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arrive there twice a year, bringing silks; For example, in 1788, the returns, muslins, red wool, goats' hair, rhubarb, joined to those from Seyde and Acre, and other drugs ; and they take back amounted outy to seven hundred and the cloths, cochincal, indigo, and other forty-nine thousand seren hundred and articles we carry there. The whole eleven francs; while the returns from trade of Persia was formerly carried on Tripoly alone amounted to seven hunthrough this city; but, since the troubles dred and twenty-niue thousand six hunin this country, the caravans are forced dred and thirteen francis for the greater part to take the direction In 1787 they were nearly the same, of Smyrna. There are many considera. but in 1789 the balance was less advanble manufactures at Aleppo, Diarbekir, tageous. There were three French and in the adjacent villages, where they houses there. make white and printed linens, satins, Seyde and its Dependencies. thicksets, and various other silk stuffs. Acre, Disaer, Damascus, Jaffa, and
The produce of these manufactorics, Rama, compose th is part of the straits. aloug with what came from Persia, con- The French carried on a considerable stituted the principal returns drawn trade with these cities in Palestine. from this country by the French. They Each year they brought there about are supplied by the cotton and silk of the nine hundred bal es of cloth, and other country. France supplies them with ina articles in propor jon, which were condigo, cochineal, and other drugs. The sumed in the country. people are remarkably industrious in They brought back, in return, consi. this country.
derable quantities of cotton, cotton Webrought annually to Aleppo about thread, and silks. one thousand bales of cloth, and a con- These various articles, so precious for siderable quantity of cochineal and in our manufactures, besides many others digo. These articles amouwted annually that composed the returns, made this on an avcrage to near two millions five branch of the Levant trade to be looked bundred thousand francs, according to on as one of the most important. the register formerly kept at the Cham- Seyde is the capital, and the residence ber of Commerce. The surplus results of our consul, at fifteen leagues distance jug from the trade was remiited in bills from Acre. Our merchants bad permis. of exchange to Constantinople.
sion to trade there, and had clerks or The French had seven houses esta factors in each place, to purchase cotblished in Aleppo.
ton, wool, and spun cotton. The French Tripoly in Syria.
having no competitors at Seyde, they The trade with ihis place was more or were quite masters in the purchase of less considerable according as the crop spun cotton, and they colluded in of silk was more plentiful or not. Be- making a common concern of this. sides that article, wo drew aslies, and monopoly. gall-nuts from thence
The sales took place in the public . In this strait lies Attaquie, where markets, under the direction of the naour caravan-captains come frequently to tional inspector or consul, and they anchor, to take in cargos of tobacco for lasted nine months of the year. In plen. Turkey and Christendom.
tiful years, Seyde and Acre sent as much It is bard to fix precisely the value as filicen hundred bales of spun cotton of the outfit compared with the returns to Marseilles. from this country.
The bashaw of Acre having forbid A bad crop of silk, or its total failure, the French associativg in the purchase sometimes reduced the returns nearly to of cotton, as they had already done at nothing ; but, at most, to something Seyde, he monopolized the crops bimvery inferior to the value sent there. In self, and made the cotton rise so exor. the contrary supposition, the high price bitantly, that the Freuch were forced to of silk made the returus come to more forego cxecuting the orders of their con. than a million, though the value of our stituents. merchandizes amounted to little more In consequence of this, they made than two hundred thonsand francs. representations to the başhaw and the
By the registers of the Chamber of result was, the establishing of a duty Commerce, it appears that, during the often piastres per cwt. This was only years immediately preceding the Revo. temporary at first, but finally was made jution, the consumption of merchandize perpetual. Ten or twelve vessels were for this place had augmented
employed annually, to bring the raw and MONTHLY Mag. No. 337.
spun cotton from this country; but, in lions, as well for the ontht as for the reabundant years, more were required. turns. Sometimes the returns were The outfit for these parts may be valued either much above or much under the at a million and half francs; and the value of the venture ; but the best inreturns at about eighteen hundred thou. formed merchants Ox one ycar with sand francs.
another at two millions sive linndred thouThere were ten French merchant sand livres, the exports from Marseilles ; houses at Sey de or Acre.
and at three millions, the value of the Egypt.
importations in return from Egypt. Trade was carried on with this couin- The French have four commercial try by the ports of Alexandria, Rosetta, houses in Alexandria. and Damietta, and European merchan: dize carried from thence to Cairo by To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. vessels that went up the Nile in three SIR, days. The greater part of what we sent V OUR correspondent “ Searcher" to Egypt was consumed there, and the professes to record (Monthly Maremainder went by the caravaps to gazine for January, page 502) “ the Mecca, Sucz, Medina, and even into establishment and manner of conducta Abyssinia.
