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be no mistake respecting the real whom he called a wolf, possessed sentiments of these zealous Refore by an evil spirit, and who, as he

on the following day, afterwards said, “ is so full of Luther mounted the pulpit, and devils, that he spits them from openly declared that the coufla. his mouth, and blows them from gration they had just seen was a his nose.”+ Nor was this, as Bos. matter of small importance; that suet remarks, an orator, whom Sit would be more to the purpose the warmth of the harangue might if the Pope himself, or in other have hurried into indeliberate words, the Papal See, were also conclusions ; but a doctor that burnt !)*

dogmatized in cold blood. When “This indecent and persecuting abuse and slander had been pretty behaviour was imitated by the well lavished and exhausted, he friends of the Reformation in se

turned the strains of his invective veral parts of Germany. How into the most foul and disgusting unlike the conduct of him who railing, employing the lowest when he was reviled, reviled not figures, the vilest comparisons, again; when he suffered, threatened and the most execrable puns, not! What a pity that these which his fertile imagination Reformers should have been so could devise, to pour contempt anxious to get rid of every thing and reproach on the head of the in Popery, but its persecuting Church; insomuch, that his lanspirit! That the strici discipline, guagt had at times much more and the various means and motives the appearance of delirious ravá to a holy life, which are found in ings, than that of a wise and the Catholic Church, should be holy reformer of abuses. all rejected as " filthy rags," and “Supposing himself to be speaknothing be retained but that ing to the Pope, Paul Ill. he gloomy spirit of bigotry, which says: “My little Paul, my little in fact does not belong essentially Pope; my little ass, walk gently, to any religious profession, but the frost has made it slippery; which the darkness of the age had thou wilt break a leg-thou wilt 80 injuriously ingrafted on the befoul thyself, and people will faith of Christians ! Nor was ery out, О the devil! how the this the only instance of Luther's little ass of a Pope has befouled intolerant zeal : he called upon

himself !”.. Again: An Charles V. the young Emperor, knows that he is an ass; a stone to rise up and oppose himself to knows that it is a stone; but the kingdom of Antichrist ; and these little asses of Popes do not he addressed a book in the Ger. know that they are asses." The man language to the Emperor Pope cannot take me for an ass and nobles, endeavouring to excite for he knows very well that them to war against the Pope,t through God's goodness and his ** Parum esse hoc deflagrationis né

particular grace, I am more learngotium ; ex re fore, ut Papa quoque,

ed in scripture than he and all boc est, sedes Papalis consumaretur.” Luth. Op. tom. vii. in Reeve's Luth. Op. vol. ii. p. 320.

Christian Church, vol. iji. 63. + Sekendorf Comment, de Latheran. f Variations of the Protestant Church lib. i. sec. sxiv, p. 127.

es, vol. i. p. 24.

ass

his asses put together." He af- be a good Protestant who does not terwards adds: “ Were I sove- conform himself to all the maxreign of the Empire, I would ims of the earliest Reformers, make but one bundle of both then, indeed, the author of the Pope and Cardinals, and souce present work is neither a Cathothem all together into the little lic, a Lutheran, a Calvinist, nor ditch called by the Latins the any kind of Protestant; for, whoTyrrhen sea. This bath would ever may be offended at the assercure them, I pass my word for it, tion, he fears not to say, that he and give Jesus Christ for surety !"* is as much ashamed of the con. Surely, one would have thought duct of most of the Reformers, this latter blasphemy might have as he abhors the persecuting been spared ! It could hardly edicts and fulminating decrees of have been needful to enlist the some princes, hot-brained popes, meek and lowly Jesus in this and intolerant priests. But it ignoble service. Yet with all the will be said that Luther's intole. good intentions of our enraged

rance was the fault of the age. Reformer, his attempt to create a True : yet it should not be for. real war against the Pope did not gotten, that he was raised up, as succeed, at least not immedi- he pretended, to correct the ately.

faults of the age; and, therefore, “Such was the spirit and beha

was more inexcusable : for there yiour of Luther!

