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process for transferring the atomic motion produces a hundred volumes per annum contained in the said gas or fluid to the on subjects of medicine, and supports aggregate and fluid parts of the animal. thirty thousand practitioners, who live
8. That, in its concentration during the by professing to study and understand act of respiration, it imparts the atomic
Common Sense. motion which existed in the gas or media " to the animal; or, in other words, that
For the Monthly Magazine. transferred or converted atomic motion
RECENT DISCOVERIES made by MESSRS. warms and variously excites the several fluids of the animal.
CAVIGLIA and salt in EGYPT.* 9. That other mechanical arrangements,
TBT Caviglia and Mr. Salt have met connected with the process of respiration, T . with a rich harvest of antiquities by which the media is concentrated and in exploring the contents of several of atomic motion imparted, produce the pe- the ruined edifices and tumuli which, ristaltic, arterial, and other motions of the when viewed from the top of the great animal system, some primary, and some Pyramid, appear in countless numbers consequent.
scattered among the pyramids, extend10. "That when the body cools, the natu- ing on the left bank of the Nile, north ral means of increasing the heat is to in
and south as far as the eye can reach. crease the respiration, and create atomic The
They have been mentioned by travellers, motion in the system by some exercise, by
but never examined before with the atwhich the atomic motion or sense of heat
tention they merit. The stone buildings is not merely increased, but accumulated and accelerated.
to which they gained access, by freeing 11. That this accelerated atomic inotion them from the sand and rubbish with imparted to the fluids of the animal, pro- which they were choked, and which Mr. duces a corresponding expansion of the Salt supposes to be mausoleums, are fluids, and an evaporation by the pores of generally oblong, with their walls slightthe skin, when they duly perform their func- ly inclined inward from the perpendi. tions.
cular, flat-roofed, with a parapet round. 12. That, to replace the consumption of
ed at top, and rising about a foot above the fluids by evaporation, it becomes ne
the terrace. Their walls are constructcessary to supply the roots of the animal
ed of large masses, made nearly to fit system, where they centre in the stomach,
with each other, though rarely rectanby introducing suitable substances or manures into that cavity, which, during their go
ir gular. Some havedoor-ways, ornamentdecomposition, impart atomic motion, as ed above with a volute, covered with well as assimilate to the substance of the hieroglyphics; others only of square animal.
apertures, gradually narrowing inward. 13. That the progress of various kinds The doors and windows are all on the of animal growth may be always expressed north sides; perhaps because least exby a curve line, or path of a projectile, posed to the wind-carried sands from the with different curvatures, the abscissa Libyan deserta The inside of the walls representing the flow of time, from the of the first he examined was stuccoed. generating increment; while the form of and embellished with rude paintings; curvature is determined by a law of si
one of which represented the Sacred multaneous accumulation and dispersion, which law limits the form of the curve;
Boat, another a Procession : and in the and, when the apex or greatest effect has
southern extremity were found several been attained, a corresponding descent mouldering mummies, laid one over the takes place owing to the gradually ex. other, in a recumbent position. Many hausted excitement, which diminishes the of the bones were entire ; and on one accumulation, the ascent and descent being skull was part of its cloth covering, inrepresented by a series of parallel ordi- scribed with hieroglyphics. The second nates. Hence we have all the varieties of which he examined had no paintings, durations of youth, maturity, decay, and but contained several fragments of stalife: and hence it is that those periods bear tues; two of which composed the ennecessary relations to each other.
