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might be useful to A. Z.: the title is is rapidly advancing, and the structure “A Catalogue of the Animals of North will be finished in less than a year, well America, with short directions for col- furnished with a complete set of instru. lecting, preserving, and transporting, all ments. Two celebrated astronomers are kinds of natural curiosities; by John procured to superintend the manage. Reinhold Forster :" who accompanied ment: one is M. Pons, Adjunct Director Captain Cook in bis voyages to the of the Observatory of Marscilles, who South Seas.
R. P. has discovered in the remote starry re. Chowbent ; Jan. 15, 1820.
gions twenty-three comets revolving in
our solar system. The appointments of To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. these situations are in a style of superior SIR,
advantage, and extend to the widow's in IN Thompson's Chemistry, vol. 4. p. case of decease. 1 372, 2d. edit. it is mentioned, “that Her Majesty has very recently estaat Vienna several seeds which had been blished in her Lyceum two professorlong kept, and which had constantly re- ships, one for the Roman Law, and the fused to germinate, grew readily, which other for Moral Thcology. treated with oxy-muriatic acid.” He The idea of raising an Observatory quotes Jour. de Phys, 47. 63, “that originated with the princess. But, Mr. Humboldt has ascertained that before taking a definitive resolution, seeds vegetate more rapidly when steep- she consulted Baron de Zach of ed in this acid, or when watered with it; Gotha, whom slie bad invited for the and this acid is well known for the fapurpose, and who came rather to oppose cility with wbich it parts with its than encourage the project. He urged oxygen, which is absolutely necessary that, in all Europe, there were only two for the germination of all seeds."
Observatories that fully answered the Upon this statement, perhaps C. L. purpose,--those of Greenwichand Paler, will think it worth the experiment, to mo, as all our tables of the sun, moon, steep some of his foreign seeds in this and planets, are founded on observations acid till germination is apparent, when, made for 130 years in the former, and all if put into the earth with a very slight our exact positions of the fixed stars are covering, they will soon appear abore derived froni 'observations made in the ground.. 1
B. DEALTRY. latter during the last thirty years. The Near Wakefield ; Jan. 10, 1820. princess replied in such a manner as to
astonish and convince M. de Zach of the For the Monthly Magazine.
propriety of the mcasure; and he was Letter from ITALY, on the LIBERAL
employed to fix on a proper situation,
This was difficult, as the city stands ; Spirit of a FEMALE SOVEREIGN.
in a hollow, encompassed in every M ARIA-Louisa de Bourbon, Infanta direction with lofty contiguous moun.
A of Spain, and rcigning Duchess tains, ditches, standing waters, &c. that of Lucca, signalizes her government discharge into the atmospliere almost by a regard for the sciences and arts, incessantly a dense foggy vapour. A which she encourages by all the means place was at length discovered, a small within her power. She appears to be her elevation at Martia, about two leagues own minister; and public and private from the city, which overlooks an extenaccounts declare that, within her little sive borizon, especially towards the sphere, the age of the Medicis will be south. It is in the quiecli's park, and at a revived. Under her direction, houscs very small distance from the palace. of education have been founded, and several artists of London, Munich, essays on mutual instruction circulated; Gotha, Berlin, &c. made acquainted by .together with a Lyceum, a Cabinet of Baron de Zach with the foundation Physics, a Chemical Laboratory, a of this structure, have made gratuitous stud for the breed of horses, and a num- donations of instruments of all kinds. ber of manufactories of every descrip A midst all this patronage of letters, tion. Men of letters, talents, and in- she governs according to the despotic dustry, foreigners or otherwise, are sure principles of her family. She lately scut of her favour and patronage.
