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POLITICAL STATE PLATFORMS.

“We are in favor of a foreign policy which shall be at all times and with all nations firm, vigorous and dignified, which will preserve the National honor at home and abroad.

**we are in favor of measures for the restriction of immigration.

“We are in favor of a just administration of all pension legislation.

“We congratulate our delegation in Congress that their long-continued efforts in behalf of American shipping have at last aroused an interest throughout the country that promises to restore this great industry, so important to National defence, to its former prominence. We join our fellow-Republicans of the thirteen states in the advocacy of discriminating duties in favor of American ships, a policy approved by Hamilton, the father of American protection, and which gave us our carrying trade in the early days of the Republic.”

DEMOCRATIC.

June 17, 1896.-The following plank was adopted: “we oppose the free coinage of silver and favor the single gold standard, unless a different standard is adopted through international agreement.” The minority of the committee, lacking two votes of a majority, , reported a resolution favoring the use of both gold and silver, and the coinage of both without discrimination against either, but it was defeated by 193 to 101. Other planks indorsed President Cleveland's Administration, expressed sympathy for the Cubans, and asked for a resubmission of the prohibitory liquor law to the people. August 6, 1896.-The platform declared that “we take from our State platform the following declaration: ‘We oppose free coinage and favor the single gold standard, unless a different standard is adopted through international agreement'; and that we endorse the National Democratic platform with Bryan and Sewall.”

POPULISTS.

June 4, 1896.-“We demand the coinage of both silver and gold in a ratio of 16 to 1, without asking the consent of any other nation. We demand the payment of our bonded debt, and that hereafter no bonds shall be issued under any circumstances, that Congress shall assume its tonstitutional right to issue a greenback currency, which shall be a full legal ten*r for all debts, public and private, until the sum total of the money in circulation shall reach $50 per capita.” Other planks demanded that all railroad, telegraph and telephone systems should be owned and operated by the Government: that all undesirable foreign immigration shall be absolutely prohibited: that all trusts and combinations founded for the purpose of speculating in the necessaries of life shall be forever prohibited and their promoters treated as public outlaws: that all land held for speculative purposes shall be taxed to the full extent of its rental value; the initiative and referendum, so that all laws can be referred back to the people for their approval before they become statutory enactments, and that all persons, firms or corporations in this State employing the

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labor of unnaturalized foreigners shall pay into the city or town treasury where such persons, firms or corporations are located the sum of 50 cents a day for each foreigner thus employed.

MARYLAND. REPUBLICAN.

April 22, 1896.-The platform declared for protection to American industries, bel lieving that only in protection can prosperity again come to the Nation, and fa– vored “reciprocity as tending to build up our commerce with our South American neighbors.” It added: “We believe in the gold standard upon which to base our circulating medium, and are opposed to free and unlimited coinage of silver until an international agreement of the im– portant commercial countries of the world shall give silver a larger use.”

LEMOCRATIC.

June 10, 1896.-The Platform Committee was divided on the money plank. The five silver men made a minority report urging the adoption of a free-coinage substitute for the financial plank of the majority, but the latter was carried by a vote of 87% to 29%. The plank adopted read as follows: “Believing that the true interests of the people require that the earnings of agriculture and trade and the wages of labor should be paid in money that is intrinsically worth in all the markets of the world what it purports to be worth, we demand the maintenance of the existing gold standard of value, and, further, that the Government shall keep all its obligations at all times redeemable and payable in money of the greatest intrinsic value and of the highest standard adopted by the civilized nations of the world; and we therefore resolutely oppose the free and unlimited coinage of silver at the ratio of 16 to 1.”

SOUND MONEY DEMOCRATS.

August 26, 1896.-The resolutions adopted condemned the financial policy of the Chicago platform, stated that unlimited coinage of silver is simply a synonyme for repudiation; indorsed in every detail the platform promulgated by the recent Democratic State Convention; denounced the “assault” by the Chicago Convention upon President Cleveland, and heartily commended his Administration. The resolutions also denounced the Chicago nominee as being undemocratic, and demanded a Democratic platform and candidates “in opposition to the Populist platform and candidates” adopted and named by the Chicago Convention.

* PROHIBITION.

