Night. you have at the foot of this letter; I did not My Lord Pembrook has appointed Thurs. think I could have disobliged you by letting day, a little before six in the afternoon, to the world know, that the King's Observaintroduce us to the Prince, and therefore tory had furnished you with 150 places of I beg the favour that you would be in the the moon, derived from observations here Anti-chamber on ye Prince's side, about a made, and compared with tables, in order quarter before six, where you will meet me to correct her theory, (not to seem to boast,) and others of ye Society.

I said nothing of what more it has furnished I am, your most humble servant, you freely with, as I had leisure, and Mr.', Dr. Sloan.

ISAAC NEWTON. Halley has not stuck to tell it abroad, both

Bibl. Sloan, 4054 at the society and elsewhere, that you had Sir Isaac Newton to Mr. Flamstead.

compleated her theory and given it to him as SIR, Jermin-street, Jan. 6, 1698-9. a secret, I could not think you would be Upon hearing occasionally, that you unwilling our nation should have the honour had sent a letter to Dr. Wallis about the parallax of the fixed stars to be printed; Was Mr. Newton a trifler when he read and that you had mentioned me therein with mathematics for a salary at Cambridge? respect to the theory of the moon, I was Surely, Astronomy is of some good ise, concerned to be publicly brought upon the though his place be more beneficial.-lvid. stage about what perhaps will never be I I know what I have to do without bis fitted for the public, and thereby the world telling.--Ibid.

§ Where persons think too well of them• When Mr. Halley boasts 'tis done and selves to acknowledge they are beholden to given him as a secret, 'tells the society so , those who have furnished them with the and foreigners. See Mr. Colson's letter to feathers they pride themselves in, when they me.-Flamstead.

have great Fr. &c.Bibl. Birch, 4292.

of

of furnishing you with so many, and good you resided at Cambridge, it's property is observations for this work, as were not, not altered, I think it has produced some(I speak it without boasting) to be bad else. thing considerable already, and may do more, where ; or that it should be said, you were if I can procure health to work up the obabout a work, which others said you had servations I have under my hands, which is perfected, I thought it could not be any di one of the designs of my letter to Dr. Wallis, minution to you, since you pretend not to be was to move for, I doubt not but it will be an observer yourself. I thought it might of some use to your ingenious travellers and give some people a better notion of what sailors, and other persons that come after was doing here, than had been impressed me, will think their time as little mispent in upon them by others, whom God forgive. these studies, as those that have gone before You will pardon me this freedom, and ex- me. The works of the eternal providence, cuse me when I tell you, that if foreigners I bope will be a little better understood dun and trouble you, 'tis not my fault, but through your labours and mine, than they those who think to recommend themselves to were formerly. Tbink me not proud for you, by advancing the fame of your works this expression, I look on pride as the worst as much as they possibly cap. I have some of sins, humility as the greatest virtues. times told some ingenious men, that more This makes me cxcuse small faults in all time and observations are required to per. mankind, bear great injuries, without refect the theory, but I found it was repre. sentment, and resolve to maintain a real sented as a little piece of detraction wbich friendship with ingenious men, to assist I hate, and therefore was forced to be silent. them, what lies in my power, without the I wonder that hint should drop from your regard of any interest, but that of doing pen, as if you looked upon my business as good by obliging them.- Bibl. Birch, 4292. trifling ; you thought it not so surely, when January 10, 1698-9.

CORNUCOPIA. PARSON, (ETYMOLOGY OF.)* ner. And with us, in England, brewers DARSON, (persona.) A clergyman and bakers, convicted of transgressing

1 is so called, says Blackstone, * be- the laws, were of yore ducked in stercore, cause by his person, the church, which stinking water, as were also, it is said, is an invisible body, is represented; and common prostitutes.* Whenever it is he is in himself a body corporate, in order practicable, it is also generally exercised to protect and defend the rights of the by our populace on those offenders vulchurch (which he personates) by a per- garly styled pick-pockets. And our saipetual succession.t

lors are not upfrequently punished by This is a very plausible, and has been being thrown from the top of the mainthe generally received and accredited mast-yard into the sea, having sometimes derivation of the term parson ever since a cannon-ball tied to them, to expedite Sir Edward Coke wrote, and perhaps their descent. before, and, I believe, has never yet been

This singular and summary mode of questioned ; nevertheless, it is erroneous, punishment, however, is not in any of for he is disignated parson (persona), be

the cases mentioned now sanctioned by cause he is required, in his own proper

law, nor, is it presumed, can it be put person, to administer the sacraments, in force legally in any case except for the and to officiate at the holy, altar.

offence of being a common scold. For Ducking an Ancient Punishment, and Oric which, if convicted, the offender is to be gin of that Word.

placed in a certain engine of correction, Ducking was anciently a common le- called a cucking stool,t in the Saxon gal mode of punishment for various of- language, said to signify a scolding-school, fences, in this and other countries, and and when therein, to be repeatedly plunged is customarily inflicted in certain cases at in the water. I the present day.

