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Schools connected with the New Meet- raised is about 461. The payments ing House in this town, in a letter which made in cases of illness, are after the was inserted in your number for June, rate of four shillings per week, for 1818, vol. 45th. p. 499. It is now my every penny in the weekly subscription, intention to lay before your readers a and although there appears to be so short account of a Society which has great a disproportion between the rebeen formed since these Schools were ceipts and disbursements, a fund has first opened, and which consists exclu- actually been realized amounting to sively of the teachers engaged in the 4601. for which the Society is now reSunday-Schools belonging both to the ceiving interest. As the total amount New and Old Meeting-Houses.

of the payments does not on the average The Institution to which I refer, is exceed 201. per annum, the interest called, " The Old and New Meeting upon the capital has alone been, for a Brotherly Society;" it was established considerable time past, more than in the year 1796, and at present consists sufficient to discharge every claim. of fifty-seven members, most of whom Should any of your readers be desirous have received their education in the of seeing a more detailed account of Schools, and are now engaged ingratui. these plans, I would refer them to a tously imparting to their younger bre recent publication, entitled “Moral thren the benefits which they have Culture,” by Mr. James Luckcock of themselves derived from this source. this town, a gentleman who has long

The members of the Brotherly Society distinguished himself as a zealous and hold monthly meetings, for the purpose active supporter of the Old Meeting of deliberating on the affairs of the Sunday Schools, and as a leading memSchools, &c. and at each neeting, one ber of the Brotherly Society. of the members is expected to read an

THOMAS CLARK, JUN, essay of an improving moral tendency, Birmingham, March 9th, 1820. but whether borrowed or original, is left to his own choice; it is an establish

For the Monthly Magazine. ed rule in the Society, that each mem- ACCOUNT of a NEW sect in India, and of ber in his turn shall thus contribute to

RAMOHUN-ROY its Founder.. the edification of the rest.

(From the Revue Encyclopedique.) When any member leaves the Society, SINCE the English have established a a Committee is appointed to draw upan w Christian Church in India, with episoutline of his character, both as it re- copal authority, at Calcutta, Christianity gards his behaviour in the Society, and is spreading rapidly in proportion to his conduct in the world at large; this the increase and consolidation of their is afterwards submitted to a general civil and military power. Under such meeting of the members, and if deemed circumstances, the statement by M. a correct statement, is entered on their Acosta, relative to the rise of a new minutes.

Indian Sect, will not be devoid of On the first Sunday in January in each interest. year, an annual general meeting of the Rammohun-Roy-Banoudia, some of members is holden, at which the Pastors whose productions have been given in of the two congregations, and other our pages, is the son of a rich Brainin, friends to the Institution, are invited to who, to avoid the despotism of the attend; an appropriate address is always Mogul Governors, had quitted Marcheprepared on these occasions, by an able dabad, the ci-devant capital fof{Bengal, member, previously nominated for the and fixed his residence within the purpose, and the minutes of the past English territory. In 1780, he had a year are recapitulated.

son, whom he caused to be instructed in In the year 1798, a new association' the Persian, Arabic, and Sanscrit lanwas formed in conjunction with the guages. His masters in Arabic, gave members of the Brotherly Society, for him lessons out of Aristotle and Euclid, affording pecuniary relief in cases of which he was competent to understand ; illness, to persons connected with the after which, in some conversation with Sunday-Schools, whether as pupils or certain learned Mussulmen, he began to teachers. The fund appropriated to entertain doubts as to the religion of this purpose, is supported by weekly Brama, and this led him to an investicontributions of from one half-penny to gation of the religious doctrines of three-pence from each person; the total India, of Mahomet and of Christianity. number of subscribers is now about two After the death of his father, being hundred, and the annual sum thus only five-and-twenty years of age, he

removed

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removed to Marchedabad, and there The wicked policy of the Absentees,' drew up a writing, proscribing idolatry as Miss Edgeworth calls them, is the in all religions; this appeared in the primary and principal cause of all these Persian language, with an Arabic pre- disturbances, as may be exemplified by face. He had now to encounter a the following fact: -Sir ** ** being series of persecutions, both from the officially employed at Dublin, let an Hindoos and Mussulmen, so that he estate to a gentleman near Athlone, for was obliged, in 1814, to take refuge in one pound an acre per annum, but this Calcutta. There he purchased a house gentleman, after taking what he requirbuilt in the European style, employed ed for himself, let the remainder in himself in learning English and Latin, small farms for eight pounds per acre, and took lessons in the Mathematics and some even for more !— These are from a German of the name of Makay, what are called “MIDDLE Men,” their a person of merit, and a philosophic cupidity is the great evil of Ireland, turn. Some few of his com-patriots, The RIBBON Men, as they are called, to the number of a dozen, of the same want to have grass and arable land at rank in the cast of Bramins, and of equal five guineas, and potato grounds at four, opulence, adopted his religious opinions, demands, which, if made in a proper and in consequence of this, he is now way, are fair. become the head of a Sect that can T here is, also, another oppression muster about a thousand adherents. which I think might be removed. The

