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must necessarily be less exact: those, presents a regular or uniform appearhowever, here related, do not require the ance. At the commencement of winter, aid of very minute investigation; and when congelation has taken place to the being made without reference to any depth of a few inches, the occurrence of pre-conceived theory, their accuracy may a strong wind will cause it to break up, be more safely relied upon. The circum- and separate into smaller pieces of a stance of evaporation taking place, from tabular form, which being driven into snow and ice, when the cold is below confused heaps by the waves, become the freezing point of water, apparently disposed edgewise, forming various anwithout the degree of heat necessary to gles with the general surface of the lake. liquefy it previous to its conversion into These tabular pieces or slabs of ice, vapour, is already familiar to natural cemented by the frost in the positions philosophers; the extent to which this described, are exposed freely to the attakes place cannot be ascertained in this mosphere during the continuance of climate, where the thermometer seldom winter; and I observed the angles in all indicates for any considerable time a tem of them to be rounded off, and apparently perature below 32o. Fahrenheit. At the eroded by the atmosphere in a degree time of my residence in America, I was proportioned to the length of time they not informed that any observations had had been exposed. Some of them, on been made on the subject, and conse- which I made more particular observaquently remarked the phenomena with tion, in the winter of 1813, decreased more attention. I shall, in the first considerably, becoming thinner and instance, relate the circumstances which more transparent. directed my attention to the subject; These observations induced me the and then give a short detail of an expe- succeeding winter to make the following riment made with a view of elucidating experiment. On the 28th of November, the appearances I had observed.
1814, being at that time about the midIn America, as in Russia, it is the dle of the eastern coast of Lake Wecustom to preserve meat in a frozen nepie, in latitude 52° N. I hung up state during the winter. Meat thus pre- in an open shed, where it was freely served, I remarked to be less juicy than exposed to the air, but where the sun such as was recently killed; and on had no access, a flat slate of ice about weighing a definite quantity of recently two inches thick, which weighed accukilled meat, and the same meat again rately in the steelyards twenty lbs.after a two months' exposure to the air in To ensure accuracy no one but myself the coldest season of the year, I found a had admission into the building. On very considerable deficiency. I observed the 14th of February it had sustained a also, that wet clothes hanging out on the loss of seventeen ozs. the highest tempelines, in a few hours, became dry and rature in the interval, being 23° above supple, notwithstanding the thermo- Zero. As the loss of weight was more meter at the time indicated a tempera- . considerable than I had expected, I again ture many degrees below Zero. It is a weighed it on the 20th of the same remark very generally made, in the part month, and found the deficiency twenty where I resided, and I am inclined, ozs.; the highest temperature from the from my own observation, to think it 14th to the 20th, being 140 above Zero. correct, that the snow diminishes much Beyond this time the experiment was in the winter months without the aid of not so satisfactory, the thermometer liquefaction. Observations of this kind having indicated on the 26th and 28th are made with greater accuracy than days of February a temperature of might be supposed, as generally speak- 360 for upwards of two hours each ing the most considerable falls of snow day: no dropping, however, took take place early in the season, mid place from the ice, nor could I perceive winter being characterised by a conti- the least moisture upon it. In March nuation of clear cold weather without the thermometer was uniformly below the occurrence of any considerable falls. the freezing point of water; the average The circumstance, however, which more temperature in the middle of the day immediately directed my attention to being 140 above Zero. On the 7th day the subject, was an appearance observed of that month the ice had lost 21 lbs. on the ice of Lake Wenepie, on the and on the 31st, beyond which time the borders of which I was then resident.- experiment was not continued, its total This extensive piece of water is always loss was 4lbs. or a fifth part of its weight. frozen over to a considerable depth in My next experiment was on snow, the winter ; but its surface by no means which for the purpose of securing a free admission to the atmosphere l inclosed in it appears evident that water can exist folds of crape. The snow and its cover in a state of vapour by the aid of caloric ing weighed on the 16th of February only, no atmospheric air or other gaseous thirty ozs. It was hung up in the solvent being present: it is also, I think, same place, and with the same precau- equally evident that the atmosphere at tions as the ice. In ten days it had lost reduced temperatures is capable of comtwo ozs, and in the nine following days bining with ice either without the detwo ozb. more. On the 14th of March, the gree of calorie necessary to its liquefaccrape through the whole process remain- tion, or by exciting so strong an affinity ing perfectly dry, its total loss was six for water in the manner before alluded ozs. or a fifth part of its weight in twenty- to, as to absorb and retain a portion of six days,