her guards, composed out of the first This enlightened princess, from her families in Lucca, to the gallies for sex privy purse, has been at the charge of veral weeks, for some disobedience of founding a magnificent Observatory, the her commands; and in other respeets first stone of which she herself laid, on imitates, in her conduct, Elizabeth of the 26th of September last. The work England,
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, offer temptation to perjury and fraud,"
and give those who violate the law an
1 titled a Letter to Lord Hol- it. This is precisely the case of the law land, treating of the abuses in the commonly called the Statute against Church, which appeared in the last Simony. Were it not that such arbimonth's Magazine, brings to my re- trary, power is vested in the hands of the collection a conversation on this subject biglier orders of the clergy over the intewhich took place between two genile- rior, I ain confilent the abuses in the men I chanced to travel with in a stage's Church would be more frequently bronght coaclı, some time ago, in the west of to light; but exposure would not only at England. A variety of instances were once stop all chance of preferment, but adduced by one of them, of the abomi. be vis ted with almost absolute ruin to nable traffic which had to his own per- any one of the clergy who dared the sunal knowledge, he said, been carried task,-at least secure to him a life of vexon; and he mentioned a few, in which atiolls and harassing persecution; and bighi dignitaries in the church were impli- the lairy have not the opportunities of cated very deeply. I couless I listened so casily becoming acquainted with the with the utmost astonislıment, and was facts. However, I will pledge myself to very much disinclined to credit bis as- lay before any member of parliament sertions. The allusions were too pointed who will seriously take up the matter, to be mistaken; and I have since made such instances of barter, convivance, it my business to obtain all the informa- partiality, &c. as shall eficctually sulo tion I could, and to put his statements stantiate any assertions he may make to the test. I lament to say, I have of cither generally. Ecclesiastical confound them actually to be true; aud cerns loudly call for investigation ; and, whenever I hear of any member of pare as many of the clergy are so busy and so liament acting so laudable a part as at- active in temporal concerns, they claim tempting a reform of abuses in the notice, and secin to court inquiry; Church, I shall without hesitation make and I earnestly hope that the time is him acquainted with such facts as must not far distant, when they will be gracarry conviction of the absolute neces- tified with it. It may well be said on sity of some investigation of the con- this subject, there is something rotten in cerns of the ccclesiastical body. Church the state of Denmark.
A.B. patronage appears to be a complete article of barter; and, I regret to say, the present laws tend to exclude conscientious men,
For the Monthly Magazine, while they are no obstacle to such as un- NOTEs made during a JOURNEY from ceremoniously disregard them; and I per LONDON to HOLKHAM, YORK, EDINfectly, as every man of common sense BURGH, and the HIGHLANDS of scot. must I think, agrce with the author of LAND, in July and August 1819, by tho Letter to Lord Holland, that, when JOHN MIDDLETON, esq. the author of a law is found absolutely necessary to be an AGRICULTURAL View of MIDDLEoverlooked, or even a violation of it
sex, and other works. is found convenient to be connived at, by
[Continued froin p. 34.] that authority which is bound and direct. AAHE road from Inveroreliam to ed by the duties of office more immcdi- 1 Tyne-drum extends along a glen, ately to enforce its provisions, it can which, for rugged lofty mountains, is no longer be consiilered justly tenable, only exceeded by Glen-coe ; and neither but actually subversive of moral princi- of these mountain-passes has the adple, and onglit forthwith to be amended vantage which lochs confer, in order to or repealed; - indisputably this is the case make such scenes sublime. witli the statute of Simony. The very Tync-drum is a moderately respectasame sentiment is broached, as appears ble im. A few years ago lead mines were by a report of the Committee of the high worked in sight of this house to a consicharacters appointed to investigate the derable extent, but they are now deaffairs of the Bank, as touching the laws serted. From this place southward the affecting persons exporting or melting country is so much improved, though the coin. They very justly observe, they mountains are still very lofty, as to be conceive it to have been clearly demon- generally pastured by sleep. The next strated by long experience, that they are place is Dalmally, another respectable wholly ineffectual for the object for inn ; but still the female servants attend which they were designed, and that they company with naked fect.