jug" an institution for “ literary imOur principal ventures were cloths; provement;" from which your readers and, in general, all qualities were cannot but conclude that the institution equally demanded. People of rank, alluded to really exists: but they are, who are nnmerous, bought the first I regret to say, totally deceived. What qualities, and the lower classes made use could induce “Searcher" to record the of the inferior.
existence of a society which ceased to They make great use in Egypt of be a few months after its commenceeochineal, groceries, iron, and cordials. mcnt, it is scarcely possible even to con
The French commercial agent re- jecture; and what could be bis motivesided at Alexandria many years before for subjoining the rules of another sothe Revolution. Before that period he ciety, and thus confounding two distinct resided at Cairo, where he was continu- and very dissimilar institutions, it is no ally exposed to the impertinence and in- less difficult to imagine. Be this as it sults of people in power: so there only may, the fact is, that the society eslaremained in Cairo such French esta, blished last winter was also dissolved blishments as hoped to be unmolested, last winter. The “Warwick Upion thongh deprived of the protection of Society" was brgun subsequent to the their official agent.
ever-to-be-remembered 16th of Angost. The Chamber of Commerce at Mar. It was not established for "literary im. seilles sent annually ten thousand franes, prorement," but to give, in the first into be employed by the merchants stance, pecuniary assistance to the sufthere in conciliating the good graces of ferers at Manchester, and afterwards, as persons in power.
may be seen by the Rules, to any wlio Damietta has but a bad harbour, and might suffer in the cause of civil or relié a dangerous bay.
gious liberty. The French took in cargos of rice The lovers of literary improvement there, and brought them to France, under who have read “Searcher's" paper cover of pro forma clearances to Turk. would doubtless feel greatly disappointish ports; twelve or fifteen cargos were cd, were I to stop here; but I congratitby this means annually brought to Eu- Jate myself and them on being able to rope.
state, that there is in this town a Society A French manufacturer, established for the acquirement of useful knowledge at Marseilles, having discovered the ad- and for literary improvement. It was vantageous employment of sal-patron established in the latter end of the year in making soap, great quantities of this 1817; and, though at its commcnicemineral have since been exported from ment the number of members was small, Egypt.
yet from that period there has been a The trade with Egypt has under- gradual increase ; and the present list gone many changes, from the unhappy contains about forty; ten of whom are effects of the intrigues and jealousies of lecturers. The Society meet each Tueseighty-four beys that commanded in day evening through the winter. Its Cairo. However, in certain years, this objects, and the manner of conducting trade amounted to more than two mile its proceedings, will be best explained
by a copy of its Rules, which I thercfore to public consideration, as briefly as subjoin, in the hope that others may be I could to render them intelligible, thereby stimulated and assisted to adopt on the various subjects brought forward. a similar plan, and that kuowledge may Such as they are, they are much at your thus he increased. H. CLARKE. service: the patriotic zeal you have conWarwick ; Jan. 30, 1820.
stantly manifested in the cause of small Rules of the Warucick Inquiring Society. farms and spade-cultivation, will liere 1. That this Society be denominated the
mect with an additional advocate.
A new systein of hydro-agriculture, “Inquiring Society.”
U. That its objects be the attainment of mechanical spadc-cultivation, garden useful knowledge on moral and religious grazing, and poultry-farming, together subjects, and in the different branches of with the establishmcut of manufactorics science and art, by investigation and for the employment of females in prediscussion.
paring the provisions so raised for III. That the Society shall consist of market, and the propriety of approprimenibers and lecturers; the lecturers, with ating our glebe-lands to these underAwo of the members, to compose a com- takings, form the ground-work. The mittee, in whom shall be vested the go- elementary parts of the internal relavernment of the Society.
tions of the system consist in endeaIV. That the Society shall meet every vouring to make the most advantageous Tuesday evening; the chair to be taken at,
use of human intelligence and induseight o'clock, and the business to conclude
try in:at ten. V. That each lecturer in succession
Sun.--The great point of vegetation. shall provide a subject for the evening,
Everyone knows the great difference which subject may be original composi
there is in the progress of vegetation grow.
ing on a warm sunny bank, or on a cold tion, or extracts from anthors of acknowdedged merit; and, after its delivery, the
northerly aspect. The new plan proposes
to act in this respect upon the southerly sulject shall be candidly discussed. VI. That any subject which is not con.
inclined plane, the same as gardeners now cluded on the evening it is introduced,
do with their cucumber and melon frames, may, with the approbation of the Society,
whereby the sun's rays strike full upon the be resumed for one or two evenings in
bosom of the earih: and further assistance succession, but no longer.
to vegetation is derived in a negative nan. VII. That each lecturer shall nominate ner, by the cold chilling winds so prevalent a chairman for the ensuing evening: any
in the spring months thus passing over altercation or irregularity shall be under
them obliquely, instead of striking full the control of the chairman. who shall upon them. As shelter is also a kind of strictly preserve good order.
negative warmth, the belt of labourers' VIII. That a secretary shall be appoint
cottages which it is proposed to erect ed to take regular minnies of the proceed
round these gardens, will be serviceable ings of the Society : the secretary shall be
in this particolar. trasurer also.