it in a fluid state, notwithstanding the When we consider that the ice and degree of cold existing at the time. It snow in these experiments were not ex- appears to me, that each of these operaposed to the sun, and that the wind tions takes place in the chemistry of had but partial access to them, it can nature, and that the true theory of the scarcely be doubted that the diminution atmospherical vapour is to be found in a was not equal to what it would have combination of the two theories, which been in a more exposed situation. Ad- for some time have engaged the attention mitting, however, the grand operations of chemists. of nature to be only effected in the In all temperatures above 32° Fahrendegree which took place in the above heit, water may be conceived to be taken imperfect experiment, the cause of the into the atmosphere partly by the diminution, whatever it be, must have agency of caloric, and partly by a very a powerful agency in regulating the weak affinity excited between it and state of the atmosphere, and highly the air; this loose state of combination deserves the attention of those whose is highly favourable to vegetation, as the pursuits are directed to that department nearer the atmosphere approaches to the of science.*
point of saturation, its precipitations of The origin of the atmospherical dew or rain will be more abundant. vapour, and the manner in which it is In temperatures below 32°, and the acquired by the air, have been the ob- supposition is rendered more propable jects of much discussion amongst natural by the experiments of Bettancourt, philosophers, but I am not aware that caloric seems to have no power of proany explanation has been given of the ducing the vaporisation of water : it is, diminution of ice under the circum however, abundantly evident from the stances observed in the foregoing expe experiments on ice before mentioned, riments. The opinion of Dalton and that air at these reduced temperatures Saussure, that caloric only is the cause has the property of taking it up; and as of the atmospherical vapour, must, I an opinion I would wish to suggest (for think, be materially discredited by the I am not aware of any experiments facts alluded to: nor is the explanation which either confirm or refute it) is it afforded by the opposite theory of vapo- not possible that this solvent property risation being produced by an affinity of the air may increase in a direct ratio between the atmospherical gases and with its privation of caloric? The water without its difficulties, as it is not following circumstances, if they do not easy to conceive how solution by the air prove the opinion correct, will at least can take place without the ice being shew it to be not altogether improbable. previously liquefied by caloric. Perhaps, That the atmosphere when its tempehowever, this circumstance may be ex rature is below Zero has a strong attracplained, by supposing the affinity be. tion for water, is evident from the dense tween air and water to be so strong as exhalations which are seen to arise at to occasion the ice by a kind of dispo- those times from such parts of rivers, or sing affinity to attract the degree of lakes, as remain unfrozen, a circumstance caloric necessary to its liquefaction, from which frequently takes place where the an atmosphere even at the reduced tem- current is strong, or the depth of water perature of that in which the experiments very considerable. What, however, I were made. From a review of the in- more particularly wish to urge, is, that genious experiments made by Dalton, these exhalations increase in density,
and apparently in quantity, in propor* The author's ingenious theory of eva.
tion to the coldness of the air. I have poration resulting from the above observa never seen the particular kind of exhations will be given in cur next.
lation to which I at present allude,
when the thermometer indicated a tem mentioned. Instead of the gradual and perature above 3° Fahrenheit, but they perpetual accumulation of snow and ice invariably take place when the tem- which some have imagined to be conperature is below that point, as far stantly taking place in those regions, as my observation goes, and without and rendering them inaccessible to being influenced by the varying weight mankind, we see a power continually at of the atmosphere. These mists or ex. work, which must certainly materially halations are so copious that from the retard such an accumulation; and perunfrozen ocean, or any other extensive haps, when better understood, and when surface of water, they have the appear- those regions shall be more perfectly ance of dense white clouds, very little explored, may be found adequate to preshaded, driven before the winds, or vent them altogether, or at least to prerising perpendicularly, and at length vent their acquiring a magnitude and dissolving in the atmosphere. When weight, inconsistent perhaps with the the weather is extremely cold, their general welfare and safety of the globe. density is so great as to resemble that Dec. 6, 1819. Geo. HOLDSWORTH. arising from lime when water is thrown 53, Upper Mary-le-bone-st. upon it -The air at very low temperatures is remarkably dry, containing no