Another stage brought us to Inverary, is turnpike, on which very heavy tolla the county-town of Argyleshire, where are taken ; these are cqual to three-penco we were agreeably surprised by the per mile for a post-chaisc and pair, and sight of a steam-boat from Glasgow, the road is so much out of repair as to be This is a very respectable place, with a barely passable; but not a mau was cmgood iun, a court-house, a new prison, ployed upon it. We next passed by the and a neat church. Hcre the Dukc of Tarbet jm, which is surrounded by Argyle has a castle of modern structure, plantations on the western borders of and of a comfortable size; it is a square Loch-Lomond, with the lofty monptain of building, with a round tower at each Ben-Lomond in full view. Å steam pleaangle, and five windows between the sure boat glided along this very beautitowers on every side of the castle. Here ful loch as we travelled along its border is a charming terrace and other walks, to Luss, a small village, where there is a fine green turf, and beautiful avenucs, an inn frequented by luw company from adorned with well grown elm and limc a slate quarry. This loch is more bealttrees. The neighbouring bills and moun- tiful than any which we have seen, as it tains are thickly covered by pines of the is more dressed with islands and shrulo greatest lengths, and straiglit as an bery. Two miles before we came to arrow. To all which is to be added, a Dunbarton, the narrow glen extends to large loch of the sea in full view. This a wide valley, in which the soil is excel whole place forms a very fine landscape, lcnt, and mostly occupied witli genteel which includes the castle, the sea, two villas. stone bridges, a handsome town, and At Dunbarton, the Elephant is the mountains well timbered. There also sign of a superior inn. We viewed the are plenty of salmon; and, in the season, glass-liouse, and are obliged to the provast shoals of berrings. From Inverary prietors of it for showing as the process there is a good road, and an agrecable of making crown-glass. The whole maride along the border and round the nufactory seems to be most completely head of Loch-Fine to Cairn-dow, wliere arranged. Many men were employed, there is a small clean inn, at moderate and three cupolas engaged. We wero charges.
guided by one man for vur own protecThe first stage this morning (13th lion, while another with an empty August 1819) was througli Glen-crow, tube took up a picce of melted glass where the mountains were bigh and fine, two or three inches in diameter, whichi, second only to those of Glen-coc. These at two or three operations, le increased are of a different cast, not quite so lofty, to five or six inches; then, by repeatedly more sloped, and without any of the ter. heating, aided by rolling and blowing, it rific. We then passed a mile or two became extended to a balloon of two or along the side and round the end of three feet in diameter. To this a tubo Loch-Long, with pleasant villas in view, was then fixed on the opposite side, and to an inn called Arowcha, at which place the first tube was in a moment separated, we had a distinct view of an exhausted which left a hole into the balloon of volcano, of course forming the top of a about threc inches diameter. The balmountain, and where a particular rock is loon was then poot into thic fire, where it called the Cobler. This house and its was turned rather swisily round, then it grounds have the appearance of being was drawn out and twirled round beforo built and prepared for the residence of a the fire, and exposed to the heat of it, by man of modcrate fortone. It is now a which the hole gradually increased in very respectable inn, and capable of ac- size, till what had bcen a globe took commodating much company. The road the shape of a circular sheet or plate of from this place northward all the way red-hot glass; it was thieu cautiously to Fort George is denominated a mili- placed on its elge to be annealed, and tary way; it is in good repair, and there ilat completed the operation. We then are no tolls to pay.* But, from this viewed the Castle Hill, a very extraorhouse southward to Dunbarton, the road dinary elevation of basaltic rock, and
brought specimcus away. There is a * We passed several parties of men en
respectable-looking church in this town, ploved in improving the military roads; and the first dock for ship-building and, on one occasion, we observed, they was in progress. were provided properly with tents, to The next day we drove towards shelter them from the pelting storm, as Glasgow, through a wcll-cultivated dis. well as for repose during the night. trict, where rising grounds, on each side
