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the author trusts that he may not be “ In ability I will yield to many, in zeal supposed to have written this pam- to none; and if I have not served the public phlet for the purpose of opposing or

cause more than many men, this at least I thwarting any measures of a wise legis

may say, I have sacrificed as much to it.

Do you repent of that sacrifice? If I am lative government, or of throwing any

asked, I answer, No. Who could repent hindrance in the way of cultivation :

of a sacrifice to truth and honour, to a but, on the contrary, let it be supposed

country that he loves, and to a country (for such is the fact) that a warm attach

that is grateful ? Do you repent of it? ment to the fair promotion of agriculture, No. But I should not rejoice in it, if and a due submission to the authorities it were only to be attended with a private of the land, are his chief pride and pro- deprivation, and not to be accompanied by fession; and that these remarks, the re- all its gains to my country. I have a pecusult of a deliberate consideration, were

liar right, therefore, to be solicitous and published with the hope that they might ardent about the issue of it, and no man shall be the means of showing the disadvanof showing the dicoduon stop me in my progress.”

These extracts, not selected, are proofs tages which are inseparable from the

of the power and virtue of his sentiexecution of the scheme in question, as well as the evils that would attend it,

ments. Whatever remains of such a however beneficial the plan might be to

man belongs to the people; they have

therefore a right to enquire why the mathe instigators of it.

nuscripts of Henry Flood, transferred to To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

Sir Lawrence Parsons, now the Earl of

Ross, have not appeared. When Sir L. SIR, | BEG leave to inquire, through the

Parsons received the deposit, he was

a violent oppositionist ; now he is a medium of your miscellany, when

joint post-master of Ireland. Can this the world may expect to see the works

alteration in his Lordship's situation of the late Henry Flood published.That he left manuscripts prepared for

affect the suppression ? Surely correct the press is generally believed. He, as

copies of Mr. Flood's speeches remain, it is known through the empire, was the

for he was not accustomed to speak on great ornament of the Irish House of

important topics without preparation. Commons. Inheriting a large patrimo

To the higher faculties Mr. Flood nial estate, he devoted himself to poli

added talents for sport and gaiety. The tics and eloquence. His accomplishments

following verses, I believe, never were were various : to a knowledge of the

printed or written. I was told the anecclassics he added an intimate acquain

dote many years ago by Mr. A. Smith, tance with the countries of Europe,

Mr. Flood's confidential friend. They being both a careful student and an

went for the World,' then periodically extensive traveller; he was also a critic

issuing from the press, to Bradley's bookin the arts. But his pre-eminent merit

shop : Miss Bradley told Mr. Flood, was his political science, and his elo

that there was not a bound copy in the quence. His oratory was perfect ; for to

shop, but he might have it in sheets. complete knowledge of his subject, he

On leaving the shop, Flood turned to his added the clearest and soundest reason

friend and repeateding; and his rhetoric was impassioned

At Bradley's for the World I callid, and sublime. Read the following spe

Teke it in sheets, said she; cimens from different speeches :

Oh, bappy may the owner prove, “ This secret of inadequate representation

For Bradley is the world to me. was told to the people in thunder in the

SEMPER IDEM. American war, wbich began with virtual representation and ended in dismemberment.

For the Monthly Magazine. The influence of corruption within doors, of NOTES made during a JOURNEY from this fraud of argument without, continued the LONDON to HOLKHAM, YORK, EDINAmerican war. It terminated in separation, as BURGH, and the highLANDS of scotit began in this empty vision of a virtual re LAND, in July and August 1819, by presentative ; and in its passage from one of JOHN MIDDLETON, esq. the author of these points to the other, it swept away part

an AGRICULTURAL VIEW of MIDDLEof the glory, and more of the territory of Great Britain, with the loss of forty thou

SEX, and other works. sand lives, and of one hundred millions of

[Continued from p. 111.) treasure. Virtual parliaments, and an ipade.