tire body of a walking figure, almost the These succinct principles of Physiology size of life, with the arms banging down might be increased, so as to embrace
and resting on the thighs. Mr. Salt every species and variety of animal phe
thinks this was intended as a portrait, nomena, and explain the causes and
the several parts of which were marked cure of diseases; but the Monthly Ma
with gazine bas not room for such details; and it is not necessary that this task
* This article continues the valuable
information on the same subjects, pubshould be performed either in this place
lished in this Magazine at the beginning of or by this writer, in a country which
with a strict attention to Nature, and Andro-sphynx, in front of the pyramid coloured after life, having glass eyes or of Cepbrenes. The labour was immense: transparent stones, to iinprove the resem- it cost him three months incessant exerblance. A head was also discovered, tion, with the assistance of from 60 to which Mr. Salt describes as a respecta 100 persons every day, to lay open the ble specimen of art. Many of the frag- whole figure to its base, and expose a ments of granite and alabaster sculptures clear area, extending 100 feet from its give a higher idea of Eyyptian art than front;-a labour in which they were has usually prevailed, much attention greatly impeded by the movable nature being shown to the marking of the joints of the sand, which, by the slightest wind and muscles. In another of these build. or concussion, was apt to run down like ings was a sculptured boat of a large a cascade of water, and fill up the excasize, with a square sail, different from vation. 'This colossal figure is cut out any now in use on the Nile. In the of the rock ; the paws, and some projectfirst chamber were bas-reliefs of men, ing lines, where perhaps the rock was deer, and birds, painted to resemble na- deficient, or which may have been repairture: the men engaged in different me- ed since its first construction, being comchanical occupations. In the second posed of masonry. apartment there were similar produc On the stone platform in front, and tions,-a Quarrel between some Boat centrally between the paws of the sphynx, men, executed with great spirit; men which stretch out fifty feet in advance of engaged in agricultural pursuits, plough- the body, was found a large block of ing, hoeing, stowing the corn in maga- granite, two feet thick, fourteen high, zines, &c.; vases painted in vivid co- and seven broad. It fronts the east, as Jours; musicians, with a group of dan- does the face of the sphynx, is highly cing women. Another chamber was embellished with sculptures in bas-relief, without embellishment; a fourth had representing two sphynxes on pedestals, figures and hieroglyphics; and, in a fifth, and priests presenting offerings, with a were bieroglyphics executed on white well-executed hieroglyphical inscription plaster, as it would appear, by means of beneath: the whole covered at top, and stamps. In all the mausoleums which protected as it were with the sacred were opened, fragments of mummy globe, the serpent, and the wings. Two cloth, bitumen, and human boncs, were other tablets of calcareous stone, simifound; but, what is perhaps most sin- Tarly ornamented, were conjectured, gular of all, in one apartment or other with the former, to have constituted of all of them was a deep shaft or well. part of a temple, by being placed one on One that was cleared out by Mr. Cavig- each side of the latter at right angles to lia was sixty feet deep; and, in a sub it. One of them was in its place, the terranean chamber a little to the south, other thrown down and broken. A small at the bottom of the well, was found, lion couchant, with its eyes directed towithout a lid, a plain but highly-finished wards the sphynx, was in front of this sarcophagus; and from this it may be edifice. Several fragments of other lions inferred that, in each mausoleum, such a and the fore-part of a splynx, were likechamber and sarcophagus may be found, wise found; all of wbich, as well as the at the bottom of the well. Mr. Salt men- sphynx, the tablets, walls, and platform, tions that all the mausoleums consisted on which the little temple stood, were of different apartments, some more, some covered with red paint, which would Jess, in number, variously disposed and seem here, as in India, to have been apsimilarly decorated, and that the objects propriated to sacred purposes; perhaps in which the artists have best succeeded as being the colour of fire. A granite are animals and birds: the human altar stands in front of the temple, one figures are in general out of proportion, of the four horns being still in its place, but the action in which they are engaged and the effects of fire visible on the top is intelligibly, and in some instances of the altar. On the side of the paw of energetically expressed. In many of the the great sphynx, and on the digits of chambers the colours retain all their ori. the paws, are Greek inscriptions; as also ginal freshness. The bas-reliefs and on some small edifices in front of the colouring after nature, in these early sphynx, inscribed to the Sphynx, to efforts of art, serve, he says, to embody Harpocrates, Mars, Hermes, to Clauthe forms, and to present a species of dius, (on an erasure, in which can be reality that mere painting can with diffi- traced a former name, that of Nero,) to culty produce.
Septimius Severus, (over an crasure of But the most brilliant of M. Caviglia's Geta), &c. labours was that of uncovering the great
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. wrong is, in a great proportion of inSIR,
stances, offered to the inexperienced and MTHOUGH the public attention was the ignorant: that is, to those who are
1 of late been ansiously turned to least armed to resist it, and whose printhe most interesting and important of all ciples are likely to suffer most by yieldsubjects, the moral improvement of ing to it. By refusing to make the remankind, and much enquiry has been quired declaration, a great number of made respecting the causes which im- persons woulil lose the power of propede its progress, there are some cir curing the education which is essential cumstances calculated to diminish the to their following the line of life for strictness of moral principle in many, which they are intended; and many which seem to have nearly escaped ol). would be obliged to relinquish the purservation. It will be found on examina- suit of the profession for which they tion, that the social indiceinents to com- have been educated, and for which alono mit falsehood and perjury are very mu- they are now litted. By refusing to demerous; that they are so strong as to be clare himself innocent, the prisoner loses almost irresistibic; and that many of all the chances of escaping punishment, them are the consequence of regulations which legal crrors, deficiency in the evi. which are entirely useless. I shall say dence, and a variety of other circuma few words on each of these points, instances, give to all who take their trial; the hope that, by directing to them the sometimes too, he loses the chance of attention of the readers of your Maga. escape which the innocence of his inzine, some person who has more leisure, tentions vould give him, if he were ability, and means of gaining observa. tried; for he may have committed the tion on the subject, than I have, may be fact of which lic is accused, without the inilaced to make minute enquiries into guilty intention, and yet think himself the extent of the evil, and to lay the obliged, by his regard to truth, to plead result of them before the public.