Water - Is emplatirally termed the food · IX. That any person desirons of be
of plants; son, witsont water, turns to coming a lecturer shall be ballotted for
little account: nor does water withont by the committee.
sun: but botlı, acting in happy union toX. That, for non-attendance, the chair
gether, are productive of luxuriance. This
will be laid in to the use of these gardens, man shall forfeit six-pence, the secretary
which will be laid out for the purpose by six-pence, and the lecturer one shilling; bnt each, with the exception of the lec
lıydrostatic means, the same as dwelling.
houses are now supplied with it. turer, may procure a substitute.
Manure. This is an essential article, in XI. That each member shall subscribe
which the new agriculture will stand on a sixpence per quarter in advance, to form,
proud pre-eminence. What is a growing with the forfeits, a fund for the use of the
green-crop destined to be consumed upon Sociely.
the same soil it grew 177on, but a growing
manure heap also ? The heavy succession To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. crops to be raised by the artificial means str,
resorted to, will be further assisted by the As I am aware that the space al
that the co ol rich articles bought in for fattening off the A loited in a Magazine to any parti
stock; and by their gratefully leaving their
entrails behind them at their deaili, as a cular subject is necessarily confined, in order to keep up its characteris.
a, tributary legacy to the richness of the farm
whose luxuriance they were lately partic variety, I have made out a skeleton takers of. The field agriculturist reckons of the propositions I have to submit he does great things, when he manures
against his turnip-crop once in four years, by me during the present year, it appeared, and that of manure made chietly from his on sowing a patch of garden-ground with dry and sapless straw: the new system cal. turnips of the Norfolk kind, on a cold clay culates upon having three heavy succession soil, in no very good heart ay to manure, crops within the year, consumed in all the at Lady-day last, that, at six weeks old, freshness and succulence of their juices, the first plant taken up was found to weigh constantly returning to the ground as it barely half an ounce; the next, at 10 is inade, and, what is not a little material weeks old, barely also 4 oz.; the next, at as to the good econoniy of it, trenchied 13 weeks old, weighed 10 oz.; at 15 weeks, in so, that it will not be in the way of 15 oz. ; and, at 20 weeks old, 271 ounces, having its virtues evaporated by the rays tops and bottoms being all the while of the son as that which falls mpon weighed together, and the finest plant sepasture lands. This matter, then, reserves lected each time. The separate weight of itself as the consumer of the produce of the the last top was 9} oz. Now of plants corn lands into a small compass. Which there will be in an acre, at the following is likely to be the richest land: that distances asunder, .which pays tribute to the other, or that Square inches.
No. of plants, which receives it ?
6,272,640 Tilth.-In spade-cultivation, the work
1,568, 160 man usually makes two or three inches of
699,960 progression at each spade-full, according
392,040 to his strength compared with the nature
250,905 of the soil. With the new mechanical
17.4.240 spade, only one inch of progression will be
98010 nade at a time, by which means each foot
62726 of land will be worked twelve times over,
43560 by the peculiar manner in which it
24502 Thinning. This will give occasion to
19360 explain the new agricultural paradox; for
14223 the old hydrostatic one “Any quantiiy of
10890 a fluid how small soever, may be made to These being thinned to 4 inches balance and snpport any other quantity port any other quantity apart, the first thinning .
627 2640 how great soever,' has long wanted a Will leave
392040 companion; with which it may now be farnished, if conceived in these terms: “A
5880600 weight greater than itself may be sub. And therefore, the remainder will be the tracted from a growing latter crop, and number of planis taken away, whichi, at yet it will ultimately remain as heavy as only a dram each when 6 weeks old, will ever.” From a series of experiments made be 10 tons.
392040 The second thinning leaving them eight inches apart, will produce
Which at 3 oz. each, as being 10 weeks old, will be 24 tons 294030
73508 plants at 15 oz. each, as being 15 weeks old, pro. square : the rule for which is, Multiply ducing 30 tons, while the ultimate stand. its length by its breadth, and the product ing crop, at 21) weeks old, will be but 16 is the content. So that, if we take the tons ; nor is it possible that they can, at instance of a foot square to be measured, this late period, subsequently regain their as there are 12 inches in a foot, which is lost ground under any circumstances: so its length, and 12 inches again in its say these figures, do what we will to pre. breadth ; thes, multiplied together, pro. vent it.
