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wholly for another, ver. 27. The happiness of Thine the full harvest of the golden year? animals mutual, ver. 49. II. Reason or instinct Part pays, and justly, the deserving steer: 40 operate alike to the good of each individual, The hog, that ploughs not, nor obeys thy call, ver. 79. Reason or instinct operate also to so
Lives on the labours of this lord of all. ciety in all animals, ver. 109. III. How far Know, Nature's children all divide her care; society carried by instinct, ver. 115. How The fur that warms a monarch, wari'd a bear. much farther by reason, ver. 128. IV. Of that While man exclaims, See all things for my use !** which is called the state of nature, ver. 144.
“ See man for mine!” replies a pamper'd goose : Reason instructed by instinct in the invention of And just as short of reason he must fall, arts, ver. 166, and in the forms of society,ver. 176.
Who thinks all made for one, not one for all. V. Origin of political societies, ver. 196. Ori- Grant that the powerful still the weak control; gin of monarchy, ver. 207. Patriarchal go- Be man the wit and tyrant of the whole: 50 vernment, ver. 212. VI. Origin of true reli- Nature that tyrant checks; he only knows, gion and government, from the same principle, And helps, another creature's wants and woes, of love, ver. 231, &c. Origin of superstition Say, will the falcon, stooping from above, and tyranny, from the same principle, of fear, Smit with her varying plumage, spare the dote! ver. 237, &c. The influence of self-love ope- Admires the jay the insect's gilded wings? rating to the social and public good, ver. 266. Or hears the hawk when Philomela sings? Restoration of true religion and government on
Man cares for all: to birds he gives his woods, their first principle, ver. 285. Mixed govern- To beasts his pastures, and to fish his floods: ment, ver. 288. Various forms of each, and For some his interest prompts him to provide, the true end of all, ver. 300, &c.
For more his pleasure, yet for more his pride : 60
Th’ extensive blessing of bis luxury.
That very life his learned hunger craves,
He saves from famine, from the savage saves; Here then we rest; “The Universal Cause
Nay, feasts the animal he dooms his feast, Acts to one end, but acts by various laws."
And, till he ends the being, makes it blest: In all the madness of superfluous health,
Which sees no more the stroke, or feels the pain, The train of pride, the impudence of wealth,
Than favour'd man by touch ethereal slain.
The creature had his feast of life before;
Thou too must perish, when thy feast is o'er!. 70
To each unthinking being, Heaven, a friend,
Gives not the useless knowledge of its end :
To man imparts it; but with such a view
As, while he dreads it, makes him hope it too:
The hour conceal’d, and so remote the fear,
Death still draws nearer, never seeming near.
Great standing miracle! that Heaven assign'd Press to one centre still, the general good.
Its only thinking thing this turn of mind. See dying vegetables life sustain,
II. Whether with reason, or with instinct blest, See life dissolving vegetate again :
Know, all enjoy that power which suits them best ; All forms that perish other forms supply,
To bliss alike by that direction tend,
80 (By turns we catch the vital breath, and die)
And find the means proportion'd to their end. Like bubbles on the sea of matter borne,
Say, where full Instinct is th' unerring guide, They rise, they break, and to that sea return. 20
What pope or council can they need beside? Nothing is foreign ; parts relate to whole?
Reason, however able, cool at best, One all-extending, all-preserving soul
Cares not for service, or but serves when prest, Connects each being, greatest with the least;
Stays till we call, and then not often near;
But honest Instinct comes a volunteer, Made beast in aid of man, and man of beast; *All serv'd, all serving : nothing stands alone;
Sure never to o'ershoot, but just to hit; The chain holds on, and where it ends, unknown.
While still too wide or short is human Wit;
90 Has God, thou fool! work'd solely for thy good, which heavier Reason labours at in vain.
Sure by quick Nature happiness to gain,
This too serves always, Reason never long:
One must go right, the other may go wrong.
See then the acting and comparing powers
One in their nature, which are two in ours! Is it for thee the linnet pours his throat?
VARIATIONS. Loves of his own and raptures swell the note.