guilty, as experience has sometimes 1. That the temptations are very nu- provel. The inconvenience attending merous.—Though I am unable to form the refusal to take the oaths which the any estimate of the number of the regu. excise laws, commercial regulations, lations which in different departments and the forms of law proceedings, reoffer inducements to falseliood and per- quire, will be acknowledged to be so jury, a brief enumeration of such as I great, as to throw a strong temptation happen to know of, and to recollect, in the way of those to wbom they are will be sufficient to show that the whole offered. amount is not trifling. Tlie oaths to 3. That many of the regulations observe college regulations, and the which present these temptations, are subscriptions to the articles which are useless, -of this kind are all those required at the Universities; the oathis that require declarations which are not which are required from boys, to qualify supposed to express the real sentiments them for entering on the foundation of of the c!eclarer, or which impose oaths some of the public schools; the decla- which tlie person who takes them is not ration necessary to be made by candi- expected to observe. The custom of dates for holy orders; the declaration requiring these declarations and oaths, that a prisoner is obliged to make of his as it ist always be useless, so it must innocence, to entille himself to a trial; often be injurions. Many of those who are the oaths which are required in consc. induced to make them, by the common quence of the excise laws and of various argument that they are a mere form, commercial regulations; the oaths which are probably not entirely satisfied that are necessary in many legal proceed- they are doing right; on these the effeot ings; are sufficient to justify the assertion, of compliance cannot be entirely harmthat the occasions which may lead to Jess, and even to those who comply falsehood and perjury are so numerous, without hesitation or thought, it cannot as to entitle the subject to attention. be quite without danger to learn to de· 2. That the temptations are very clare what they believe to be false, and strong.-- This will plainly appear, on to swear to do what they are deterconsidering the inconveniences to which mined they will not do. The greatest a refusal to make the required decla- evil is done, no doubt, to those who are ration will, in a great number of cases, convinced that they are doing wrong. subject the refuser; and it should not and yet have not resolution enough to be forgotten, that the temptation to do sacrifice all their prospects and to exMONTHLY MAG. No. 336.
pose themselves to ridicule, and perhaps be a falsehood, and therefore determines to reproach. Even the general effect of to plead guilty, is surely the person a custom which makes declarations and from whom it is most desirable that oaths appear as matters of no conse- punishment should be averted; yet he quence, must be injurious; and it can receives it to a certainty; while all his hardly be expected, that a declaration fellow-prisoners, who have less moral of opinion, or an oath, when they are principle remaining, bare various chances given in a more serious manner, should of escape.* be considered in as solemn a light as In regard to the oaths which are they would be if they were not so often meant to be observed as well as taken, treated as mere idle forms.* Let it it would be very desirable to ascertain, now be considered, what is the tendency as far as it is practicable, what is the of the effcct produced by these customs, degree of their real utitity. Many of in those instances in which persons are them seem little likely to produce any prevented by conscientious scruples good effect. To make a man swear to from complying with them. It is to be honest, can be of little service: if he deprive of advantages those to whom it is honest, he will not need the oath; if is the most desirable they should be he is not honest, he will not be restraingiven, and to secure punishment to those ed by it. A man who is inclined to to whom it would be most desirable to cheat or defraud, would not be likely allow a chance of escaping it. Those to be deterred from so doing by an oath, young men who, from conscientious even if it were given in a less hurried, motives, refuse to swear to observe rules careless, and improper, manner than that of which the observation is in many in. in which they are so frequently admistances no longer possible, and who re- nistered. Those oaths which, on enfuse to sign the Articles of the Church quiry, it should be found necessary to of England, because in that long list retain, would certainly be more likely there may be some to which they can- to be respected, if the multitude of usenot assent, are deprived of part, or of less ones, which have almost brought the whole, of the advantages offered by an oath to be considered as a mere those institutions to which their strength mockery, were done away. L. E. E. of principle makes it probable they would do peculiar honour. Those can- To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, didates for orders, who, though they
SIR, may be firm believers in the doctrine of TN the present agitated and alarming the Church of England, and fully re- 1 state of the public mind, when ransolved to do their duty as ministers, yet cour and defiance are substituted for cannot reconcile it to their conscience benevolence and goodwill, when every to declare that they believe theoiselves angry and unsocial passion is heightmoved by the Holy Ghost to take on ened by the indiscreet or infuriated zeal themselves the office of deacon, and of party spirit; what chance has the therefore give up the design of entering “small still voice” of reason and humainto orders, are the very persons who nity to make itself heard in the raging would be most likely to be an honour to of the storm: or, if heard, of being lisa the Church. The prisoner who, though tened to with complacency? In prohe may have been guilty in violating portion however to the difficulty, should the law, is yet still possessed of so mueh the friend of peace and virtue feel the principle, that be will not add to his necessity of inteference; and every in: guilt by uttering what seems to him to
dividual * It is a certain fact, that many persons * I hope that, amongst the alterations who are considered as respectable and how which are about to be made in regard to nourable men, do, without scruple, sub- the criminal laws, the abolition of this scribe to declarations which they know to custom will have a place, as it seems to be untrue, and this not merely on poli- be one which can by no possibility lead to tical subjects, but on many others: it is any good; and which, besides the injury difficult to account for conduct so incon. wbich it sometimes inflicts on a scru. sistent with the usual habits of their lives, pulous prisoner, has some tendency to but it seems possible, that the various cir- weaken the respect for truth in the cumstances which tend to bring subscrip- standers-by, which tendency is increased tions to declarations into contempt, may by the humanity of the judges and lawyers, have some infhience in producing this who anxiously endeavonr to persuade the effect.