duce 144 inches, the content of a foot As this conclusion will be held deroga. square in inches. Again, in order 10 as. tory to common sense by every one wlio is certain how many 2 inches there are in it: merely conversant in common arithmetic, By the same rule, we find that 6 times ? it will be necessary we should prove our inches make a foot; and therefore, 6 times premises before we proceed further, in 6 is 36, the number of 2 inches'squares in a order to explain them. Square measure foot square. Again, to pursue it an extheni' is governed, not by commercial ample further, as to how many squares of but by mathematical arithmetic, as being 4 ivches there are: 3 times 4 make 12, and dependant npon the admeasurement of the ġ times 3 make 9, as being the number of 4
inches' squares in the foot. So that, instead times its own space; but, if they were of there being only half the number of trausplanted two feet asunder, 576 times plants left, when thinned to a double dis. that space.
W. DONCASTER. iance, as might naturally be supposed, there are only one-fourth the number left, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. viz. 144 at 1 square inch, 36 at 2 square
SIR, inches, and 9 at 4 square inches apart:
V OUR corresponclent W. W. of St. thus establishing the corollary,'That where
1 Ives, in your Magazine of the 1st one reinains on these occasions, three are taken away, which accounts for the great,
of the present mouth, page 23, calls the and no doubt at first unaccountable, attention of your readers to the rule, in amount of the thinnings of this crop, which Murray's Grammar, for the observance was the point to be proved, and a niost of parises in reading, and suggests an important point it is as ever was proved alteration for its iniprovement; but I by human intelligence, since it goes to beg leave to assure your correspondent, producing a new vegetable world in addi. that the just expression of what is writtion to the old one, and a great bonus crop ten does not slepend upon either the one to the cultivator, as it will be nearly all or the other of those rules, nor upon profit : rent, taxes, and the expenses of pre
any such arbitrary rule whatever. In vious cultivation, being the same as before;
fact, it does not depend upon the olsand even the thinning charges being not much dissimilar to those of the hoeings and
servance of rests at all; and, if I were weedings now in use. But a method will
to hear any one read according to be brought forward, with apparatus suited either of those rules, it would very for. to it, which will put these upon a parity, cibly remind ine of looking at a wooden80 as to make it a bonus crop complete legged man in a meadow culling cour. especially when the large additional quan: slips. This subject, however, is too tity of manure as well as food thus pro. long for discussion in this place; I therc. duced is taken into account.
fore proceed to W.W.'s next subject. Trunsplantation.-It will be seen, by the your correspondent noticcs a very preceding account,how greatly, in propor. unimportant error in the definition of tion to the same space of time, a plant in- rhyme, in the same Grammar; for verse, creases after it has taken root, than while
in English, as well as versum, in Latin, it is forming one. In virtue of transplanta
are often lised for line, whilst he is tion, advantage is taken of this circum. stance; so that it is clear arithmetic, that
wliolly inconscious that that definition if the same weight of crop can be raised in 15 Dom faisc and imperfect ; for immorthree months through its medium, which tality rlıymes neither with affability nor it would have taken five months without it, with importunity, nor docs cither of this is two-fifths of the crop gained at the them rhyme with the other, althouyla connter expense of the seed-bed and there is a "correspondence in all their transplantation. Through this mean, the last syllables;" and concord and discord garden grazier will get three crops within have no rhyme, but a mere repetition in the year with the same facility with which their last syllables. the field agriculturist gets one; namely, a . The best definition of rhyme that I crop of radishes and turnip radishes, can give, currente calamo, is this: another of transplanted lettuces, or a green
“Rhyme is the correspondence of the flax crop, which he pleases; and a third, a transplanted cabbage, Swedish tur
last accented or cmphatic vowel sound
of a line, and of all the following sounds nip, or kale crop, &c. I will take this opportunity of mentioning, that, on looking
of that liuc, with the saine sounds of over my memoranda for the weights of anothier line, accompanied by a variation the turnip plants, I found the following of the initial letters of the syllables too entry: “ The average weight of a cauli which those emphatic vowels belong.". flower is a pound and a half, which weight Thus: breast, crest, guest ; concord, lettuces will run to ; but the thiree weighed long cord, strong coril: were certainly very fine ones." Ergo, the
Hospitality, latter being transplar:ted out a foot apart,
All reality, would, at that raie, produce 29 tous per
No formality. acre. Another of no mean importance The above is certainly not such a was, “ the weigbt of a full-grown turnip definition of rhyme as miglit be given, radish is 2 oz.” Now, according to the table just made out, it will follow, that a
e if the truc principles of prosody were seed-bed in which plants grew occupying
generally kuown; but I believe it eni.
generally k an inch square, being transplanted out à braces everything necessary for its defoot apart; represented all that time 144 scription.
W. GREEN. Hans Town; Feb. 12, 1820.