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most oppressively hot. The intense and darted very brilliant corrnscations, heat, which commenced on the 21st of Soon after nine o'clock it gradually dis. last month, continued till near the, end appeared. of the present month, during which pe. November.-The weather was cold, riod we generally experienced a dead humid, fogsy, and extremely unpleasant: calm, and a serene and cloudless sky. it was remarkably calm; and, during the No rain fell, except a little drizzling on greater part of the month, scarcely a two or three mornings about the middle breeze could be observed. Early in the of the month, till the 31st, which was morning of the oth we had some ex. wet throughout, and extremely cold; the tremely vivid lightning and loud peals thermometer having fallen twenty-five of thunder, accompanied with heavy degrees. The average temperature of showers of large bail. From the 18th this month is the bigbest since July till near the end of the month, we had a 1808.
lingering frost, which, on some mornings, September. The weather during the was very severe. On the 22d, 23d, and first week was rather wet and gloomy; 25th, the thermometer was as low as 230, it afterwards was fair and brilliant and 200, and 21°. On the 26th a consideraextremely fine, till the 26th, when the ble quantity of snow foll, which amountharvest was completely finished in tbis ed to about five or six inches in depth : district. The remaining five days wore it disappeared on the 29th. The averchiefly wet.
age temperature of this month, 37.05, October.-This month was marked by is upwards of 11° lower than that of the most unseasonable and violent extremes corresponding month last year. of temperature, and variability of the December.—The first week was very weather. The three first days were moist and gloomy. On the 8th we had mild and wet; the night of the 4th was some showers of snow and bail, and in cold and sleety; and, on the following the night frost commenced, which conmorning, we had a smart frost, when all tinued, with varied degrees of severity, the highest neighbouring mountains till the 17th. On the 16th the thermowere covered with snow. It afterwards meter was 14°, and the average of that was extremely sultry, with torrents of day 200: during this period snow fell at rain at intervals, till the 14th. In the times which amounted to near two night of the 10th the thermometer was inches in depth. The 17th, and the three as high as 66o. After the 14th the wea- following days, were thaw, and exther was variable, but cbiefly fair, with tremely mild, with torrents of rain. On hoar frosts at times in the mornings, till the 19th, the thermometer was as high the 20th, when, in the nigbt, we had a as 53°. The remaining eleven days heavy fall of rain and sleet; and, on the were continued frost, with intervals of following morning, strong frust, when ice great severity, and accompanied with of considerable thickness was observed, some beavy falls of snow. In the night and all the surrounding mountains were of the 26th the thermometer was 150; completely covered with snow. In the and, on the morning of the last day of night of the 21st a quantity of snow fell; the year, 13°, noon 170, and night 30; and, on the following morning, all the low average 11°. The average temperagrounds in the neighbourhood of this ture of this month, 32°, is the lowest city, and surrounding country, were since January 1814, which was 240.47. clothed in white. The remainder of the A very great quantity of snow fell on the month was variable, with intervals of mountains, and in the surrounding counintense frost. In the night of the 27th try, in the latter part of the month. the thermometer was 26°; the next Jan. 2, 1820.
W. Pitt. morning 24°; and, on the morning of the 29th, 22o. The difference in the For the Monthly Maguzine. extremes of temperature this month is LETTER from the LEVANT; by a 44°. In the evening of the 17th, from
MODERN TRAVELLER.* eight to nine o'clock, a most beautiful
Larnica, Cyprus, April 10, 1819. luminous arch was seen from this city and neighbourhood: it extended across V OU will be surprised to receive a the heavens nearly in a direct line from 1 letter from me at such an immense west to east; it was remarkably brilliant,
distance particularly in the western horizon, and * For this letter. (says the Editor of the in the zenith: its breadth appeared to Oxford Herald,) we are indebted to a genyary from three to five degrees. The tleman of this city, who a short time since northern edge was frequently indented, received it from an old acquaintance.