QLASGOW is a large thriving town, quate representation, have cost you enough

U in which the streets rather generally abroad already ; take care they do not cost

and properly cross each other at right you more at home, by costing you your

angles. The flag-pavements are excelconstitutio."

lent, and apparently they are nearly


as much thronged with company as a want of ventilation. Viewed a new such foot-paths are in London; but as church, in which there are so many there are no gentlemen's carriages, and defects, as to have occasioned the refew other carriages, many persons walk building some parts of it, and there are in the carriage ways. Both the carriage many other settlements and cracks in ways and the foot pavements have the its walls at this time. We only observed appearance of being remarkably clean; one respectable-looking shop in this large but although there be not much sludge town, and that was tolerably well stocked in the kennels, they are very offensive. with porcelain and cut glass. The muThere are three bridges across the River seum of the late Dr, Hunter attracted Clyde, and small ships of two masts our notice, and we admired both the come up to the first of these, where building and its contents; but it is very the spring tides are said to rise seven or far from being either well lighted or eight feet; and there were twenty or ventilated. We particularly noticed and thirty such vessels alongside the wharf admired models of the mountains Blanc at the time we were there. Here is a and Semplon, (Switzerland,) including very, agreeable public walk and carriage the neighbouring hills, glens, glaciers, way, made parallel with the side of the snow, rivulets, and roads, as well as river, and divided from it by a grass the villages, and even single houses. platt of fifty or sixty feet in breadth; A main road along the skirt of Mount the turf is laid sloping towards the river, Semplon seemed to be a very desperate and it is neat y enclosed by iron bal- pass, having many tunnels, and lying lustres upon a stone plinth. The whole parallel to a deep ravine, which a is conveniently and agreeably extended river has scooped for its passage. to a fine grass paddock of perhaps eighty D uring a few minutes of the morning or a hundred acres, where an obelisk we viewed a bronze statue of Lieut. Gen. of great height has been erected to the Moore, then putting up by Mr. Flaxman memory of Lord Nelson, but that re- from London, and in the evening we zains unrepaired after being damaged found it finished. It represents a fine by a thunder storm. In Glasgow there human figure, without any covering upon is one moderately elegant spire, annexed his head ; his left hand is upon the hilt to the body of a mean-looking church. of his sword, and his right hand across The Roman Catholics have lately built his breast; as though he were pulling a chapel in the richest gothic manner. his cloak to prevent its dropping off tłe All the other places of worship are rather left shoulder. A large cloak conceals unsightly; they are also so ill placed, the greater part of the Lieut. General; but that three churches occupy three sides of that not being quite close before, disone burial ground, and these are in one closes the collar of his coat and a small of the least favorable parts of the town. part of the breast of it. The figure is There are many dwelling houses of ex- placed upon a truncated column with traordinary goodness; to which may be an ovolo cap, all in granite. Remove the added the Royal Bank, the Infirmary, sword and the whole would suit a pri. and some other public buildings. The vate gentleman better than this statue town is supplied with water from the does a general officer. There are no river, and it is lighted with gas. The cannon or other emblems of war, and it mail sets off for London at three o'clock is only known to be in honour of a daily. The tontine coffee-room, is of Lieut. General by a very short inscriplarge size, but it is not fitted-up with tion in gilt letters against one side of the boxes and tables; we found many gen. column. tlemen seated in chairs round the border W e then quitted Glasgow, and rode of the room, with a newspaper in their to Hamilton, where the Duke of that hands, and others were walking about. name has a principal residence and We next viewed a methodist chapel, park. This stage is over excellent land, which we found to be of their usual all in cultivation, in the commendable construction, and that holds conve- four years rotation of potatoes, wheat, niently fifteen hundred persons; but clover and oats. The next stage is to two thousand are said repeatedly to have Lanark where the land rises into hills, on attended the service there. Above the each side of the river Clyde; cultivated ceiling of this chapel, (an extraordinary up the slopes, though rather a poor soil, place for it,) is a school for giving gras and towards the tops of the hills very tuitously education to children, and poor. The leys are infested with rag-wort. where we found the master injuring in this stage are seen the lesser falls of their health, as well as his own, by the Clyde, very picturesque. A tLanark,