June 28, 1896.-The platform confined itself to the liquor question, and held that it overshadowed “all other pending public questions, and should therefore be made the dominant issue before the American people in the National contest of 1896. If it be the supreme issue, as we contend it is, we should bend our every patriotic endeavor to secure its enactment into the organic law of our land by adopting the wise counsel of the great Lincoln of ‘fighting one great battle at a time.’”

-THE TRIBUNE ALMANAC FOR 1897.

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March 27, 1896.-The platform declared that two years of uncontrollable Democratic supremacy were enough to prove that the Democratic party was unable to conduct the Government without disaster to the country. FINANCIAL-‘‘The Government should have an ample revenue with a sufficient surplus to provide for coast defences, for the steady building up of the Navy, and for the constant reduction of the public debt.” It opposed the unsound and dangerous system of State banks; it favored the National banking system and believed that it should be so amended as to give it room for expansion and opportunity to meet the demands of the growing business and population of the country. TARIFF-‘‘The present tariff, with its lowered rates and its destructive and dishonest system of undervaluations, should be replaced by one framed on protective principles, and arranged to give an ample protection to American wages and American industry and to restore the reciprocity policy of James G. Blaine.” It declared that the time has come to return to the policy of Washington and Hamilton, which, by discriminating duties in favor of American bottoms, secured 90 per cent of the carrying trade to American ships, and which, if now restored, would again revive the shipping and cause American freights to be paid to Americans. SILVER—Regards the silver agitation as hurtful to business and destructive of confidence, and, as has recently been shown, hostile to all tariff legislation designed to give protection to our industries and revenue to our Treasury: is opposed to the free and unlimited coinage of silver, and to any change in the existing go.d standard, except by international agree— ment. Each dollar must be kept as good as every other dollar. The credit of the United States must be maintained at the highest point, so that it cannot be questioned anywhere either at home or abroad. Every promise must be rigidly kept and every obligation redeemable in coin must be paid in gold. MISCELLANEOUS–Declared that the Civil Service laws should be honestly and thoroughly enforced, and the classified service extended wherever it is possible. Immigration should be restricted, and the Republican party should pledge itself to pass at once a law to exclude at least the totally ignorant and illiterate. The United States should adhere rigidly to the American principle of the entire separation of Church and State and no appropriation of public money for sectarian schools, whether for the Indians or for others, should be permitted. Declared for a foreign policy, which shall be at al. times and with all nations firm, vigorous and dignified; and that the American “interests in the American continents must be carefully guarded, and for the protection of those interests we should maintain our influence in the Hawaiian Islands and build and control the Isthmian Canal. . . . The Monroe Doctrine, as declared in 1823, and enforced in 1865 and in 1895, must always be upheld." Sympathy was expressed for the bans, and it was de

clared that the United States should use its influence and good offices in the interests of humanity to bring to an end the useless and bloody war now desolating Cuba, and to give to the people of that island peace and self-government.

October 1, 1896.-The platform adopted contained the following planks:

“We record again our unalterable opposition to the free and unlimited coinage of silver by this country alone, and our determination to maintain the existing gold standard of values, in the ab– sence of any international agreement. We believe that the free and unlimited coinage of silver at the ratio of 16 to 1. by this country alone, would result in a National disaster from which no one would escape. If here and there there is one whose selfish interests would seem to be promoted by the depreciation of our standard of values. let him be assured that the little which he might gain would be swallowed up in his share of the universal calamity. The radical change in the purchasing power of our dollar, which would be the inevitable result of the free coinage of silver, would be disastrous to wage-earner and capitalist, creditor and debtor alike, would entail incalculable loss upon the industries and commerce of our country, and arrest for an indefinite time the development of our resources.

“Every man has the right to criticise the opinions of the courts of justice as he will, to refuse to accept the rule of decision as the final expression of the law, and to hope and strive for its reversal. But we believe that the appeal of the Chicago Convention to the Supreme Court, “as it may hereafter be consituted,” contained and scarcely concealed the purpose of controlling its judgments by adding to the number of its Justices. As thus understood, we denounce this declaration as a threat to degrade to an instrument

for the registration of party edicts the in

dependent tribunal established by the fathers, not only for the administration of justice, but as well for the preservation of our Constitution and the protection of the reserved rights and liberties of the American people.”