After ver. 46, in the former editions, The bounding steed you pompously bestride,
[him : Shares with his lord the pleasure and the pride.
What care to tend, to lodge, to cram, to treat Is thine alone the seed that strews the plain?
All this he knew ; but not that 'twas to eat him The birds of Heaven shall vindicate their grain.
As far as goose could judge, he reason'd right;
After ver. 84, in the MS.
While man, with opening views of various ways, Ver. 1. In several editions in 4to.
Confounded by the aid of knowledge strays; Learn, Dulness, learn! “ The Voiversal Cause, Too weak to chuse, yet chusing still in haste, kas
One moment gives the pleasure and distaste.
And Reason raisc o'er Instinct as you can,
The Fury-passions from that blood began, In this 'tis God directs, in that 'tis man.
And turn'd on man, a fiercer satage, man. Who taught the nations of the field and wood See him from Nature rising slow to Art! To shun their poison, and to choose their food? 100 To copy Instinct then was Reason's part: 170 Prescient, the tides or tempests to withstand, Thus then to man the voice of Nature spakeBuild on the wave, or arch beneath the sand? Go, from the creatures thy instructions take: Who made the spider parallels design,
Learn from the birds what food the thickets yield; Sure as De Moivre, without rule or line?
Learn from the beasts the physic of the field; Who bid the stork, Columbus-like, explore Thy arts of building from the bee receive: Heavems not his own, and worlds unknown before? Learn of the mole to plough, the worm to weave; Who calls the council, states the certain day? Learn of the little Nantilus to sail, Who forms the phalanx, and who points the way? Spread the thin oar, and catch the driving gale.
III. God, in the nature of each being, founds Here too all forms of social union find, Its proper bliss, and sets its proper bounds : 110 And hence let Reason, late, instruct mankind: 180 But as he fram'd a whole, the whole to bloss, Here subterranean works and cities see; On mutua) wants built mutual happiness :
There towns acreal on the waving tree. So from the first, eternal Order ran,
Learn each small people's genius, policies, And creature link'd to creature, man to man. The ant's republic, and the realm of bees; Whate'er of life all-quickening ether ketops,
How those in common all their wealth bestow, Or breathes through air, or shoots beneath the deeps, and anarchy without confusion know; Or pours profuse on earth, one Nature feeds And these for ever, though a monarch reign, The vital flame, and swells the genial seeds. Their separate cells and properties maintain. Not man alone, but all that roam the wood, Mark what unvary'd laws preserve each state, Or wing the sky, or roll along the flood, 120 Laws wise as Nature, and as fix'd as Fate. 190 Each loves itself, but not itself alone,
In vain thy Reason finer webs shall draw, Each sex desires alike, till two are one.
Entangle Justice in her net of Law, Nor ends the pleasure with the fierce embrace; And right too rigid, harden into wrong ; They love themselves, a third time, in their race. Still for the strong too weak, the weak too strong. Thus beast and bird their common charge attend,
Yet go! and thus o'er all the creatures sway, The mothers nurse it, and the sires defend ;
Thus let the wiser make the rest obey : The young dismiss'd to wander earth or air,
Anıl for those arts mere Instinct could afford, There stops the Instinct, and there ends the care; Be crownd as monarchs, or as gods ador'd.” The link dissolves, each seeks a fresh embrace, V. Great Nature spoke; observant man obey'd ; Another love su ceeds, another race. '130 Cities were built, societies were made: 200 A longer care man's helpless kind demands; Here rose one little state; another near That longer care contracts more lasting bands: Grew by like means, and join'd through love or fear Reflection, Reason, still the ties improve,
Did here the trees with ruddier burthens bend, At once extend the interest, and the love: And there the streams in purer rills descend? With choice we fix, with sympathy we burn;
What W'ar could ravish, Commerce could bestow; Each virtue in each passion takes its turn;
And he return'd a friend, who came a foe. And still new needs, new helps, new habits rise,
Converse and Love mankind might strongly draw, That graft benevolence on charities.
