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name later. The ballot showed the following result: Bryan, 1,042; Norton, 321; Eugene V. Debs, 8; Ignatius Donnelly, 3; J. S. Coxey, 1.

THE PLATFORM.

“The People's party assembled in National Convention, reaffirms its allegiance to the principles declared by the founders of the republic, and also to the fundamental principles of just government as enunciated in the platform of the party in 1892 We recognize that, through the connivance of the present and preceding administrations, the country has reached a crisis in its national life, as predicted in our declaration four years ago, and that prompt and patriotic action is the supreme duty of the hour. *We realize that while we have political independence, our financial and industrial independence is yet to be attained by restoring to our country the constitutional control and exercise of the functions necessary to a people's government, which functions have been basely surrendered by our public servants to corporate monopolies. The influence of European money changers has been more potent in shaping legislation than the voice of the American people. Executive power and patronage have been used to corrupt our Legislatures and defeat the will of the people, and plutocracy has thereby been enthroned upon the ruins of democracy. To restore the Government intended by the fathers, and for the welfare and prosperity of this and future generations, we demand the establishment of an economic and financial system which shall make us masters of our own affairs and independent of European control, by the adoption of the following: NATIONAL MONEY.-‘‘We demand a national money, safe and sound, issued by the general Government only, without the intervention of banks of issue, to be a full legal tender for all debts, public and private; a just, equitable, and efficient means of distribution direct to the people and through the lawful disbursements of the Government.” sILVER.—“we demand the free and unrestricted coinage of silver and gold at #o present legal ratio of sixteen to one, without waiting for the consent of foreign nations.” CIRCULATION.—“We demand the volume of circulating medium be speedily increased to an amount sufficient to meet the demands of the business and population, and to restore the just level of prices of labor and production.” BOND ISSUE.—“We denounce the sale of bonds and the increase of the public interest—bearing debt made by the present Administration as unnecessary and without authority of law, and demand that no more bonds be issued except by specific act of Congress. We demand such legislation as will prevent the demonetization of the lawful money of the United States by private contract. We demand that the Government, in payment of its obligations, shall use its option as to the kind of lawful money in which they are to be paid, and we denounce the present and preceding Administrations for surrendering this option to the holders of Government obligations.” Y.

INCOME TAX.—“We demand a graduated income tax, to the end that aggregated wealth shall bear its just proportion of taxation, and we regard the recent decision of the Supreme Court relative to the Income Tax law as a misinterpretation of the Constitution and an invasion of the rightful powers of Congress over the subject of taxation.” POSTAL BANKS.—“We demand that postal savings banks be established by the Government for the safe deposit of the savings of the people and to facilitate exchange.” RAILROADS.—“Transportation being a means of exchange and a public necessity, the Government should own and operate the railroads in the interest of the people and on a non-partisan basis, to the end that all may be accorded the same treatment in transportation, and that the tyranny and political power now exercised by the great railroad corporations which result in the impairment, if not the de— struction, of the political rights and personal liberties of the citizen, may be destroyed. Such ownership is to be accomplished gradually in a manner corsistent with sound public policy.” PACIFIC RAILROAD debts.--"the interest of the United States in the public highways built with public moneys, and the proceeds of extensive grants of land to the Pacific railroads, should never be alienated, mortgaged, or sold, but guarded and protected for the general welfare as provided by the laws organizing such railroads. The foreclosure of existing liens of the United States on these roads should at once follow default in the payment thereof by the debtor companies: and at the foreclosure sales of said roads the Government shall purchase the same if it becomes necessary to protect its interests therein, or if they can be purchased at a reasonable price; and the Government shall operate said railroads as public highways for the benefit of the whole people, and not in the interest of the few, under suitable provisions for protection of life and property, giving to all transportation interests equal privileges and equal rates for fares and freights. We denounce the present infamous schemes for refunding these debts, and demand that the laws now applicable thereto be executed and administered according to their interest and spirit.” * TELEGRAPH.-"The telegraph, "like the postoffice system, being a necessity for the transmission of news, should be owned and operated by the Government in the interest of the people.” LAND.—"True policy demands that the National and State legislation shall be such as will ultimately enable every prudent and industrious citizen to secure a home, and therefore the land should not be monopolized for speculative purposes. All lands now held by railroads and other corporations in excess of their actual needs should by lawful means be reclaimed by the Government and held for actual settlers only, and private land monopoly, as well as alien ownership. should be prohibited. We condemn the land grant frauds by which the Pacific railroad companies have, through the connivance of the Interior Department. robbed multitudes of actual bona fide set

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NATIONAL PARTY CONVENTIONS.