And yet our

was not a single.error of the Roreason has been, beguiled during man Court, against which he die the long space of three hundred rected his mighty talents, so hateyears about this holy man of God ful in the sight of God, so inju--this Apostle of the Most High rious to the welfare and happi. --this incomparable reviver of ness of Christians, or so disgraceall that is good in religion and ful to religion and morals, as that morals, “ the ever-glorious Lu

which sanctioned the burning of ther!"+ If to be a good Catholic, heretics; and yet it is evident it is required that we adopt the, that this practice, of all others, spirit of some Catholic princes

he cherished and wished to have and other bigots--if to be a Lu- imitated !" theran, it is needful to follow the The narrative is then continued example of this Augustine friar till the establishment of the Reif to be a pious Calvinist, it is in- formation in various countries; dispensable to imitate the con

and the whole is concluded with duct of the infuriate priest who

Gibbon's estimate of the real burned Serveţust--if no one can

benefits of the Reformation. * Vid. Papasipuli, io tom. vii. p. 474. Section VIII.' treats of the + Walch's Lives of the Popes, p. 248. " Influence of the Reformation

#Readers, who can distinguish between Calvinism, as a system of Reli

on Literature and the Arts." It gion, and the conduct of its founder (as is a well-written and pleasing every Protestant should do with regard portion of the history; and clearly to the Catholic Religion and Popery in its worst sense), may consult with ade decidedly and extensively inju

proves that this influence was vantage, that faithful and interestiog book, entitled, An Apology for Servetus,

rious to the Arts, though the by the Rev. R. Wright.

author conceives that this influ

ence

was

propitious to the quent participation of the awful world of Literature," yet we have and magnificent ceremonies of the following concessions even on the Church. In place of these, this topic:

it substituted an austerity of man“That its tendency, indeed, was ner which characterized even exclusively beneficial to the inte- those individuals who had no rerests of learning or the belles let- gard to strictness of conduct, tres, cannot be admitted ; and and taught even the most enlightthat many of the revolutions in ened Protestants to regard every poetical taste, and on general description of tasteful illusion, or science, must be ascribed to splendid display, as partaking of causes that would have operated, sinfulness and idolatry. Those had the Reformation never been pleasing associations which are the effected, it does not become the offspring of superstition, contri. candour or the honesty of a Proc' bute to the excellence of every testant writer to deny. The his- production of fancy, and animate tory of poetry and the other de- and assist the strains of legitimate partments of elegant literature, poetry. From the use of many does not justify us in supposing allusions and images, also, of esthat its immediate operation was sential consequence to poetical in any degree favourable to re- effect, the continental Protestants finement of taste, or to the suc- were excluded; and even in Engcessful flights of poetical genius. land a large proportion of the The most celebrated poets and community regarded the "holy historians of modern Europe anthem sounding from afar," and

whose genius was only the “ full-drawn tone of the orequalled by their learning and gan," as reliques of the most detheir taste-Tasso, Guarini, Mes testable idolatry. I tastasio, Ariosto, and Boccaccio, In Germany and the Nether. were natives of Italy, and sincere lands, indeed, poetry had not Catholics. Many of them existed flourished, and, tberefore, could before the Reformation, and yet not be degraded by the progress displayed a freedom of excursion of the Reformation, but it is not into the regions of profane lite- unreasonable to presume that the rature, of which a Protestant latent predisposition to that art, might not be ashamed. The so- so evident in all communities lemn and lofty character of the emerging from a state of compaCatholic worship is chiefly obser- rative barbarism and oppression, vable when it eopobles their ima- was repressed by the austere plain. ges, and exalts their sentiments. ness of external observance, and It would appear a priori, indeed, the abhorrence of everything that the influence of the Refore united with their former supermation on the poetical taste of the stition. Part of the English Recontinental converts, must have formers, indeed, held a middle been in some degree injurious. course; they preserved in their It dissipated the habits and the ceremonials a mixture of granemotions that must have been deur and simplicity, and this assoimpressed and excited by the ciation at once ennobles and anifrequent contemplation of Cathom mates the poetry of Milton." lic magnificence, and by the fre

men

/

*** But," adds Mr. Nightingale, extent of the change which the (p. 247)

“ it was in the science, Reformation produced in tegard and practice of politics that the to religious opinions; and to make influence of the Reformation was some observations concerning that most strikingly

observable," diversity of sentiment on almost Our opinions partly coincide with every point of Christian Doctrine those of Mr. N. on this subjects and Worship which the Refor. and yet one would hardly suppose mation naturally engendered.” that this could be in any way

es The Faith of Catholics has, at owing to the influence of Reform, all times, and in all places, been seeing that even at the present ever the same. The Opinions of day, the most strenuous advocates private individuals, members of of the Reformation are those who that great and general community, are the niost clamorous for “ the have varied. But, long before Divine Right of Kings,"and even the Reformation, large portions of Mr. N. very justly describes the Christians, in various parts of the “ No Popery” Protestants in the world, had been either not subject following manner :