He calls his system the Creed of Unity; Catholics are forced to pay tythesand to but he declares that as for morals, he the Church repairs, in support of a relirespects only those of the Christian gion which they are taught to detest; and Gospel. His disciples frequent his bouse as they would pay taxes to the same every Sunday, eat, drink, and chant amount without a murmur, the remedy hymns, in Sanscrit, or in the language of is an easy one, and at least ought to be Bengal, to the honour of the only true tried. God. The Hindoos, whose religion he I n regard to the former grievance, I despises, have lavished persecution on agree with many of your Corresponhim in all its different kinds; but his dents, that speculations in land ought intellect, his firmness, his extensive not to be tolerated, and that a remedy connections, and his wealth, have hi- ought to be applied by the legislature. therto prevented his excommunication Ballinasloe, R. W. Morris. from the cast. He wishes to avoid this March 15th, 1820. not to lose the society of his wife and only son. He exercises great hospitality To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. to a number of the Bramins, who, eating once at his table, may become DY inserting in your Magazine the liable to the above-mentioned expulsion. D following article, you will much

At his charge he maintains a school oblige me: it is taken from the Philosoof fifty children, who receive instruc- phical Magazine for November last, tions in the Sanscrit, in the English - Dijon Academy of Sciences, Arts, and language, and Geography. His princi- Belles Lettres." This academy has propal attacks are levelled at the casts of posed the following question as the the Hindoos, and to these he attributes subject for the prize to be awarded in all the corrupt notions and practices of 1820, " What may be the most effectual the nation ; but he derives his proofs means of extirpating from the hearts of and arguments only from the books held Frenchmen that moral disease, a remnant in estimation by the Indians, and he of the barbarism of the middle ages, avails himself of his rank and conse- that false point of honor, which leads quence, as a Bramin, to enlighten his them to shed blood in duels in defiance fellow-countrymen as to the true sense of the precepts of religion, and the laws of their sacred books.

of the state ;” I wish the people of this

nation may follow the example here set, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. and take into consideration this subject, SIR,

and adopt some means for preventing THE times are turbulent here, and I this kind of murder. If a few persons

I have had a very serious responsiwould form themselves into a society, bility. Things are more tranquil now, and collect subscriptions for the purthough in my view, they have never pose of diffusing knowledge on the subworn much of a political aspect.

ject of duelling with a view to prevent

SIR,

it, I think much good might be done, Tori .

92,404 and happy should I be to send my sub- Valencia .

783,084 scription to such an association. We have Valladolid

196,839 now in London several societies which Mallorca

137,239 might serve as examples to go by. I Minorca

28,177 agree as to the modes of diffusing know- Iveza and Fromontaria

13,707 ledge, the principal of which is publishing Canarias

169,285 books, witness the society for prevent- Navarre

- 227,382 ing capital punishment, and the society Asturias

347,776 for preventing war. I hope to have your Alava -

71.399 sentiments respecting such a society; Guipuscoa

120,716 perhaps you might think proper to take

Viscaya

116,044 measures for forming one.

Nuevas Publiciones

7,968 March 18th, 1820. A. 0. C. Arenjuez

2,659 Pardo -

649 L'Ildefonso

4,335 To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

St. Lorenzo

1,453 SIR,

Aran

-
-

7,842 AS every piece of information respect. Ceuta - - - - 7,449 A ing Spain, now becomes import- Melilla, &c. .

2,302 ant, I send you a translation of a return of the population of that country, taken

10,409,879 in the year 1787, and published by authority.

CLASSES and OTHER PARTICULARS. A great disparity exists between the

Anno 1787. return now made, and that made in Single Persons, males . 3,162,007 1768, which is supposed to arise from a Ditto, females . . 3,215,482 general opinion which prevailed, that Married, males

1,947,165 the latter census was designed as a cause Ditto females

1,943,496 for future taxation, and that the returns being made by the clergy, they disguised

Total 10,268,150 the real numbers, but the former return being conducted by the officers of govern- Towns

18,716 ment, was done with greater care and a Parishes

· 18,972 greater regard to correctness.

Curas

16,689 The returns made for 1787 are by Beneficudos, &c.