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, tiers of their homes and miners of their

claims, and we demand legislation by Congress which will enforce the exception of mineral land from such grants after as well as before the patent. We demand that bona fide settlers on all public lands be granted free homes, as provided in the National Homestead law, and that no exception be made in the case of Indian reservations when opened for settlement, and that all lands not now patented come under this demand.” Idi RECT LEGISLATION.—“We favor a system of direct legislation through the initiative and referendum, under proper constitutional safeguards.” GENERAL PROPOSITIONS.—“We demand the election of President, VicePresident, and United States Senators by a direct vote of the people. We tender to the patriotic people of Cuba, our deepest sympathy in their heroic struggle for political freedom and independence, and we besieve the time has come when the United States, the great republic of the world, should recognize that Cuba is and of right ought to be a free and independent State. **we favor home rule in the Territories and the District of Columbia and the early admission of the Territories as states. “All public salaries should be made to correspond to the price of labor and its products. “In times of great industrial depression idle labor should be employed on public works as far as practicable. **The arbitrary course of the courts in assuming to imprison citizens for indirect conternpt and ruling them by injunction ahould be prevented by proper legislation. “We favor just pensions for our disabled Union soldiers. “Believing that the elective franchise and an untrammelled ballot are essential to government of, for, and by the people, the People's party condemn the wholesale system of disfranchisement adopted in some of the States as unrepublican and undermocratic, and we declare it to be the duty of the several State Legislatures to take such action as will secure a full, free, and fair ballot and an honest count. “while the foregoing propositions constitute the platform upon which our party stands, and for the vindication of which its organization will be maintained, we recognize that the great and pressing is— sue of the pending campaign upon which the present election will turn is the financoal question, and upon this great and specific issue between the parties we cordaily invite the aid and co-operation of all organizations and citizens agreeing with us upon this vital question.” A minority submitted a substitute platform, taking the ground that the one of the majority was too elaborate and too much like that adopted at the Democratic Convention. The substitute denounced “the methods and policies of the Demo– ratic and Republican parties” for their “mutual co-operation with the money power’’: also their policies of tariff and the issuance of interest-bearing United

states bords in time of peace; demanded a xational currency; the free and unlimited coinage of silver and gold at a ratio of 16 to 1;

that the circulating medium

shall consist of gold, silver and paper currency; a graduated income tax; economy in Federal administration; Government ownership of the telegraph and telephone; the prohibition of alien ownership of land and pauper immigration, and legislation by means of the initiative and referendum. The minority platform was overwhelm. ingly defeated, and the majority platform, as above, was adopted.

SILVER PARTY.

The first National Convention of the Silverites met at St. Louis on July 22, 1896. Francis G. Newlands, or Nevada, was made temporary chairman, and w P. St. John, of New-York, was permanent chairman. William J. Bryan and Arthur Sewall, the candidates of the Democratic Convention for President and Vice-President, respectively, were indorsed on July 24, by acclamation.

THE PLATFORM.

The following is the platform as adopted on July 23:

MONEY.-“The National Silver party 9f America, in convention assembled, hereby adopts the following declaration of principles:

“The paramount issue at this time in the United States is indisputably the money question. It is between the British gold standard, gold bonds and bank currency on the one side, and the bimetallic standard, no bonds, Government currency (and an American policy) on the other. On this issue we declare ourselves to be in favor of a distinctively American financial system. We are unalterably opposed to the single gold standard and demand the immediate return to the constitutional standard of gold and silver, by the restoration by this Government, independently of any foreign power, of the unrestricted coinage of both gold and silver, into standard money at the ratio of 16 to 1, and upon terms of exact equality as they existed prior to 1873: the silver coin to be of full legal—tender, equally with gold, for all debts and dues, public and private; and we demand such legislation as will prevent for the future the destruction of the legal—tender quality of any kind of money by private contract. we hold that the power to control and regulate a paper currency is inseparable from the power to coin money, and hence that all currency intended to circulate as money should be issued and its volume controlled by the General Government only, and should be a legal—tender.”