When Love was Liberty, and Nature Law. Still as one brood, and as another rose,
Thus states were forin'd; the name of king unknown,
910 These natural love maintain’d, habitual those: 140 Till common interest plac'd the sway in one. The last, searce ripen'd into perfect man,
'Twas Virtue only, (or in arts or arms, Saw helpless him from whom their life began:
Diffusing blessings, or averting harms) Memory and Forecast just returns engage,
The same which in a sire the sons obey'd, That pointed back to youth, this on to age;
A prince the father of a people made. While Pleasure, Gratitude, and Hope, combin'd,
VI. TiH then, by Nature crown'd, each patriarch Still spread the interest, and preserve the kind.
King, priest, and parent, of his growing state: (sate,
Ver. 197, in the first editions,
Who for those arts they learn’d of brutes before, No murder cloth'd him, and no murder ted.
As kings shall crown them, or as gods adore. In the same temple, the resounding wood,
Ver. 201. Here rose one little state, &c.] In the All vocal beings hymn'd their equal God:
[spot; The shrine with gore unstain'd, with gold undress'd,
The neighbours leagu'd to guard their common Unbrib'd, unbloody, stood the blam.less priest:
And love was Nature's dictate; murder, not. Heaven's attribute was universal care,
For want alone each animal contends; And man's perogative, to rule, but spare. 160 Tigers with tigers, that remov'd, are friends. Ah! how unlike the man of times to come!
Plain Nature's wants the common mother crown'd, Of half that live the butcher and the tomb;
She pour'd her acorns, herbs, and streams around. Who, foe to Nature, hears the general groan,
No treasure then for rapine to invade, Murders their species, and betrays his own.
What need to fight for sun-shine or for shade? But just disease to luxury succeeds,
And half the cause of contest was rernov'd, And every death its owu avenger breeds;
When Beauty could be kind to all who lov'de
He from the wondering furrow call’d the food, Relum'll her ancient light, not kindled new;
Taught nor to slack, nor strain its tender strings,
Tilljarring interests of themselves create One great First Father, and that tiot ador'u. Th' according music of a well-mix'd state. Or plain trailltion, that this All begin,
Such is the world's great harmony, that springs (msey'd wrbroken faith from sire to son ;
From order, union, full consent of things: The worker from the work distinct was known, Where small and great, where weak and mighty, and imple Reason never sought but one: 230 To serve, not suffer, strengthen, not invade; (made Ere Wit oblique hat broke that steady light, More powerful each as needful to the rest, Man, like bis Maker, saw that ail was right; And, in proportion as it blesses, blest ; 300 7:) virtue, in the paths of pleasure trod,
Draw to one point, and to one centre bring Andaind a father when he own'da Gorl.
Beast, man, or angel, servant, lord, or king. Love all the fisith, and all th' allegiance then; For forms of governinont let fools contest; For Vature knew no right divine in men,
Whate'er is best administer'd is best : Noill could fear in God; an understood
For mokles of faith, let grareless zealots fight; A sover.ign baing, but a sovereign good.
His can't be wrong whose life is in the right; True faith, true policy, united ran;
In faith and hope the world will disagree, That wns but love of God, and this of man. 240 But all ma:ikin l's concern is charity : Who first taught sonls enslav'd, and realms un- All must be false that thwarts this one great end; Th'enormous faith of many mad. for one; (done, And all of God, that bless mankind, or mend. 310 That proud exception to all Nature's los, Man, like the genervus vine, supported lives : T invert the world and counter-work its cause? The strength he gains is from th' embrace he gives. Force first made conquest, and that conquist, law; On their own axis as the planets run, Till Superstition taught the tyrant awe,
Yet make at once their circle round the Sun; Then shar'd the tyranny, then lent it aid,
So tyo consistent motions act the soul; Arr gods of conquerors, slaves of subjects made: Anil one regards itself, and one the whole. She 'midst the lightning's blaze, and thunder's Thus God and Nature link'd the general frame, sound,
And bade self-love and social be the same. When rock'd the mountains, and when groan'd the ground,
250 She taught the weak to bend, the proud to pray, To power unseen, and mightier far than thera
ARGUMENT OF EPISTLE IV.