distance, and out of Europe. If I were arrived at the Wilderness of St. Jobo to give you an account minutely of this the Baptist, and saw his grotto. . most interesting of all journeys that I The governor of Jerusalem having have taken, I should fill quires of paper. given me a military escort, I proceeded Let me then run over hastily a short ac- to Jericho, through a wild solitary councount of the countries through which I try; and at this place the governor gave have passed.
me an additional strong military escort, Last August I left London for Pa- with which little army I went to the ris. From Paris I sailed down the banks of the Jordan, and the Lake of Rhone for Marseilles. Here I embark. Death or Dead Sea,-a water eightyed for Egypt: was nearly Jost in two eight miles in length and twenty-five gales of wind off' Candy and Malta. In broad, covering Sodom and Gomorrah, six weeks I arrived at Alexandria, and other cities. Every thing around where I saw Pompey's Pillar, Cleopa- shews the terrible judgment of God: a tra's Needle, the spot on which poor dead terrific silence. Nothing grows on Abercrombie laid down his life, and the plain, though Scripture says it was every object of interest in that celebrated formerly well watered, and called “the place.
Garden of the Land." The water is I then crossed the Desert, arrived salt, the bitumen burns, and smells like first at Aboukir Bay, where Nelson brimstone. No boat was ever seen on fought his great battle; and, after a it. It is indeed an awful place! But veary journey across a desert of sand, I you shall hear more at meeting. got safe to Rosetta. When at Alexap- I left Jerusalem finally, and took a dria, I was introduced to the Pasha or northerly direction. I came, after some King of Egypt, a man of remarkable days' journey, to Bethel, where Jacob talent.
took the stones for his pillar. At Rosetta I embarked in the Pa. Afterwards I got to Samaria, and saw shi's barge, and sailed up the Nile; and, the well where Our Saviour had the rea after two days' sail, I arrived at Grand markable conference with the Samaritan Caro, the capital : where the throng in woman. On each side of the town, thestreets appeared to me greater than beautifully situated in a valley, stands thatin the streets of London.
Mount Ebal and Mount Gerizim, men. I 'isited the Pyramids, scrambling in tioned in Scripture as the places where and brough them; and in the last, Moses commanded benedictions and maopened by Signor Belzoni twelve months ledictions to be pronounced. ago, arstupendous objects truly.
I next entered the grand Vale of EsAftei remaining here ten days, I sailed draeton, beyond anything I have seen, down tle west branch of the Nile, and called in Scripture the Galilean plain, arrived at Damietta, where I was detain- probably fifty miles long and twentyed a fortnight by stormy weather. five broad; which, from the time of the
I embaked here, and afterwards land. King of Assyria down to the disastrous ed at Jaffa ; and as inns, and such like journey of Bonaparte from Egypt to places of accommodation, are totally Syria, bas been the chosen spot for every out of the question, I put up, in the fue action respecting the country. ture stages of my journey, at the con- I visited Mount Hermon, at the foot Tents: the one here is said to be built on of which stands Nain, a small village, the spot where the house of Simon the wbere Our Saviour raised the widow's Tanner stood.
son to life: two miles from which is En. I next proceeded to Ramah, in the dor, where Saul had the interview “with neighbourhood of which is the tomb of a woman of familiar spirit.” St. George, tutelar saint of England; I arrived at Nazareth ; where, you and thence to Jerusalem, going along know, Our Saviour was in subjection to The most frightful path I ever encoun- his parents. It is a small village on lered, through rocks and precipices. the brow of a bill, looking down on a
I remained a fortnight at this most in- valley, and has a population of 2,000. leresting place; saw every thing of a Many objects of interest are shewn sacred nature pointed out; was on the there. Mount of Olives, Mount Calvary, the I then set out to make the tour of Holy Sepulchre, &c.