a great change takes place in the soil for downs, but even less valuable than the the worse; but the banks of the river last stage. There are a few birch trees here even increase in picturesque effect, till and there in a sickly or dying state; much at the greater falls of the Clyde it rises deep peat, as well as basaaltic rock and into the sublime. The residence of the some slate. One mile before we arrived at philanthropic Mr. Owen is finely Moffatt, that town and its neighbourhood placed for the chaste beautiful; but it is were seen to great advantage. There not kept in such high condition as such are several neat-looking villas; but the villas are in the south of England. access to them ought not to be endured, We had a full view of his village by as they cannot be approached without riding through it; and the side of an ad- passing by a public necessary in the joining hill was divided in many small market place. That building is of an potatoe.gardens. The houses are built octagon shape, with eight apertures with stone, and slated ; they are modern, (door-ways) but without doors, and so but too much crowded. With very few ilthy that no cleanly person can go exceptions, it appeared clean; but here, within ten or twenty yards of it. There as in other places in Scotland, the street is only one inn, which is a good house, dung (human excrements) is exposed but badly conducted. This small town in a very offensive manner. And the is handsome; but its thriving is rewomen are without covering to their pressed by the innkeeper, and the pubfeet. This is a remnant of the barbarous lic necessary (not privy.) or rather of the savage state, which does Between Moffatt and Lockerby, we not admit of those parts being dressed. were surprised by the re-building of A young woman, of nearly twenty years broken bridges, to the number of six or of age, opened a gate for our carriage to eight; but were informed they were the paddock of Colonel Ross; and, destroyed by a tremendous thunder though she was otherwise well dressed, storm, the 18th of last July. The general she gave herself some trouble to shew figure of this part of the country conthe falls of the Clyde to us. We en- tinues to be a good deal like Dorsetshire quired if she was suffering from poverty? or Wiltshire : the hills in both are She replied, “no, but it was usual in covered with sheep, but there the simithat country to go with naked feet in litude ends; for in the south west of the summer.” We were told this cus- England the valleys are well cultivated, tom does not prevent the young folks but here they are in miserable tillage; being taught to dance as well as to read; or, when in grass, it is overrun with but it is obviously an unchaste custom, 'rushes and peat, or where dry with ragand productive of immoral effects. wort.

Wethen drove seven or eight miles over : From Lockerby to Annan the hills very bad land, much of it covered by are much lower and more generally heath; considerable portions of it in a tilled though unskilfully as before. Potastate of ley, infested with rag-wort; toes are the only things well cultivated several small pieces of meadow, which during the last fifty miles. No turnips . were half rushes, and the corn, which in the first thirty miles of this day, and is all oats, a miserable crop. In this not many in the last twenty, nor are day's ride of thirty-seven miles, we did they clean, or otherwise than badly not see so many acres of turnips. This managed, being smothering in wild brought us to Douglas Mill Inn, where we mustard, as the oats are in knot-grass. were well accommodated for the night; Wheat there is none, and of barley very but here, as in all the second-best inns little ; of clover a fair proportion, but in Scotland, the privy is without any the hay of that valuable plant as well as door; generally where such offices have of natural meadows is spoiled by their a door there is a large hole in it oppo- manner of making it. The Inn at site the seat, which exposes the person Douglas Mill is unpromising but good; to full view.

those at Elfeet, Moffatt, and Lockerby, Thence to Elfeet, a small and lonely are very ordinary make-shifts; but that at house used as an inn; the road lies along Annan is unexceptionably good. the sides of hills similar in figure, but of Annan is a respectable niarket-town, coarser herbage than the downs in Wilt with a church and a gaol, each of which shire; of which four or five miles square is surmounted by a spire with a clock. are said to be rented by the respectable in the market-place of this town we man who keeps the Douglas Mill Inn. numbered thirty-three single-horse carts, Thence towards Moffatt are lofty hills and loaded with slate of excellent quality, a deep dale, shaped like the Wiltshire and some of large size. They were