OF THE NATURE AND STATE OF MAN WITH RESPECT TO
1. False notions of happiness, philosophical and Whose attributes were rage, revenge, or lust;
popular, answered from ver. 19 to 77. II. It is Such as the souls of cowards might conceive,
the end of all men, and attainable liy all, ver. 30. And, form'd like tyrants, tyrants wonid believe.
God intends happiness to be equal; and to be Z«al then, not charity, became the guide ; 261 so, it must be social, since all particular hapAnd Hol was built on spite, and Heaven on pride.
piness diipends on general, and since he governs Then sacred seem'd th'ethereal vanlt no more;
by general, not particular laws, ver. 37. As it Altass grek marble then, and reek'd with gore:
is necessary for order, and the peace and welfare Then first the Flamen tasted living food;
of society, that external goods should be uneNext his grim idol, smear'd with human blood; qual, happiness is not made to consist in these, With heaven's own thunders shook the world below, ver. 51.
But, notwithstanding that inequality, And play'd the god an engine op his foe.
the balance of happiness among maukind is kept Sodrives Self-love, through just, and through un- even by Providence, by the two passions of To one man's power, ambition, lucre, lust: Tjust, hope and fear, ver. 71. II. What the happiness The same self love, in all, becomes the cause 271 of individuals is, as far as is consistent with the Of what restrains him, governinent and laws.
constitution of this world, and that the good For, what one likes, if others like as well,
man has here the advantage, ver. 77. 'The er. What servis one will, when may wills rebel? rour of imputing to virtue what are only the How shall he keep, what, sleeping or awake,
calamities of Nature, or of Fortune, ver. 94. A weaker may surprise, a strong 'r take?
IV. The folly of expecting that God shoul? alter His safety must his liberty restrain:
his general laws in favour of particulars, ver. 21. All join to guard what each desir. s to gaio.
V That we are not judges who are good; but Fored into virtue thus, by self-defence,
that, whoever they ar, they mist be happiest, Ern kings learn'd justice and benevolence: 280 ver. 133, &c. VI. That ext rnal goods are not Self-love forsook the path it first pursued,
the proper rewards, but often inconsistent with, And found the private in the public good.
or destructive of, virt:re, 167. That even these "I'was then the studious head or generous mind, can make no man happy without virtue: in. Follower of God, or friend of human kind,
stanced in riches, ver. 185. Honours, ver. 193. Port or patriot, rose but to resiure
Nobility, ver. 205. Creatness, ver. 217. Fame, The faith and moral, Nature gave before ;
ver. 237. Superior talents, ver. 257, &c. With VOL XIL
pictures of human infelicity in men, possessed of More rich, more wise; but who infers from hence
Bliss is the same in subject or in king,
60 EPISTLE IV.
In him who is, or him who finds a friend : Oh Happiness! Our being's end and aim!
Heaven breathes through every inember of the
whole Good, Pleasure, Ease, Content! whate'erthy name: One cominon blessing, as one common soul. That something still which prompts th' eterual But Fortune's gifts if each alike possest, sigh,
And each were equal, must not all contest? For which we bear to live, or dare to die,
If then to all men happiness was meant, Which still so near us, yet beyond us lies,
God in externals could not place content. O’erlook'd, seen double, by the fool and wise :
Fortune her gifts may variously dispose, Plant of celestial secd! if dropp'd below,
And these be happy call'd, unhappy those; Say, in what mortal soil thou deign'st to grow?
But Heaven's just balance equal will appear, Fair opening to some court's propitious shine,
While those are plac'd in hope and these in fear: Or deep with diamonds in the faming mine? 10 Not present good or ill, the joy or curse, Twin'd with the wreaths Parnassian laurels yield, But future views of better, or of worse. Or reap'd in iron harvests of the field ?