BOND ISSUE.—“We are unalterably opposed to the issue by the United States of interest-bearing bonds in time of peace, and we denounce as a blunder worse than a crime the present Treasury policy, con– curred in by a Republican House, of plunging the country into debt by hundreds of millions in the vain attempt to maintain the gold standard by borrowing gold; and we demand the payment of all coin obligations of the United States as provided by existing laws, in either gold or silver coin, at the option of the Government and not at the option of the creditor. The demonetization of silver in 1873 enormously increased the demand for gold, enhancing its purchasing power and lowering all prices measured by that

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THE TRIBUNE ALMANAC FOR 1897.

tandard; and since that unjust and indeensible act the prices of American prod– cts have fallen upon an average nearly 0 per cent, carrying down with them roportionately , the money value of all ther forms of property. Such fall of rices has destroyed the profits of legitinate industry, injuring the producer for he benefit of the non-producer, increasng the burden of the debtor, swelling the aims of the creditor, paralyzing the prosuctive energies of the American people, elegating to idleness vast numbers of villing workers, sending the shadows of espair into the home of the honest toiler, Illing the land with tramps and paupers, ind building up colossal fortunes at the money centres. In the effort to maintain he gold standard, the country has, within he last two years, in a time of profound eace and plenty, been loaded down with (262,000,000 of additional interest—bearing |ebt under such circumstances as to allow syndicate of native and foreign bankers o realize a net profit of millions on a ingle deal.” GOLD.—“It stands confessed that the gold standard can only be upheld by so sepleting our paper currency as to force he prices of our products below the Eurojean, and even below the Asiatic level, to nable us to sell in foreign markets, thus iggravating the very evils of which our jeople so bitterly complain, degrading American labor and striking at the founlations of our civilization itself. The adVocates of the gold standard persistently slaim that the real cause of our distress s overproduction: that we have produced to much that it made us poor—which im– plies that the true remedy is to close the 'actory, abandon the farm and throw a multitude of people out of employment: a loctrine that leaves us unnerved and disheartened and absolutely without hope for he future. We affirm to be unquestioned that there can be no such economic paralox as over-production, and at the same ime tens eof thousands of our fellow:itizens remaining half-clothed and halffed, and who are piteously clamoring for the common necessities of life. Over and above all other questions of policy, we are In favor of restoring to the people of the United States the time-honored money of the Constitution—gold and silver, not one, but both—the money of Washington and Hamilton, and Jefferson and Monroe, and Jackson and Lincoln, to the end that the American people may receive honest pay for an honest product; that the American debtor may pay his just obligations in an honest standard, and not in a dishonest and unsound standard, appreciated 100 per cent in purchasing power and no appreciation in debt-paying power, and to the end, further, that silver-standard countries may be deprived of the unjust advantage they now enjoy, in the difference in exchange between gold and silver—an advantage which tariff legislation cannot overcome. We therefore confidently appeal to the perple of the United States to hold in abeyance all other questions, however important and even momentous they may appear: to sunder, if need be, all former party ties and affiliations, and unite in one supreme effort to free themselves and their children from the domination of the money power—a power more

destructive than any which has ever been fastened upon the civilized men of any race or in any age. And, upon the consummation of our desires and efforts, we evoke the aid of all patriotic American citizens and the gracious favor of Divine Providence. Inasmuch as the patriotic majority of the Chicago Convention embodied in the financial plank of its plat— form the principles enunciated in the platform of the American Bimetallic party, promulgated at Washington, D. C. January 22, 1896, and herein reiterated. which is not only the paramount but the only real issue in the pending campaign, therefore, recognizing that their nominees embody these patriotic principles, we recommend that this Convention nominate William J. Bryan, of Nebraska, for President, and Arthur Sewall, of Maine, for Vice-President.”

PROHIBITION.

The National Convention of the ProhiKoło, was held at Pittsburg, Penn., May 28, 1896. Joshua Levering, of Mary– land, was nominated for President, and Hale Johnson, of Illinois, for Vice-President. Close to midnight, when contributions to the campaign fund were being received, the Free Silver, Woman's Suffrage and Populist delegates, numbering about 200, bolted the convention.