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country would enjoy a much larger measure of prosperity if all raw material used in manufactures were admitted free. MISCELLANEOUS—Demanded the sup— pression of all trusts, the strictest regulation of all monopolies, and the enactmont of laws to protect the rights of both labor and capital; demanded an adherence to the policy of Civil Service reform: sympathized with the Cubans in their struggle for independence: denounced the American Protective Association: sustained the Monroe Doctrine, and commended William E. Russell for President.

SOUND MONEY DEMOCRATS.

August 25, 1896.-The platform arraigns the delegates to the Democratic National Convention for violating the trust committed to them by repudiating the Administration of President Cleveland; formulating a platform "embodying views new and strange to the Democratic party, destructive to the welfare of our citizens, in perilling the life of our Constitutional Government, and impeaching the honesty of the United States among the nations of the world.” On the money question it said: “And, further, we oppose the free, unlimited and independent coinage of silver at the ratio of 16 to 1 as a principle dishonest and unjust to the creditor, defrauding the savings—bank depositor of a large part of his savings, reducing the wages of the workingman while increas— ing the cost of all he consumes, robbing the veteran of a part of his pension, lowering the value of his policy to each policy-holder in a life insurance company, fraternal or benefit order, and debasing our standard of value to that of the poorer and less civilized nations of the world... We oppose the assault upon the integrity of one of the great branches of our Government implied in the doctrine that the Supreme Court of the United States shall be reorganized whenever its decision shall have contravened the decrees of a party convention.” Further, the platform opposed the attack upon the principles of Civil service Reform as an attempt to degrade the efficiency, honesty and economy of every department of the public service; the attack upon the action of the National Administration at the time of the Chicago riots; and the attempt to restrict the rights of individual contract. It repudiated the actions of the Chicago Convention as revolutionary, and the Chicago platform as undemocratic. It denied the right of the Populist nominated by that Convention for the Presidency to represent the real Democracy of the United states.

SILVER DEMOCRATS.

September 26, 1896.-Demanded the “restoration of silver to its full money functions, and its free coinage at the legal ratio of 16 to 1 without waiting for the consent of any nation, but welcoming the co-operation, complete or partial, of any country that may wish to join in this great movement to emancipate the producing masses from the cruel injustice of an oppreciating gold standard.” The platform also approved of an income tax, and the system of the initiative and referendum.

POPULISTS,

September 26, 1896.-Approved of the nominations of Bryan and Watson, and reaffirmed the National platform, especially emphasizing the planks relating to silver coinage, opposition to banks of issue, government by injunction and the income tax; opposed biennial State elections; urged the adoption of the initiative and referendum and proportional representation, and giving the right of suffrage to all citizens upon equal terms.

MICHIGAN.
Republ., ICAN.

May 7, 1896.-The tariff plank read: “We believe in a tariff duty on foreign importations producing sufficient revenue for the support of the Government, and so adjusted as to give protection to American industries and American labor, now depressed to an unparalleled degree by the threatened and partially accomplished free trade, and to that end we ask the immediate repeal of the present unwise and un-American tariff and the re-enactment of the tariff bill along the general lines of the last Republican tariff act, known as the McKinley bill, with whatever modifications the present condition of our industries may require. We believe that this is the only way in which the clouds of business depression can be removed and permanent and sound business prosperity be restored. We believe

in the principle of reciprocity, as instituted and fostered by America’s beloved statesman, James G. Blaine, and

therefore demand its restoration as a wise and necessary supplement to a protective tariff. We have always given protection to our shipbuilders. In late years we have neglected to protect our ship-owners. We believe the time has come to return to the policy of Washington and Hamilton, which, by discriminating duties in favor of American bottoms, secured 90 per cent of our corrying trade to American ships, and which, if now restored, would again revive our shipping and cause American freights to be paid to Americans.” MONEY.-“We are unyielding and uncompromising in our demand for sound money. We are in favor of the use of gold, silver and paper dollars in our currency, all maintained at a parity as purchasing and debt-paying power. We are opposed to any proposition that involves the depreciation of any portion of our currency, and therefore are opposed to the free and unlimited coinage of silver by this country alone, under present conditions, believing that such coinage would destroy the parity and depreciate and contract the currency.” August 5, 1896.-The platform indorsed that of the National Republican Convention of 1896; denounced the “so-called Democratic National platform recently adopted at Chicago for its insults to our courts and our judges, for its pandering to disorder and mob violence, for its sympathy with Anarchism, for its proposal to repudiate public and private debts, and for its intention to substitute monometallism in place of the wise and liberal policy and practice of the Republican party,’ which has been and is the