Oh, sons of Earth! attempt ye still to rise, Where grows ? where grows it not? If vain our toil, Ry mountains pil'd on mountains, to the skies? We ought to blame the culture, not the soil: Heaven still with laughter the vain toil surveys, , Fix'd to no spot is happiness sincere,
Ind buries madmen in the heaps they raise. "Tis no where to be found, or every where :
Know, all the good that individuals find, 'T'is never to be bought, but always free,
Or God and Nature meant to mere mankind, And fled from monarchs, St. John! dwells with thee.
Reason's whole pleasure, all the joys of sense, Ask of the learn'd the way? The learn'd are
Lie in three words, Health, Peace, and Coinpetence blind :
But Health consists with Temperance alone; 81 This bids to serve, and that to shun mankind; 20
And Peace, Oh Virtue! Peace is all tliy own. Some place the bliss in action, some in ease, The good or bad the gifts of Fortune gajir; Those call it pleasure, and contentment these:
But these less taste them, as they worse obtain. Some, sunk to beasts, find pleasure end in pain;
Say, in pursuit of profit or delight, Some, gwell’d to Gods, confess ev'n virtue vain;
Who risk the most, that take wrong means, or right? Or, indolent, to each extreme they fall,
Of Vice or Virtue, whether blest or curst, To trust in ev'ry thing, or doubt of all.
Which meets contempt, or which compassion first? Who thus define it, say they more or less,
Count all th' advantage prosperous Vice attains, Than this, that happiness is happiness?
'Tis but what Virtue flies from and disdains: 90 Take Nature's path, and mad Opinion's leave;
And grant the bad what happiness they would, All states can reach it, and all heads conceive; 30
One they must want, which is to pass for good. Obvious her goods, in no extreme th'y dwell; Oh blind to truth, and God's whole scheme below, There needs but thinking right, and meaning well; Who fancy bliss to Vice, to Virtue woe! And, mourn our various portions as we please,
Who sees and follows that great scheme the best, Equal is common sense, and common case.
Rest knows the blessing, and will most be blest, Remember, man, “the Universal Cause
But fools, the good alone, unhappy call, Acts not by partial, but by gen’ral laws;”
For ills or accidents that chance to all. And makes what happiness so justly call,
See Falkland dies, the virtuous and the just! Subsist not in the good of one, but all.
Sec godlike Turenne prostrate on the dust! 100 There's not a blessing individuals tind, But some-way leans and hearkens to the kind: 40 No bandit fierce, no tyrant mad with pride, No cavernd hermit, rests self-satisfy'il:
After ver. 52, in the MS.
(sares, Who most to shun or hate mankind pretend,
Say not, “ Heaven's here profuse, there poorly Seck an admirer, or would fix a friend :
And for one monarch makes a thousand slaves." Abstract what others feel, what others think,
You 'll find, when causes and their ends are All pleasures sicken, and all glories sink :
[one. Fach has his share; and who would more obtain,
'Twas for the thousand Heaven has made that Shall find, the pleasure pays not half the pain. After ver. 66, in the MS.
Order is Heaven's first law; and this contest, 'Tis peace of mind alone is at a stay : Some are, and must be, greater than the rest, 50 The rest mad Fortune gives or takes away.
All other bliss by accident's debarrd ;
But Virtue's, in the instant, a reward ;
And more is relish'd as the inore distrest,
Sec Sidncy bleeds amid tiie martial strife!
Add health and power, and every earthly thing, Was this their virtue, or contempt of life?
Why bounded power? wiiy private ? why noking?" Say, was it virtue, more though Heaven ne'er gave, Nay, why external for internal given?
161 Lamented Digby! sunk thee to the grave? Why is not man a gol, and Earth a fleaven? Tell me, if virtue made the son expire,
Who ask and reason thus, will scarce conceive Why, full of days and honour, lives the sire? God gives enough, while he has more to give; Why drew Marseilles' good bishop purer breath, Immense the power, immense were the demand; When Niture sicken'd, and each gale was death? Say, at what part of Nature will they stand ? Or why so long (in life if long can be)
What nothing eartbly gives, or can destroy, Lent Heaven a parent to the poor and me? 110 | The soul's calin siin-sbine, and the heart-felt joy, What inakts all physical or moral ill?