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said to be from Westmoreland, and trees are annually becoming more and
going much farther into Scotland. Here more broke in upon by the deaths of
is a river, though not navigable, and a trees in patches. "Vast masses of plan-
good bridge over it, from which there is tations have been made in Scotland, ap-
a view over some good meadows. From parently within the last forty years; but
Annan to Gretna Green is rather a poor they are mostly in the southern half of
soil, nearly level and badly tilled. that district, and it is greatly embellished
Gretna Green is of a triangular shape, thereby : yet the northern half is nearly
with an old mutilated cross, and about a naked desert. The Duke of Gordon
a dozen huts of poor persons. There is and some others, have planted much
also one white house about equal to a some thirty years ago, but such places
respectable farm-house. One third of a appear very small when compared with
mile nearer England is a regularly neat the more extensive heath and peat which
Scotch village, of one street, containing covers the rest of that desolate country
perhaps sixty small houses of one story for a hundred miles together :-rendered
only, though built with stone and slated. desolate by the poverty of its inhabitants
Near the middle of this village is a public and the supineness of the owners of the
house of two stories, and in it the mar- soil; who have neglected draining 'off
riage of English runaway couples are superfluous water, the great encourager
solemnized. The priest (not a black- of peat, and consequently that has ex-
smith) is said to be ready, and on the tended in every direction; by which it
watch for post-chaises from England; has destroyed all the grasses which sup-
on such a carriage stopping at the public ported or can support useful animals;
house, he walks towards it, to discover it has also destroyed the trees, groves and
whether they are in want of his service woods, which formerly contributed to
or not; in case of yes, he makes his embellish as well as enrich Scotland.
bargain, regulated by the appearance of The neglect of drainage produced peat,
the parties, in doing which long expe- and the continuance of such neglect,
rience has made him very expert; and aided by the peat, destroyed the woods-
having received his fee, he performs his even the last remnants are perishing
part of the ceremony, and leaves the in succession, as the peat and water
parties to themselves.

are enabled to extend their deadly inScotland includes this village and a fuence to the living trees. In case sloping descent of about a hundred the drainage of Scotland had been yards to a brook (with a bridge) which taken care of, peat would not have divides the two kingdoms.

accumulated to a mischievous extent, Being about to leave Scotland, permit and the forest scenery would have conus to observe, that most of the observa- tinued till our times in as much pertions hitherto made are local, and those fection and beauty as it formerly has of more general application have been been. All the grounds where the present reserved for this place.

inhabitants cut peat, abound with the The general features of such of the remains of trees and sticks of less size Scotch highlands as are not moun than trees; which they take care of and tainous, are heath and peat; in many carry to their several habitations, as part places mixed, or strewed over with of their store for fire in winter. Notlarge blocks of granite. These stones withstanding what has been written to are in a state of decomposition, as ap- the contrary, we can assure our readers pears by a great many grains of quartz the trees have not been thrown down by which lie near them. The exceptions hurricanes; as is demonstrated by their are small patches of either arable, mea. stumps, which are now in the very same dow, or planted forest trees. The places and upright position in which mountains are slate, granite, or volcanic they had grown. The obvious truth is, rocks, partially covered by moss and that the living trees died in succession other worthless plants. The plantations as they were attacked by stagnant water mostly consist of Scotch firs and larch, and the poi son of peat. Dead trees have, in which it is obvious that the former is during all our times, been taken by the hardier plant of the two; as the larch farmers and other country people, either is not in so healthy and thriving a state with or without leave, for their firing and as the Scotch fir, especially when it is repairs. The greater number of the trees planted without the shelter of the other. have been so disposed of, and the rest There are some places both in England are found in the peat at this time. In and Scotland, where even the Scotch firs this manner the forest trees of Scotland are ceasing to grow; and belts of such have been destroyed, but in what man