To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. water in a loose state of combination, SIR, or such as is held in solution by caloric T has often been wisely, though peronly. Assuning as correct the prin- haps somewhat quajntly observed, ciple on which Mr. Leslie has formed that "there is a Providence in every his hygrometer, that the dryer the air is thing." This fact has, of late, received the quicker evaporation is conducted- most pleasing and ample confirmation, a principle which was, I believe, in the in the numerous benevolent Institutions first instance advanced by Dalton, an and Societies to which the ignorance, atmosphere under those circumstances the vices, and the bodily wants of a will have a much stronger attraction for great portion of our fellow-creatures water than an atmosphere at higher have given rise. temperatures surcharged with the va. To their Ignorance are we indebted, pours formed by caloric.-Besides the as a first motive for the establishment arguments already stated in support of of numerous Schools, in which learning this opinion, it may be remarked that may be acquired at a comparatively the solvent properties of any gaseous trifling expence. Their Vices have body, and of some fluid bodies, will called forth soine of the very best feelincrease in proportion to their degree ings of our nature, and the exercise of of condensation. Setting aside barome- the bighest and noblest of the Christian trical pressure, for of that unfortunately Virtues; whilst the Physical wunts of I had no opportunity of making obser- the Poor have elicited Charities, and vations, the mere abstraction of caloric called into action principles in numefrom the atmosphere will cause a very rous quarters, where they might other. material diminution in its bulk, by wise have lain dormant. In fact, Mr. which means a greater weight of air will Editor, we may almost say, the Poor be brought to act at once on the ice; have been their own almoners; and and the opposition which its elasticity even their very frailties have catered forms to its combination with other for their own amelioration; in all this substances will be much lessened. I think I perceive the hand of Him who,
Sensible that many arguments may “from seeming evil still educes good.” he brought against this hypothesis, and Numerous, however, as are the means being by no means assured of its of relief to the Poor, the sluices of accuracy, it is with extreme diffidence benevolence have not yet been all openthat I have ventured to suggest it. The ed ; and it is under this impression that facts, however, mentioned in this paper I beg leave, through the medium of may be entirely depended upon; and I your Miscellany, to draw the attention shall be extremely happy to see them of the opulent public, “particularly converted to a better purpose by the that portion of the British public whom ingenuity of others. Regarding the Mr. Led yard, in bis beautiful Poem, on facts, however, as unquestionable, it the character of the Fair Sex, describes, . must, I think, be evident that the snow asm and ice in the arctic regions are contin Alive to every tender feeling. ually undergoing a material diminution
To deeds of mercy ever prone,
The wounds of pain and sorrow healing by the constant operation of the cause
With soft compassion's sweetest tone, MONTHLY MAG. No. 237. .
to the present very diminished use of hand of encouragement to their less Straw Hats and British Lace. Owing to affluent fellow-countrywomen, this circumstance, numberless are the Amongst these Ladies, I am proud to poor women and families now in a state notice the names of their Royal Highof the utmost distress, who have here- nesses the Duchesses of Gloucester and tofore derived subsistence and comfort York, the Duchesses of Rutland, Welfrom their industry in these particular lington, and Leeds, the Marchionesses of branches of manufacture. It gives me, Salisbury, Stafford, and Worcester, the however, sincere satisfaction to have Countesses of Harcourt, Jersey, and authority to inform you that this sub- Grosvenor, the Honourable Mrs. Villiers, ject has already roused the sympathies the Honourable Mrs. Wellesley Pole, of several distinguished ladies of the &c. &c. &c. And I mention this cirhighest rank and influence in the cumstance merely that by giving circucountry, who have most patriotically lation to the gratifying fact, others may and benevolently resolved to give en- be induced to “ go and do likewise.” couragement to a design for removing Ludgate-Street. WILLIAM COBSTON. this great evil, and to hold forth the
But borne on Homer's eagle wing, A Dithyrambic (de, inscribed to Sir Above the wrecks of time be flies, FRANCIS BURDETT.
Whilst rayish'd worlds new garlands bring By William Duckett, of Paris. To weave the crown that Heroes prize.
In vain I seek midst former kings,
A subject worthy of my lyre,
No great, no gen'rous virtues fire. Who seated near th' eternal throne,
Here Idiot folly fills the throne, At Nature's birth was heard to play,
Or worse ambition rules the state, When o'er the deep resplendent shone
There robb’d, insulted nations groan, The glad’ning beams of orient day,
Beneath the scepter's iron weight. When the great Workman, unconfin'd, Where-e'er I turn th’indignant eye Into their spheres the planets hurl'd,
New scenes of perjur'd fraud surprise And of their orbs compos'd a world,
Unpunish'd crimes for vengeance cry, The transcript of the first, great mind. Nor justice yet absolves the skies. ANT' 1.