42,707 kingdom and provinces, which are classed Convents for men

2,019 in the following order, and the total Religious males

47,515 population of each of these divisions Convents for Women .. 1,048 is as under. , '

Religious Females.

24,559 Kingdom of Andalusia - 754,293 Servants of the Church . 16,376

Arragon - 623,308 Syndics of religious orders 4,127 Province of Avila - - 115,172 Military

77,884 . . 465,410 In the King's pay

36,465 Old Castile . . 74,699 On the Crusade

1,844 Cataluna 814,412 Of the Inquisition

2,705 Ciudad Real 206,160 Hidalgos

480,589 Cordova

236,416 Cuença

266,182

. Male. Female. Estremadura .

416,922 Persons . 5,109,172 5,158,978 Kingdom of Galicia

345,803 Clergy. Grenada

661,66) Monk's . 47,515 Province of Gaudalaxara 114,379 Nuns living in Taen

197,136 Convents. . . 24,559 Leon - .

250,134 Heretics but not Madrid

58,943 professed. 47,500

49.500 22,155 City of Madrid . . 156,672 Kingdom of Murcia

337,686

: 5,204,187 5,205,694 Province of Valencia

112,514 Salamanca

210,388

Total 10,409,879
Segovia - - - 167,525
Loria - - - 170,566 March 20, 1819.

A. B. Toledo - - - 334,425

Burgos

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For the Monthly Magazine. the truth, and finds the height hy a

barometrical observation 10,032 feet. RECENT OBSERVATIONS respecting the Captain Smyth makes it 10,203 feet. All

HEIGHT of MOUNT ETNA, by M. the travellers who have ascended Etna agree,
Baron de Zach, of Genoa.

that you may see from it the rock of M OUNT Etna may be seen very dis- Malta, the Æolian isles, the Ionian sea,

1 tinctly, from the island of Malta, the entrance of the Adriatic, and the when the atmosphere is clear. It is a coaşts of Albania. kind of index there to the points of the wind, from the direction taken by the smoke issuing from it. In the erup- Arrow

Account of a remarkable CATARACT in tions of this volcano, the flames blaze

NORWAY forth in a manner truly terrific, and to this may be added the reflections from NORWAY may boast of a catathe sea, which impress on the tre T ract or waterfall, much superior to mendous scene, tints still more lugu- that of Schaffhausen on the Rhine, or brious, magnifying and multiplying the even to the famous fall of Niagara in distances of the surrounding objects. North America. It was discovered or

No passage occurs in the ancient noticed for the first time, about eight writers, wherein mention is made of years ago, by Professor Esmark ; a cirseeing Mount Etna from Malta; but cumstance which is attributed to its nearly three centuries ago, the celebrated very remote situation in the most lonely Maurolico takes notice of it in his Cos- part of the interior, and to the very mography, in his third dialogue. Ric- scanty number of curious travellers that cioli in the third volume of his Almagest, resort to the Hyperborean regions, for reports, that he had been assured by the the purpose of making observations. Knights, that the summit of Etna could It is situated in the district named be seen from the island and still fur. Tellemarken, and named Riakan-Fossen ther off, at the distance of a hundred which in the Norwegian idiom, deand twenty-six Italian miles and more. notes the smoke of water falling. An He adds, that his brother Jesuit, Kir- immense cloud, formed by the drops of cher, had made the same remark, in a water in evaporation, to a spectator has letter of Feb. 17, 1647, of seeing Etna the appearance of torrents of smoke. from Malta, and he proceeds to explain Doctor Schouw, of Copenhagen, vithis visibility from the effects of refrac- sited this cataract in the summer of 1812.

This gentleman is one of the fifteen Admitting the height of this moun. voyagers that have been dispatched by tain, as ascertained by Captain Smyth, the King of Denmark into different the visual ray from its most elevated parts of the world, for the purpose of ilpoint will extend one hundred and lustrating the sciences. He was in Italy, thirty miles, which is in exact accor. in 1818. From his observations this acdance with the testimony of the Knights. count has been transcribed. With respect to refraction, it may be M. Schouw could not fail to be struck shewn from calculation, that it produces with astonishment at the view of this the effect of elevating the mountain magnificent spectacle of nature, so imnear seven thousand feet; that is to say, posing and tremendous to the sense, that if there was no refraction to see though the fall is by far the most conMount Etna from Malta, it would re- siderable in the spring, when the snow quire in addition twice the height of melts from the mountains. This imMount Vesuvius to be seen.