ner can they be replaced ? That may be • Enter in peace.' The building is very done in all dry places, which are free or narrow-not above twelve yards from nearly free from peat, by the usual me- one extremity to the other. Over the thods of planting ; but to restore them central part is the cupola, which, with on a deep peat, even after it has been the marble pillars and a number of windrained, is a desideratum which deserves dows, produces a luminous and agreethe most serious consideration of the able effect. There are twelve cases of proprietors of the soil. Peat is the books, four in each closet, with folding greatest enemy of trees; for not only has doors and curious lattice work. The it destroyed them over very extensive books are placed on their sides, one upon districts, but it continues to make another, with the ends outwards, and the havock among such of them as are now titles written on the margin of the leaves. standing upon its borders. Wherever But although no Greek MSS. are now there are peat grounds, they are extend to be found in the Seraglio, it is certain ing themselves on every side; and when that it abounded with them in the 17th that (the peat) arrives at plantations of century. In 1685, M. Giardin, French trees, it destroys them one after another ambassador at the Ottoman court, purby some noxious quality which it com- chased fifteen of the best, by the intermunicates to the soil. The destructive mediation of the Jesuit Besnier. The effect which this earth has on planta- remainder, to the number of 180, were tions may be seen in hundreds of places, sold in Constantinople, at 100 livres but in none is it rendered more certain each. If they are still extant in any than within a few hundred yards east- libraries, the seal and arms of the Sultan ward from the miserable inn of Inve- would readily distinguish them. The roreham, on the border of the rivulet fifteen procured by the French ambasUrchy. In this place several of the trees sador were sent to Paris ; one of them die annually, and they are then cut down was a copy in vellum of all the works of a foot or two above the ground, where Plutarch. It was collated by Wyttentheir stumps remain many years, or even bach, who gives it a high character.ages, in a state which is every way simi- There was also a copy of Herodotus, of lar to the stumps of trees now found in which Larcher makes mention, as having the peat grounds. These things prove, collected from it some valuable readings, that trees have formerly grown to con- with a considerable number of lonian siderable size in places where the accre idioms. It appears that the library was tion of that earth prevents the raising robbed some time about the year 1638, trees at this time; the change, for the for Gravius (Greaves, an Englishman) worse, is occasioned by neglecting to got possession of several MSS. which, he drain the soil, which would repress tbe was assured, had been stolen from the extension of peat, and prevent its de- Seraglio. We may add to this, that structive effect.

there was at Constantinople, in the year

1678, an Arabic translation of a lost For the Monthly Magazine. work of Aristotle. There are several Some PARTICULARS of the GRAND SIG. other libraries in the Seraglio, but access

NOR'S LIBRARY, by a recent Traveller to them has been constantly refused; THE total number of MSS. which are they are, however, of an inferior descrip

I contained in this library, is 1,294, tion. The principal one, as above, was mostly Arabic, either original or trans- founded by the Sultan Mustapha, in 1567. lated from the Turkish and Persian.The subjects are theology, jurisprudence, Some OBSERVATIONS and EXPERIMENTS logic, philosophy, physics, grammar, on the ABSORPTION of ice by the AThistory, philology, and the belles let. MOSPHERE. tres. The two first are in the greatest To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. number. The Syriac and Arabic bibles, SIR, in antique characters, formerly in the A RESIDENCE of three years in the library, are no longer to be found ; nor A higher latitudes of North America, are there, at present, any Latin, Greek, gave me opportunities of observing seor Hebrew MSS. It is in the form of a veral phenomena connected with the Greek cross ; one of the branches serves atmosphere, the detail of which may for the vestibule, and the three others, perhaps not be uninteresting. Obserwith the centre, composes the body of vations made in countries so difficult of the library. Over the portal, between access, without any of the apparatus by the place of entrance and the library, which philosophical enquiry is in Engare the following words in Arabic, land conducted with so much precision,


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