Galilee, more remarkable than any other I went to Bethlehem, saw the Cave district of the Holy Land, from the fref the Nativity; to the famous Cisterns quent visits of Our Saviour. Solomon; and, after passing Ramab, I "I first arrivod at Capa, “ where the
modest water saw its God, and blush- day, who struck off heads, scooped out ed;" next to the Mountain of Beatitude, eyes, and cut off noses, daily, for his named from the excellent sermon Our amusement. The present minister, who Lord delivered, “Blessed are the poor acted in that capacity to him, had his in spirit,” &c. Then to the spot called nose cut off, and an eye taken out, for “the Multiplication of Bread,” from having offended him. Many are the the miracle which occurred in feeding miserable objects still to be seen going the multitude with the few loaves and along the streets, whom this man disfifishes.
gured, and whom he usually called the Six miles farther on, the Lake of Ti. marked men. berias, or Sea of Galilee, opened up. I I left Acre, and came on to Tyre, entered the town, which is walled round, keeping close by the sea-side. The proand on the edge of the Lake, and could phecy of Scripture is fulfilled, which defind no other place than an old church to clares that this place “shall be as a rock repose in, built on the spot where the for fishers to spread their nets on.” The house of Peter stood.
place is in ruins. Anciently it was a The Lake is fourteen miles long and magnificent city, “whose merchants six broad, in a deep hollow territory. I were princes, whose traffickers were the rode to the end of it, where the Jordan honourable of the earth." (entering the upper part) leaves it; and, After this I arrived at Sidon, a day's what is odd, though the Jordan passes journey distant from Tyre, where I met through the Lake, the waters never with much attention from Lady Stan: mingle. I stripped, bathed, and washed hope, cousin of Mr. Pitt. She is called my clothes, in the Jordan.
Princess here, and is greatly respected. The whole scenery around has some- I do not think she will ever return o thing in it religiously solemn and im- Britain, but end her days at Sidon. pressive. It was bere Our Saviour said I proceeded; and, after a most talto Peter “Follow me;" where the mira- some and exhausting journey over culous draught of fish took place; where chains of mountains for days, and crosshe rebuked the winds and waves: ing the top of Mount Lebanon, covred where, in short, he walked on the very with snow, a journey that I really water!
thought would have got the better of After spending two days here, I pro- me, I arrived safely at Damascus, the ceeded; and, after a day's journey, got view of which, from the mountains deto Mount Tabor, where the Transfigu- scending to it, six miles distant, is most ration took place,-a mountain of great delicious. It is in the centre of a plain, altitude ; and no pen can describe the boundless to the eye, and encircled with grandeur of the scenery. I was on the gardens to the extent of thirty niles. I very top of this mountain. The day was know of no views that come near to it, glorious; and I was feasted with the unless it be those from Shooter's Hill, delicious prospect around. The plain or Greenwich, near London. There is of Esdraeton is under your feet. Mount a population of 400,000. It is almost Carmel, Mount Hermon, Nain, Endor, death to walk about the streets in any Mountains of Samaria : the whole of other than the Turkish habit. I have Galilee, Capernaum, Nazareth, Tibe- been obliged to adopt it during the rias, and Mount Lebanon, (like Ben whole of my route; but the strictness in Lomond, in Scotland,) majestically in Damascus, in this respect, is more rethe back-ground. In the whole globe markable than in any other part of the there is not to be seen, as from this Holy Land. The spot where the vision Mount, so much holy ground at one appeared to the first Apostle, the house time. Never will the scene be forgotten of Ananias, and the place he was “ let by me.
down by the wall in a basket,” are 'I returned to Nazareth; and, after shown; and the street called “Straight," remaining some days, went to Acre, (Acts of the Apostles,) still retains that and visited Mount Carmel, about ten name, miles distant. I went to the top, and I remained here eight days; and, after saw the spot where the Prophet Elijah another long journey of several days, I resided. The river Kishon, so often als arrived at Balbec, to see the famous Juded to in Scripture, flows along the ruins. At entering the town, which has bottom of this mountain..