of of the river Clyde, are embellished with plaints are endemial to this climate, yet villas and pleasure-grounds. The picture incy are all greatly aggravated and inwas also hicightened by five or six stcam. creased by the introduction of this boats gliding along a very finc river. exotic. The arable land vicwed during this ride T his may be said of tea when it can is generally in the commendable rotation be procured puro and unadulterated; of potatoes, wlicat, clover mixed with for I very much doubt if it be imported ray-grass, and then oats: the crops not in a genuine state, generally, even from large, and the grass-land infested with its indigenous soil. It is a known fact, the weeds of rag-wort, docks, and that the Chinese aro accustomed to thistles. In one case, the pastures were mix the foliage of the camellia sasanqua clean, and the licrbage well employed with the tea that is designed for the Euin fallening large oxen. The road from ropean market. Thus we must depend Dunbarton to Glasgow is repaired with upon the honesty of a foreign merchant; suchexcellent materials, as unite the two and trust to its salubrity, after it has desirable qualities of hardness and passed through the hands of our tea-matoughness. These are obtained in thie nufacturers at home. neighbouring hills of whinstone, a vol. I am perfectly disinterested in what I canic production, which contains a small shall offer as a succedancum. Nly only portion of iron. Recesses are prepared reasons for communicating it is, for the in convenient places adjoining the sides enjoyment and advantage of the comof the roail, to which the stones are munity at large, it being economical as carted, and mcu are there employod in well as nutritious. breaking them to pieces, which are not
Dietetic Composition. to exceed oric-fourth of a pound; and for Take of the best patent cocoa and sago this labour they are said to be paid reduced to powder, of each equal quanti. twenty-pence per yard cube. These rc- ties; blend them well togetber. Of this ceptaclos are built in the shape of citherm
ther mixture, a table spoonful to be put in a
od pint of milk, to which may be added one a regular square or parallelogram, and
pint of boiling water ; boil the whole for & shew the quantity of stones by mspec- few minutes, frequently stirring it. Sugar tion: that is, twendy-seven feet in may be added in moderate portions. length by twelve in breadth, will contain 'This affords a' nutritious food for ono cubical yard for cvery inch in children as well as adults. The usual height. The sides of thesc places are accompaniments of a dejeuné may be figured from the ground upwards; and, taken with it.
J. B. when the broken or other stones aro spread level on the top, every inch in
For the Monthly Magazine. dcpth indicates a cubical yard. This is ACCOUNT of the French Trade in various all so excellent, that I very much wish
PARTS of the LEVANT. such stones wero shippod (broken or
Morea and its Dependencies. unbroken) to the port of London, for a TAE trade with this country, is similar purpose. Salisbury Craigs, nearL comparatively tritling. but was Edinburgh, and other places on tho east much more considerable formerly. coast of Scotland, arc couvenicntly situ Tlic docline of trade there was a con. ated for that purpose.
sequence of the rcvolutions that took
place in this country, and to the devasta. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. lions of the Albanians, who lay waste SIB,
and ransack the country. MOULD fea be procured in an un. The principal towns in the Morea,
U sophisticated state, it should be are Tripolissa, Napoli de Lomanie, Cartaken in moderate quantities, with milk ran, Modon, Patras, Oustiche, and and sngar, when no ill effects may pos. Corinth. sibly cusue ; nay, it often exhilarates and The inhabitants of these places make refreshes the human frame, particularly but little consumption of French manaafter great fatigue or exposure to a hu- factures. Coarse cloth, caps, a little mid atmosphere. But should this infu- cochineal, indigo, and coffee, were all we sion be tvo freely indulged in, it occit- carried there ; but we sent considerable sions relaxation of the solids, tremors, sums in piastres and sequins, when bypochondriacal, hysteric complaints, they could be procured. The returns and other symptomatic affections, the were easily effected for Constantinople, usual attendants of all narcotic plants. principally in silk, oil, and corn, wbich Admitting that some of these com- were paid in bard cash, because the
value of our goods was not sufficient to
Cyprus. pay for them; these objects scarcely Many years before the Revolution. amounting to four hundred thousand
our trade with Cyprus bad greatly fallou francs, wbile the returns cost about two
off from its former splendour. The millions.