to the papal see, or, if properly “The men who persist in oppos. belouging to that communion, ing the claims of Catholics and were privileged with various exDissenters, I am persuaded, care emptions, and tolerated in some little about the religion of either. customs and opinions, which the The system is a political one; peculiar nature of their circuma they know that those persons, Ca. stances or countries might obvi: tholics and others, who now feel ously require. themselves injured and insulted, 1.dn Europe, the Greek Church on account of their religious opi.. was early separated from the panions, are the friends of civilli- pal jurisdiction; but they retain. bertý, -the enemies of intermi- ed all the great and obvious tenets nable war, and courtly corrup- of the Roman Catholic faith ; and tion ; they know, that by enfran. the Greek schismatics chising them in religious matters, hardly chargeable with the crime they would at the same time be of heresy, according to the com. adding to their political influence, mon acceptation of that term. It which, more than their faith, they is chiefly on points of discipline dread. No men would be more that the Roman and Grecian tolerant in matters of religion than churches differ. The Muscovites, the “ No Popery” men, if they who have their peculiar Patriarch did not fear that the consequen- of Moscow, may be considered ces of granting religious liberty nearly in the same light as the would be injurious to that line of members of the Greek church. polities which they think fit to “ Asia was very early distin. pursue,"

guished by several sorts of Chris.. “ The IXth Section attempts an tians ; as those of Palestine, under estimate of the “influence of the the Patriarch of Jerusalem; the Reformation on Religion and Mo. Syrians, or Melchites, under the rals in general.” In making this Patriarch of Antioch, the Arestimate, the author has thought menians, under the two Catholic it “necessary to enquire into the Patriarchss the Georgians, un.

were

der their respective Metropolie or rather whose phraseology, restans; the Mingrellians, Circassi- pecting the Virgin Mary, whom ans, and Christians of Asia Minor, they style the Mother of Christ, under the Constantinopolitan Pa- instead of the Mother of God, as triarch; a few Christians in the the Latins phrase it, had some same quarter of the globe, under resemblance to the notions of the the Patriarch of Moscow; the Arians. Since the origin of the Nestorians, under the Patriarch Nestorian sect, a considerable of Mousel; the Jacobite Mono- change has taken place in regard physites, under their peculiar to their opinions about the two Patriarch; the Christians of St. natures in Christ. Many of them Thomas ; and, lastly, the Maco- verged into a more consistent ornites, under their own Patriarch. thodoxy; and the Pope has now, To these Asian Christians might I believe, a titular Patriarch of be added, those who were sub- Mousel. ject to the Emir of Sidon; the “ This point of the analogy of Mordwits, between the Russians the Latin and Greek dogmas will and Tartary; and the Christians be clearly illustrated by the inhabiting the great isle of Taro. following testimonies : bana and the islands adjoining. “ With Rome the Greek Church

Africa, in like manner, has had concurs in the opinion of tranits divisions of Christians; parti- substantiation; and, generally, cularly the Egyptians, or Copts, in the sacrifice and whole body under the Patriarch of Alexan. of the mass. dria; and the Ethiopian Christi- “ Dr. Pottert and Bp. Forbest ans, subject to their Abunna, or

6. That the question in Patriarch of Ethiopia.

the Florentine Council, between “Onexamining the several creeds or formularies of these various de origin, and were in fact attached to the nominations, it will appear, though Roman, episcopacy, though they were, they added, in a few.cases, many teacher, Columba, privileged with cerabsurd opinions and superstitious tain favours, in having a sort of chief practices to the leading articles of abbot or presbyter governor, to whom, faith, held by the Churches of as Bede informs us, the whole province,

an Rome or of Constantinople, they and even the bishops themselves, by

were subject. might be regarded rather asschis.

Columba himself was not a bishop, but matics than as heretics, and as a presbyter and monk. Whatever might differing, in doctrinals, but very

have been the peculiar character of the slightly from the universal Church. discipline or government of the monks

of lopa, their leading articles of faith Unless, indeed, we may except were, doubtless, conformable to the the Nestorians,* whose opinions, Catholic creed. The reader may code

sult, along with Mr. Jamieson's work " * Some of my readers will think that on this subject, the Columbanus ad Hipotice should have been taken of the bernos of Doctor O'Connor, No. IV. ancient Caldees. I have read Mr. Ja.' p. 40, et seq. mieson's very çurious and interesting * Sandys' Relation of West. Religiaccount of the Culdees of lona. But

ons, p. 233. I am convinced that little reliance ought + Potter's Answer to Charity Mis to be placed on the vague and meagre taken, p. 225. Culdean history. The Culdees were Forbes' De Euc. lib. i. c. 3. Pa certainly not of Scotish but of Irish 412,

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