a population of 500, it bas the appear • The governor is much respected; he ance of one which has been severely succeeded Diazzar Pasba, one of the bombarded. The houses are in ruins greatest Herods or Robespierros of the and have been built like huts, in man
parts of which are the most precious long. One of them sixty-three fect, the carved stones, broken columns, and in depth twelve feet, and breadth twelve scriptions,—the fragments of the mass of feet; and, what is remarkable, they are ruins of the grand temple and building's raised up into the wall about twenty feet contiguous.
from the ground. Not a foot can be My eyes never have seen clsewhere, moved, in going about the town, withia nor I believe ever will see, such mag out stumbling on some precious fragnificent architecture as is to be found on ment, beautifully carved. this spot.
Here I spent a couple of days; and, The origin of the place bas never been after three days' journey, I arrived at distinctly ascertained. One account is, Baureuth, took a vessel, and came here. that it was built for Pharaoh's daughter on my way to Antioch and Aleppo; and by King Solomon; and it corresponds from which I mean to go to Constanti. with the description of the palace given nople, make the tour of Greece, and, if in 1 Kings, chap. vii. ver. 8 and 12. A it please God, I hope to be in old Eny. second is, it was the city celebrated by land in winter. I have given you a very the Greeks and Latins, under the name slight account of my travels in this letof Heliopolis, or City of the Sun, and ter, and I delay all particulars till we denoting by its present Arabic name, meet. Baalbec, that is, the Vale of Baal, its It would take a long summer's day to connexion with the worship of the sun; impart to you the bardships I have enof which Baal, the chief idol deity of countered, the privations I have been the country, was an appropriate deno- forced to submit to, the hair-breadtha mination.
escapes I have experienced, the horrid In its general proportion and form, it savaye Arabs I have been among, the is like the church of St. Paul's, Covent difficulties in the languages encountered. Garden; but that is quite insignificant I travel with one servant only. compared with this temple, in point of I have a patent letter from Rume that magnificence, structure, and dimensions. has commanded at the convents all I There is a voble portico, sustained by could desire, and our ambassador at pillars of the Corinthian order, each Constantinople has also sent me a firman fifty feet in beight and six feet in dia. from the Grand Signior.
In most parts of my journcy I have Nothing can be more august than the been obliged to take escorts of soldiers, view of the entrance. The front is com- on account of the dangerous state of the posed of eight Corinthian pillars, and countries. The manners are totally at within these, at the distance of six feet, variance with those in Europe, and are four others similar. Through these every thing appears “ passing strange" appear the door of the temple, which is to a traveller, when he first puts his foot majestic. Its case or portal resembles, in this country. in proportion and construction, the great I have not met with a single Englishmarble portal at the west end of St. man in the whole of my route. Paul's Church, London, but vastly su- Do remember me kindly to good Mrs. perior in point of beauty and of richness [******, and the accomplished lady we of sculpture. The ipside of the church visited at Oxford, whose name I really appears to have been divided into three forget; and believe me, my dear 1 ****** aisles, and lately the infidel Turks blew
Your's truly, W. R. up with gun powder a superb column P.S.—The name of Englishman is highand arch, the only one wbich remained. Jy respected in all the countries I have Contiguous to this grand temple, which, passed through. in point of architecture, is said to be without a fault, are the ruins of a palace To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. of vast extent. Clusters of the finest
SIR, columns are still remaining, braving the ravages of time. This must have been
O trace the harmony of Nature, and the residence of some powerful monarch.