Is Virtue's prize: A better would you fix? There seviates Nature, and here wanders will. Then give Hunnility a coach and six,
170 God sends not ill; if rightly understood,
Justice a conqueror's sword, or Truth a gown, Or partial ill is universal good,
Or Public Spirit its great cure, a crown. Or change admits, or Nature lets it fall,
Weak, foolish man! will Heaven reward is there Short, and but rare, till man improv'd it all. With the same trash mad mortals wish for here? We just as wisely might of Heaven complain The boy and man an individnal makes, That righteous Abel was destroy'd by Cain,
Yet sigh'st thou now for apples and for cakes? As that the victious son is ill at ease
Go, like the Indian, in another life
As toys and empires, for a godlike mind. 130 Shall burning Ætoa, if a sage requires,
Rewards, that either would to virtue bring Forget to thunder, and recall her fires?
No joy, or be destructive of the thing;
How oft by these at sixty are undone
Content, or pleasure, but the good and just ?
Judges and senates have been bought for gold; For Chartres' head reserve the hanging wall? 130 Esteem and love were never to be sold.
But still this world (so fitted for the knave) Oh fool! to think God hates the worthy mind, Contents us not. A better shall we have?
The lover and the love of human-kind,
1.90 A kingdom of the just then let it be:
Whose life is healthful, and whose conscience clear, But first consider how those just agree.
Because he wants a thousand pounds a year. The good must merit God's peculiar care ;
Honour and shame from no condition rise; But who, but God, can tell us who they are ? Act well your part, there all the honour lies. One thinks on Calvin Heaven's own spirit fell; Fortune in men has some small difference made, Another deems him instrument of Hell;
One flaunts in rags, one futters in brocade; If Calvin feels Heaven's blessing, or its rod, The cobler apron'd, and the parson gown'd, This cries, there is, and that, there is no God. 140 The friar hooded, and the monarch crown'J. (cowl!” What shocks one part, will edify the rest,
" What differ more" (you cry) * than crown and Nor with one system can they all be blest.
I'll tell you, friend! a wise man and a fool. 200 The very best will variously incline,
You'll find, if once the monarch acts the monk, And what rewards your virtre, punish mine. Or, cobler-like, the parson will be drunk, WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT.—This world, 'tis true, Worth makes the man, and want of it the fellow: Was made for Caesar-but for Titus too;
The rest is all but leather or prunella. And which more blest? who chain'd his country, say, Stuck o'er with titles and nung round with strings, Or he whose virtue sigh'd to lose a day?
That thou mayst be by kings, or whores of kings. “But sometimes Virtues tarves, while Vice is fed.” | Boast the pure blood of an illustrious race, What then? Is the reward of Virtue bread ? 150 In quiet flow from Lucrece to Lucrece : That, Vice may merit, 'tis the price of toil; But by your fathers' worth if yours you rate, The knave deserves it, when he tills the soil; Count me those only who were good and great. 210 The knave deserves it, when he tempts the main, Go! if your ancient, but ignoble blood Where fully fights for kings, or dives for gain. Has crept through scoundrels ever since the flood, The good man may be weak, be indolent;
Go! and pretend voor family is young;
Nor own your fathers have been fools so long.
After ver. 172, in the MS.
Say, what rewards this ille world imparts,
Or fit for searching beads or hones: heurts. After ver. 116, in the MS.
Ver. 207. Boast the pure blood, &c.] In the MS. Of every evil, since the world began,
thus : The real source is not in God, but man.
The richest blood, right-hondura!ls old, After ver. 142, in some editions,
Down froin Lucretia to Lucretia roille, Give each a system, all must be at strife ;
May shell thy heart and gallon in thy breast, What different systems for a man and wife! Without one dash of usher or of pris:: The joke, thongh lively, was ill-placed, and Thy pride as much despise all other pride, therefore struck out of the text.
As Christ Church once all colleges beside.