use of gold, silver and paper as the currency of the Nation"; and congratulated the Republican party upon the "wise and satisfactory selection of standard-bearers,” McKinley and Hobart. It also indorsed the State administration of Governor John T. Rich.

DEMOCRATIC.

April 29, 1896.-The platform declared for sound money; indorsed President Cleveland's financiai policy, also his policy as . egards Venezuela, and expressed the hope that he would soon recognize the beiligerency of Cuba: reiterated the necessity of the parity of gold and silver as currency, and deplored any attempt to make a radical departure until another National platform is formulated.

SOUND MONEY DEMOCRATS.

August 26, 1896.-‘‘We favor the maintenance of the existing gold standard; we oppose the unlimited free coinage of silver at the ratio of 16 to 1 because we believe such coinage would ruin our industries, rob our savings bank depositors of half their savings, deprive our pensioners of half their pittance, take from the widow and the orphan half their life insurance, and cut in two the wages of our workingmen.

“We believe the American workingman earns more, produces more and knows more than any other workingman on earth: we therefore believe he is entitled to receive his pay in the best money in the world—in honest dollars worth 100 cents in gold.”

PROHIBITION.

April 17, 1896.-After considerable wrangling over the silver issue the following was adopted:

“Resolved, That the delegates sent by this convention to the National Convention be and are hereby instructed to work and vote for the adoption of a broad and comprehensive platform including the free and unlimited coinage of silver at the ratio of 16 to 1.”

Minnesot A. republicAN.

March 24, 1896.-The platform advocated a good system of coast defences and a strong army and navy; declared the conviction that the people of Cuba ought to be recognized as belligerents, and urged the preference of William McKinley for President. The financial plank read as follows: “We favor the use of both gold and silver to the extent to which they can be maintained in circulation at the parity in purchasing and debt-paying powers; we are earnestly opposed, under the present restrictions, to the free and unlimited coinage of silver, for the manifest reasons that it would destroy such parity, enormously contract the volume of currency by forcing gold out of circulation and immediately place us on a silver basis. Believing that it is a self-evident fact that the effect of the international demonetization of silver can be overcome only by international remonetization of that metal, the Republican party of Minnesota most heartily favors an international conference of the foreign Powers for that purpose.”

It also declared “we are in favor of a tariff duty on foreign importations producing sufficient revenue for the support of the Government, and so adjusted as to protect American industries. We demand the restoration of the principle of reciprocity as a natural policy, and favor, as the logical correlative of our protective tariff laws, such treaty stipulations with foreign countries as will provide a profitable market for our surplus products, and enable us to buy from them on terms mutually advantageous.” Resolutions also declared that the Monroe Doctrine should be upheld; that the Cuban insurgents should be recognized as belligerents, and favored the doctrine of arbitration and a system of stronger coast defence and the development of the Navy. July 1, 1896.-The platform indorsed that adopted by the National Convention of 1896, also the National ticket; advocated the construction of good roads and pledged to promote the enactment of suitable legislation to that end: favored the taxation of unused railroad lands: recognized the just claims of the laboring peo— ple of the State and their equal right to the benefit and protection of its laws. The closing plank read: “We call upon all citizens of this com— monwealth to unite with us in restoring to our country the blessings of prosperity which we so long enjoyed under Repubcan rule and to the upholding of the credit of our State and Nation at home and abroad by the wise, patriotic and vigorous measures and principles by which the Republican party has ever been

guided.” DEMOCRATIC.