1 the universal analogy of Cause and The stones are so enormous and massy. Elect, is as delightful as satisfactory. that one is sometimes really led to think when we divest ourselves of the superthe fabric could not be erected by any stitious and legerdemain philosophy, human being. In my life never have and pursue our enquiries by means of seen any thing like them. For instance, the great landmarks of motion, as an there are three of these lying end to end, universal and sole AGENT, and matter which are sixty-one yards, or 183 feet as its PATIENT, by means of which phe
nomena of every kind are created and aggregate motion results from peculiar exhibited.
combinations, concentrations, and trapsTo admit this doctrine, is to open the fers of atomic motion, or whether atomic eyes of the mind: To deny it, is to motion is not always caused by the close them. To feel its truth, is to pos. percussions of aggregates; whether the sess a talisman to the secrets of all na- varieties of atomic motion are caused by ture. To cxclude it from our percep- various forms of compounded atoms; tions, is to shut ourselves in a sort of whether atomic and aggregate motions twilight on most subjects, and in utter are not constantly interchanging, &c. &c.? darkness on others. To apply so uni- All which are hypothetical questions versal and unerring a principle to philo- worthy of being discussed; but of the sophy, is like ascending a lofty hill in a grand universal principle, that all phepicturesque country, and obtaining such nomena are caused by the application of a view of the harmonious causes of sur. various degrees of aggregate or atomic prising effects, as in the valley beneath motion to variously constructed matter, we acquire of objects but partially seen variously situated in regard to other mator invisible. Yet such is the conceit, ter, there can be no doubt; and no prcpride, or folly, of the societies called tence or necessity can exist for further Learned, which dictate opinions to the discussion to prove or establish it. No great and small Vulgar, that, although principle of nature was ever adduced by this palpable principle of nature has man, at once so new, so comprehensive, been above two years before the world, and so applicable to cvery subject of we still read in all their transactions and philosophical enquiry; and in due time, discussions, of their attractions, repul- perhaps before this generation has passsions, projection, gravitation, vacuum, ed away, it must be recoynized as the affinities, vital principle, caloric, electric basis of all physical truth; while all exist&c. fluids, and a score of other similar ing systems must be regarded as vague, hocus-pocusses, the recognition of which irrelevant, superstitious, and absurd. will be adduced, in a future age, as I am led to make these observations a proof of our infancy in science, and by the application of the new doctrines of the ascendancy of the low super to the phenomena of ANIMAL EXISTENCE, stitions of the monkish ages. They are, a subject which has hitherto been so in truth, exactly analogous in principle incomprehensible, and so fruitful in conand character to the sympathies, pre- troversy. dilections, abhorrences, inherent na- The new system ascertains the followtures, incantations, exorcisms, &c. &c. ing positions: of past ages, though, like them, they have 1. That all animal motion is a transfer not yet been exploded. Let yo man, of the motions of the earth, or a deflechowever, lay claim to the title of pbilo- tion of the motions of the earth from the
earth to the animal. sopher, or consistent reasoner, who ad. mits the former class of superstitions,
2. That the terrestrial motion is trans
ferred from the lower to the upper extrewhile he discards the latter.
mities, by action and re-action purely meAfter all that has been published of
chanical. the necessary effects on matter result.
3. That all animal power is derived from ing from its motions in AGGREGATES, this re-action, and consists in a greater or and from intestine motions in the less quantity of motion detected from the ATOMS of aggregates, it is needless to earth by re-action' through the muscular urge more to real votaries of truth on parts of the animal. the elementary principles of these doc- 4. That, without re-action from the earth, trines. It must, in due time, be admit- an animal loses all that power which by ted, that all planetary and aggregate re-action it derires from the earth. phenomena arise from the transfer or
5. That, without the great motions of participation of aggregate motions; and
the terrestrial mass, there would be no that all the phenomena of heat, and, con
motion to transfer or defect; consequent
ly, if the earth stood still, there could be sequently, most of the agencies of che
no motion to transfer, and all animal locomistry, result from atomic motions, ya- motion would necessarily cease. riously excited, accumulated, and ac
6. That all vitality or vital motions are celerated.
consequences of the transfer of the atomic Other points may be discussed at motion, always present in the gazeous meleisure, as whether any matter exists dium or fluid in which animals live. . which is not in some degree potential, 7. That the act of respiration necessary or armed with some motion; whether to all animal life, is merely a mechanical