vexations of the bashaw's had nearly put We have already pointed out the an end to it. The cultivation being cause of this great disproportion between abandoned, the inevitable consequence the outfit and the return; the latter was, a considerable diminution in the hcing almost wholly paid in ready money.
consumption of European manufactures. We must not be surprised, then, to
This island was nearly reduced to sce our exports for that purpose in 1789
serve mercly as a warehouse, and the amount only to 351,467 francs; and the goods imported there were almost wholly returns produce one million cight hun.
consumed in the neighbouring cities of dred and eighty one thousand cight hun- Syria: vessels destined for that country dred and fifteen francs. This was nearly usually touched at Cyprus. the annual amount.
Wo brought there annually eighty Five French houses were established bales of cloth, and many other objects of in this country.
less notice ; just in the samic proportion, Canaan, and the adjacent country.
respecting the woollen drapery, as to the The trade to this part of the Levant,
other straits of the Levant. was much like that we carried on with
The cilies of this island are Larnac, thc Morea.
Nicasia, Limasso, and Flamagoust. The It consisted in oil and a little wax,
manufacture of raw silk, silk waving, which we paid in Izelot piastres, and
calicoes, &c. employ this greater part of caragoras; but the productions of the the cotton and silk raised in the country, country greatly exceeded the value of and would make trade prosperous, were its consumption. We had little dc- it not for the vexations to which the mand for Frencli manufactures there; nufacturers are exposed. their whole amount, including woollen
o the one drapery, scarcely came to four hundred on
spot we add the silk and coltou not em. thousand francs.
ployed, as well as spun cotton, storax, In 1788 we carried there the value of
op and drugs, wc bave an idea of the reone hundred and one thousand four turns from Cyprus. Wc sent in 1787 kundred and twelve francs; and the an hundred anii five thousand two bunhomeward invoices amounted to two
dred and seventy-five fralics' value'; and millious two bundred and sixty thousand the returns amounted to nine hundred and two hundred and forty-five francs. What fifty three thousand four laundred francs. we have already said concerning the In° 1788. one hundred and fivo thouMorea, explains the cause of this coor
sand six handred and eighty-six francs ; mous disproportion between our exports
and the returns, nine hundred and sovelle and imports.
ty-six thousand one hundred and sixtyThere were but two French commer
one francs. Iu 1789, one hundred and eind houses in that country.
eighteen thousand two hundred and nineThe Coast of Caramania and Satalia.
ty.ono francs; and the returns, nine hun. During the French revolution, our
dred and two thousand scven hundred traders had no establishments there.
and forty-six francs. From those three They were attempted many times at
years we may form a just estimate of our Satalia, but unsuccessfully; for the ex
trade with Cyprus. We had only liro pense absorbed the profit.
French liouses there. Since this time, the trade has been car. ried op by our ship-masters, who bargain Aleppo and Alexardretta. , ou the spot for the articles they want, Vesselsfitted-out to trade with Aleppo cousisting of silk and cotton ; these they stop at Alexandretta, which is about pay for with specie, taken up at Smyrna forty leagues distant from it, where or Cyprus, or sometimes put on-board they unloall, and the goods are carried at Marseilles. As to the merchandize by camels to Aleppo. shipped for this trade annually, it would This journey takes up four days, durbe rating it high at one hundred ing which the caravans are frequently thousand livres. We had formerly a plundered by the Curds, who infest French agent there; but, being frequently the country. exposed to the jusults of the inhabitants, Aleppo is the most commercial city of the employment was suppressed., Asia Minor. The caravans from Persia