The name of this engine, by an easy At Marseilles and Bourbon, vagrants formerly were condemned to the cale,

* Encyclop. Londin. Art. Castigatory. that is, to be shut up in an iron cage,

,' + Mr. Morgan, who edited an edition of

age; Jacob's Law Dict. mentions therein, that he fastened to the yard of a chaloupe, and

remembers to have seen the remains of one ducked in the river. At Thoulouse, blas

of these engines on the estate of a relative phemers were punished in the same man- of his in Warwickshire, consisting of a long

beam, or rafter, moving on a fulchrum, * The article in the present No, under this

and extending to the centre of a large pool, head, having been communicated under the on which end the stool used to be placed. title of Blackstoniana.

#3 Inst. 219. 1 Hawk. P.C. 198. 200. † Comm. 3. p. 384. Co. Litt. 300. 4 Comm. 169.

orthographical

orthographical transmutation, has been vernment, by disarming the bulk of the corrupted into ducking-stool ; and, from people," which last, (he observes,) is a its being so often used in ducking offend- reason oftener meant than avowed by the ers gave rise, it is submitted to our word makers of forest or game laws." for the act of immersion, which, I con- Mr. Professor Christian (edit. of the ceive, is more probable than that it Comm. and author of a Treatise on the should be derived (according to the ge- Game Laws, however, maintains a connerally, yet ludicrously formed opinion,) trary opinion; and, in a note appended from observing the natural inclination of to the above cited passage of Blacka duck, when in water, of frequently, stone, says, “I am inclined to think that but momentarily dipping its head. this reason did not operate upon the

Ambassador's Children born Abroad. minds of those who framed the game 6. The children of the king's ambassa- laws of this country; (for in several andors born abroad,” Blackstone observes, * cient statutes the avowed object is to en“were always held to be natural born courage the use of the long, the most efsubjects."

fective armour then in use.) This assumption of the learned com- To evince clearly that their reason supmentator is expressed in too general posed and laid down by Blackstone did terms, and which the reported case he operate upon the framers of our game quotest does by no means warrant. It laws, I need only refer (to an authority only says, “If any of the king's ambas- indisputable) their own repeated, and sadors in foreign nations have children explicitly avowed declarations. By the there of their wives, being Englishwomen, first qualification act, it is recited in by the common law of England, they the preamble, “that divers artificers, laare natural born subjects.” And this is bourers, servants, and grooms, keep agreeable to the stat. 25 Edw. 3. st. 2. greyhounds and dogs, and, on the holiwhich requires both the parents of chil- days, when good Christian people be at dren born abroad to be at the time of the church hearing divine service, they go a birth in allegiance to the king in order hunting in parks and warrens, and conto entitle them to the privilege of natu- nigrees of lords and others, to the very ral born subjects. And it also accords great destruction of the same, and somewith the ancient maxim of the common times under such colour they make their law (of late much disregarded) partes ussemblies, conferences, and conspiracies, sequiter ventrem.t

for to rise and disobey their allegiance: it The law upon this subject has been is, therefore, ordained, that no artificer, considerably altered by modern statutes, labourer, or other laymen, which hath for which, see Bl. Comm. 2. 1. p. 373, not lands or tenements to the value of n, b.

forty shillingsg by the year, nor any Game Laws, Engines of Tyranny, (Vin- priest, to the value of ten pounds, shall

dication of Blackstone, und refutation of keep any dogs, nets, nor engines, &c. Christian.)

The statute of 1 Hen. 7. c. 7. has a The game laws, (as they are called,) similar, but much stronger recital and have, in all ages and countries, been ob- enactment; and, therefore, I should conjects of the secret, and sometimes ceive, that we may properly conclude in avowed detestation and aversion of the opposition to the learned professor, that bulk of the people, and with reason, for the fourth reason mentioned by Black they have generally originated in the stone did operate upon the minds of reigns of weak or tyrannical princes, and those who framed the game laws of this been enacted for the purpose of destroy- country. ing, not only the natural liberties of mankind, but to rivet the galling fetters of

• Warburton's Alliance, 324. unlimitted passive obedience and non-re

† I have cited the whole of Mr. Christian's sistance. Of this opinion was Blackstone

note; but the part within brackets, has no

thing to do with the point in issue, but it as to the game laws of this country, who,

10; also might be successfully refuted.

a in his observations thereon remarks, f 13 Ric. 2. c. 13. which I call a qualifithat many reasons have concurred for cation Act in compliance with common making constitutions respecting game, speech. and after enumerating three, he adds a 's Forty shillings, in the reign of Rich. 2. fourth, viz. “ for preventon of popular may be considered equivalent to a very coninsurrections and resistance to the go- siderable at the present time, (see Bishop

Thetwood's Chronicon Petriosum), and, of * Comm. v. 1. p. 373.

course; could not be in the annual receipt of + Calvin's Case, 7. Rep. 18.

the bulk of the people who would therefore Comm. v. 2. p. 411-12.

come within this Act.

Ineligibility

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