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they hailed with delight recent Republican victories, and accepted them as evidence of a lack of public confidence in the administrative ability of the Democratic party, and the results of the elections in Maryland, Kentucky, West Virginia, Tennessee, Missouri and North Carolina were declared as harbingers of the approach of the dawn that shall ere long usher Mississippi into the light of ---- itical liberty; also urged upon all Republicans to qualify themselves in every particular for citizenship. A faction, headed by John R. Lynch, bolted the convention and held a convention of its own, at which resolutions were adopted swearing allegiance to Republican

principles. - DEMOCRATIC.

April 29, 1896.-‘‘Resolved, By the Democrats of Mississippi in convention assembled, that we favor the free and unlimited coinage of silver and gold at the ratio of 16 to 1 without waiting for the action or co-operation of any other Nation, and we hereby instruct our delegates to the National Democratic Convention to be held in Chicago in July next to vote for a platform embodying these princip:es; and we further instruct said delegates to vote for no man for President or vice-President who is not fully and unequivocally in favor of the principles above expressed. “Resolved. That the delegates to the National Convention from this state be instructed to vote as a unit on all questions.” A resolution instructing the delegates to resent the name of Senator Waltham for rice-President was adopted with a yell. A resolution to indorse President Cleveland's foreign policy was referred to the next State Convention.

Missouri. REPUBLICAN.

May 12, 1896.-The platform began by referring to the tariff, noting that under a Democratic schedule labor and capital are idle and the home market largely destroyed, and continued: “We demand a return to the sound Republican policy of protection and reciprocity urder the reign of reciprocity as advocated by Blaine and enforced by Harrison's Administration. . . . e are | firm and emphatic in our demand for honest money. We believe that our money should not be inferior to the money of the most enlightened nation of the earth. we are unalterably opposed to any scheme that threatens to debase or depreciate our currency. We favor the use of silver as currency, but to the extent only and under such regulations that its parity with the present gold standard can be maintained: and, in consequence, we are opposed to the free, unlimited and independent coinage of silver at a ratio of 16 to 1." It also declared that William McKinley was the choice for President. July 23, 1896.-The platfrom was a short one and indorsed every plank in the st. Louis platfrom, indorsed the nomination of McKinley and Hobart, deplored the communistic tendencies of the

Democratic party and its reflections on the highest judicial authority, and its censure of the Federal Government. “It should be disowned by all friends of law and order,’” says the platform. Tampering with the ballot and the gerrymandering of Congress and Senate districts were denounced as vicious and unjust.

DEMOCRATIC.

foru 15, 1896.-On money the platform saici “We demand the free and unlimited coinage of silver and gold into primary or redemption money at the ratio of 16 to 1, without waiting for the action or aproval of any other government: we are rrevocably opposed to the substitution for metallic money of a panic-breeding corporation credit currency based on a single metal, the supply of which is so limited that it can be cornered at any time by a few banking institutions in Europe and America; we are opposed to the policy and practice of surrendering to the holders of the obligations of the United States the option reserved by the law to the Government of redeeming such obligations in either silver coin or gold coin; we are opposed to the issuing of interest-bearing bonds of the United States in time of peace, and especially are we opposed to placing the Treasury of the Government under the control of any syn– dicate of bankers and the issuance of bonds to be sold by them at an enormous #: for the purpose of supplying the ederal Treasury with gold to maintain the policy of gold monometallism.” The platform also declared for a tariff for levenue only: condemned the use of Federal troops in the States by the Federal Government for the suppression of domestic riot, no call being made for such troops by the regularly constituted State authority, and unalterably opposed a government by injunction by the Federal courts: favored the imposition of an income tax. August 5, 1896.-The platform indorsed the nominations and platform of the National Democratic Convention of 1896, and had this plank on silver: “We demand the immediate restoration of the free and unlimited coinage of gold and silver at the present legal ratio of 16 to 1, without waiting for the aid or consent of any other nation. We demand that the standard silver dollar shall be a full legal tender, equally with gold, for all debts, public or private, and we favor such legislation as will prevent the demonetization of any kind of legal-tender money by private contract.” It also favored liberal appropriations for the public schools, State University and State normals: an efficient road law that will encourage the improvement of the public roads throughout the state; also laws to protect the free labor of the State from com.petition with prison labor.

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