mense descent consists, properly speakThe travellers who have scaled Mount ing, of three falls, two upon inclined Etna vary much in their reckoning as to planes, each of which, separately, would its height above the level of the sea. form such a cataract as is no where to be The Canon Recupero, an indefatigable seen, and the last is an abrupt and pretraverser of Mont Gibello, assigns to it cipitate perpendicular. Professor Es15,000 French feet, but this is too much. mark made a measurement of this last The Canon has been in the habit of leap, and rates it at 800 feet in height! making observations on the Volcano, In general, such cascades as are most near forty years successively, making elevated have the least water, and such his ascent once every year. M. le Comte as discharge large masses of water have de Borch, in his letters on Sicily, assigns little elevation ; but in the Riakan-Fosonly 9,660 feet, but this again is too sen, the rule is reversed. The volume little. M. de Saussure approaches nearer of its waters is supplied from a very MONTHLY MAG, No. 338.

2 D considerable

tion.

considerable river, called the Maamel- times in a day, and when unable to susven, into which the lake Mioswatten, tain these cruelties, he is compelled to which is eight or ten German leagues write down or sign a confession (of what in extent, empties itself, not far from he is falsely charged with,) and the case the cascade.

any how is made out, placed on record,

and with a degree of self-glorying, is SPECIMEN OF CHINESE JUSTICE. reported to your majesty. The imperial From the Indo-Chinese Gleaner,' a

will is obtained, requiring the person to Periodical Paper at Malacca.

be delivered over to the board of punish

ments, for further trial. Peking Gazette, August 9, 1817. After repeated examinations, and unCHOW, the Yu-she (or Censor) of dergoing various tortures, the charges U Ho-nan, kneels to report, with pro- brought against many persons are seen found respect, in the hearing of his to be entirely unfounded. majesty, the following circumstances, As, for example, in the case of the and to pray for his sacred instructions. now degraded Taeu-tae, who tried Lew

The clear and explicit statement of te-woo; and of the Che-chow, who tried punishments, is a means of instruction Pih-keu-king. These mandarins inflicted to the people; the infliction of punish the most cruel tortures, in a hundred ment is a case of unwilling necessity. different forms, and forced a confession. For all courts there are fixed regula Lew-te-woo, from being a strong robust tions to rule their conduct by, when man, just survived life was all that was cases do occur that require punish- spared. The other, being a weak man, ments to be inflicted : in questioning, “lost his life: he died as soon as he had magistrates are not, by law, permitted to reached the board at Peking. The snowexercise cruelties at their own discre- white innocence of these two men was tion.

afterwards demonstrated by the board But of late, district magistrates, ac- of punishments. tuated by a desire to be rewarded for The cruelties exercised by the local their activity, have felt an ardent enthu- magistrates, in examining by torture, siasm to inflict torture. And though it throughout every district of Chih-le, has been repeatedly prohibited by Impe- cannot be described; and the various rial Edicts, which they profess openly police runners, seeing the anxiety of to conform to, yet they really and their superiors to obtain notice and prosecretly violate them.

motion, begin to lay plans to enrich Whenever they apprehend persons of themselves. In criminal cases, as murder suspicious appearances, or those charged and robbery; in debts and affrays, they with great crimes, such as murder or endeavour to involve those who appear robbery, the magistrates begin by en- to have the slightest connexion. The deavouring to seduce the prisoners to wind being raised, they blow the spark confess, and by forcing them to do so. into a flame, and seize a great many On every occasion they torture by pull- people, that they may obtain bribes from ing, or twisting round the ears (the tor those people, in order to purchase their turer having previously rendered his liberation. Those who have nothing to fingers rough by a powder) and cause pay, are unjustly confined, or sometimes them to kneel a long while upon chains. tortured, before being carried to a maThey next employ what they call the gistrate. In some instances, after underbeauty's bar;* the parrot's beam;t the going repeated examinations in presence refining furnace;t and other imple of the magistrate, they are committed to ments, expressed by other terms, which the custody of people attached to the they make use of. If these do not force court, where they are fettered in various confession, they double the cruelties. ways, so that it is impossible to move a the prisoner is restored to life again several single inch ; and without paying a large

bribe, they cannot obtain bail. Their

oppressions are daily accumulated to • A torture said to be invented by a judge's

such a degree, and for so long a time, wife, and hence the name. The breast, small of the back, and legs bent up, are

that at last death is the consequence. fastened to the cross-bars, which causes the

Since there is at this period particular persou to kneel in great pain.

occasion to seize banditti, if there be + The prisoner is raised from the ground suspicious appearances, as the age or by strings round the fingers and thumbs, physiognomy corresponding to some suspended from a supple tranverse beam,

offender described ; it is doubtless | Fire is applied to the body,

proper to institute a strict inquiry.

But

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