ANT' 11. Inspir'd by thee, with hands of fire,
'Midst marshy wastes and barren sands, Isaiah struck the prophet-Lyre,
Where Potsdam rears its marble pride, When greatly mov'd at Sion's woes,
There solemn faith the royal bands His soul, by mistic visions led,
O'er Fredric's tomb in friendship tied! To Fancy's wildest numbers rose,
Th’affrighted ghost with horror hears And sung the tears Jehovah shed !
The vows that royal lips disgrace, Spurning the earth with eagle might,
The conscious marble melts in tears, From Dirce's streams the Theban swan
And injur'd honour veils her face! To higher regions urg'd his flight, .
And thou, Niemen, canst declare, And soar'd,-beyond the reach of man!
The little faith that monarchs sbare ; O should a spark of thy pure flame,
When o'er thy wond'ring streams appear'd, That once inspired the mighty dead,
The chief, like Mars, in battle fear'd, Darting thro’ all my labʼring frame,
With Europe's laurels on his brow! Its glowing, buruing influence shed!
Resolv'd the toils of war to end, Then boldly o'er the sounding Lyre,
Russia deserts a falling friend,
And cowardly abjures his vow!
If led by Fancy o'er tbe plains,
Where war in all its fury reigns,
And slaughter'd armies heav'n arraign ;
Nor worth, nor talents conquest yield,
Nor active genius wins the field,...
'Tis chance and gold that battles gain. What laurel'd chief, what scepter'd king,
Behold the Hero of the day;
What virtues sanctify his name,
No act of glory can repay A short, inglorious race had run,
Whole years of barter'd, ill-earn’d fame! :: Nor sav'd from death Achilles' name : Lid e'er bis heart wiiü pily meltins
At crimes that vengeance would reprove, And lawless tyrants feel, tho late,
Blood only can-blood expiate!
The Poet's and thy name shall live!
Feathery showers from Winter's throne,
To make her bosom white;
Wbile passing night's lone dream,
And whom she loves, for this she tells
By the smile of her pure beam,
The gentlest form of Winter's power,
Minstrel'd from the polar star,
Resting on tree and blade and flower
Like one that comes from far;
On whom the frosty wind displays
The beauty of his breath,
And whom he loves, for be delays
To preserve that form from death.
Crisp'd into stars of crystalline
Over vales and mountains driven,
The Sun beholds them and they shine
Like orbs surrounding Heaven;
Then, in a moment's beat, they melt
To lucid rivers ;-- aye,
Like joys the human heart hath felt
Which in tears dissolve away! And all her influence fires my breast !
J. R. PRIOR. So she inspire, let Phæbus dwell By me uncall'd in Delphic cell,
CONTENT. And apinvoked th’ Aonian train
- tibi sit nostro de rure corona On Helicon or Pindus reign!
Spicea, quæ templi pendeat ante fores.
Is there peace in the bosom Ambition inspires ? Thy voice, O Freedom! arts obey,
Can heroes who triumph in War, While man a prouder visage rears,
Love the groans of the slain from Remem. No clouds obscure his life's bright day ;
brance's wires, For man bis maker's image wears.
Or smile on the cheek with a scar? No cause for war state-wrongs afford,
They may revel and glare And madding Nations sheath the sword :
In the luxuries of care Yo breast with rage is seen to glow,
To absorb the intrusions which conscience Nor man can find in man a foe;
compels; In friendly league the world delights,
But they know not the rest And mutual bliss the bond unites :
That presides in the breast No tyrant kings disgrace the throne,
Of Content, wherein virtue with peacefulness And even the name of king's unknown!
dwells. Nor tbou, BURDETT! disdain the praise, Be the ruler a despot fear'd over the land, The unbought praise, the Bard bestows; Be the Statesman as Hercules nerv'd, Accept the meed he freely pays,
Be the mitre, the lawn, and the cassock and Spontaneous from the heart it flows.
band To scorn the paths you nobly tread,
Like the flowers of a nosegay preserv'd ; Let no base, courtly boon engage ;
They are still of that train 'Twas for that cause a Sydney bled
Which engenders its pain O prove the Hampden of the age !.
As they roll in the chariots of fashion away ; In thee, his free, unconquer'd mind
And they know not the sweets And all his sacred soul we find :
Of those placid retreats In thee, his virtues stand confess'd
Which Content shall secure to the hearts of And fire with equal flame thy breast! .
her sway. Like him, tby injur'd country's friend, How I dream of repose in Eternity's spheres, : Avenge her wrongs, her rights defend; : For I feel it an exquisite joy Beneath the sword her sons have bled, .. Where existence is sweetend for myriads of Iet justice strike the guilty head, i
. years in