prisoner to plead Not guilty,
dividual is bound by every claim of pa. partial fluctuation of the poor-rates bas, triotism and religion to endeavour to during that period, exceeded 10 per soothe and regulate the public feeling. cent. on the amount, up or down; and If there be a "safety lamp," that may I may venture to challenge the compossibly secure us from the so-much-to- mercial world to shew, that the present be-dreaded explosion, in the name of system can bring any permanent relief. all that is valuable to the human heart, Under these circumstances, can it be , let us endeavour to ascertain where it wondered at that murmurings and dismay be found, to profit by its light, and affection should abound? Is it possible in this path to invoke Heaven for its they should cease to increase? The guidance and protection.
people feel that they want protection: There is one point in which all parties they petitioned almost unanimously are agreed, one main difficulty which against the Corn Bill, which, to the all must deplore; one obvious source want of employment superadded the of discontent, which must either be mi- galling evil of doubling the price of tigated, or that discontent must inevi- their bread; and their respectful prayer tably increase to an extent which no was rejected. They ask for the admisforesight can ward-off or estimate; and sion of those friends into the Legislature that is, the want of employment for the who should advocate their cause, and this, population. I do not mean here to en- under the name of reform: but this they quire into its causes, but to call the are denied, as an arrogant and insolent public attention to the subject, as the claim. Wbat then remains to be done? most imperious one thatever came under If their distresses are too great for its notice. Will the magistracy, the guar- endurance, are disdain, contumely, and dians and overseers, the Chamber of violence, the modes an enlightened LeCommerce, the good and enlightened gislature should adopt to assuage the of every denomination, pardon the ap- irritation? The remedy is simple and peal of an individual to their intelli- obvious, if there be virtue and policy gence and patriotism, whether it be not enough left to call forth some public a paramount duty to investigate this union for the attempt. Let the subject growing evil, and to make some vigorous of employment become a more general elfort for its remedy? We have upwards enquiry and feeling; let committees be of 600 persons in the workhouse, with so appointed to scrutinize within their own few sources of employment, that they districts, and then communicate the may, in a general sense, he said to be results for the public notice; let tho in a state of complete idleness; and we zealous and patriotic efforts of the great have about 400 children in the Asylum, and good Sinclair have their due con. The number of out-poor receiving pay sideration; let manual labour in all is, by the last report, 3646, which, at cases have the preference to cattle or four individuals to a casc, will nearly machinery, wherever it can be employ. approach to 15,000; and it is a fair pre- ed; and let the conntry look for its sumption, that other large manufac- tranquillity, in the honest anal laborious turing districts arc in similar circum- occupation of its patient and meritorious stances, or perhaps generally worse, as population. the more staple the articles which are China, on a rough estimate, will be made, the lower will be the general allowed to have double our populaaverage of wages, and, of course, the lation in proportion to its land, it has greater the distress, when the hands are extremely little foreign commerce ; it unemployed.
has little machinery; it has few cattle Our poor-rates are about 60,0001. a. to supersede human labour; and, as to year, and these, with public and pri. its happiness, compared with our mi. vate subscriptions for general benevo. series, can one hesitate in opinion? lence, may bring it near to 100,0001. While our horses consome the produce for the relief of that class which might of as much land as our human beings. contribute mainly to its own support, if we cannot substantiate the idle clamour the means could be put into its hands. of a redundant population. There only This is no temporary affair. We wants contrivance and management; and have been misled by the delusive ex. all may yet be well. The Legislature. peetation that “ revulsion and transi. the landowner, the merchant, the fare tion" must have their time, and that, mer, the fundholder, and the mamufaca after a wbile, better times would follow; turer, are all equally interested: let but five years' continuance of peace bas them open their cyes, and they may yet produced no such effect. I believe, no escape the precipice to which they are