- THE PLATFORM.

The majority of the Committee on Resolutions reported a platform, the first six planks of which were adopted unanimously by the committee, and were denunciatory of the liquor traffic and proposed straightout prohibition. The seventh plank, which declared that no citizen should be denied the right to vote on account of sex, was adopted by only a small majority. The other planks, which referred to one day's rest a week, the English language in non-sectarian schools, the election of President, Vice-President and Senators directly by the people, liberal pensions, exclusion of pauper and criminal emigrants, arbitration, etc., there was some division on.

The minority reported a platform which contained this money plank:

“Resolved. That all money be issued by the Government only and without the intervention of any private citizen, corporation or banking institution. based upon the wealth, stability and integrity of the Nation, and be full legal tender for all debts, public and private, and should be of sufficient volume to meet the demands of the legitimate business interests in this country and for the purpose of honestly liquidating all our outstanding obligations payable in coin. We demand the free and unlimited coinage of silver and gold at a ratio of 16 to 1 without consulting any other nation.” The other points on which the minority asked action were: Preserving public lands from monopoly and speculation: Government control of railroads and telegraphs: favoring an income tax and im– posing only such import duties as are necessary to secure equitable commercial relations with other nations: favoring the adoption of the initiative and referendum as a neans of obtaining free expression of the popular will. On the motion to make these recommendations part of the

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NATIONAL PARTY CONVENTIONS. 33

majority report, the fight began. A vote to lay 'it ; the table resulted in 492 nays, 310 yeas. The free silver plank was defeated by a vote of 427 nays to 387 yeas. t A substitute platform was proposed by Mr. Patton, of Illinois, which omitted mention of every subject, woman suffrage in-cluded, except prohibition, and it was adopted and became the sole platform of the party. The following is the full text: “The Prohibition party, in National Convention assembled, declares its firm conviction that the manufacture, export— ation, importation and sale of alcoholic | teverages has produced such social, com— rner:ial, industrial and political wrongs and is now so threatening the perpetuity of all our social and political institutions that the suppression of the same by a na– tional party organized therefor is the zreatest object to be accomplished by the voters of our country, and is of such im– portance as that it, of right, ought to control the political action of all our pa triotic citizens until such suppression is accomplished. The urgency of this cause de-mands the union without further delay of all citizens who desire the prohibition of the liquor traffic. **Therefore. be it resolved, That we favor the legal prohibition by State and National legislation of the manufacture, importation, exportation, interstate transportation and sale of alcoholic beverages. **That we declare our purpose to or— zanize and invite all the friends of prohit-ition into our party, and in order to so-roomplish this end we declare it but right to leave every Prohibitionist the free-form of his own conscience upon all other political questions, and trust our repr-sentatives to take legislative action upon cther political questions as the **anges occasioned by prohibition and the welfare of the whole people shall dertiani.” o PROHIBITION BOLTERS. The new National party (Prohibition or-ters) held its first convention at Pittsorg, Penn., on May 28, 1896. Rev. harles E. Bentley, of Nebraska, was rominated for President, and J. H. Southrate, of North Carolina, was nominated f or Vice-President. On the money queson the platform said: “All money should be issued by the

oeneral Government only, and without.

* -rporation, or banking institution. It should be based upon the wealth, stability and integrity of the nation. It should be a full legal tender for all debts, public and Private, and should be of sufficient voline to meet the demands of the legiti**te business interests of the country. * r the purpose of honestly liquidating ... or outstanding coin obligations we favor a free and unlimited coinage of both over and gold, at the ratio of 16 to 1, * , thout consulting any other nation.”

soCIALIST-LABOR.

national Convention of the Socialo: party held in New-York City on July 9, 1896, nominated Charles H. Matchett, of New-York, for President, and *fathew Maguire, of New—Jersey, for Vice-President. The platform, divided into twenty-one items, was as follows:

the intervention of any private citizen,

“With a view to immediate improve ment in the condition of labor we presen the following demands: Reduction of th hours of labor in proportion to the prog ress of production. The United States t obtain possession of the mines, railroads canals, telegraphs, telephones and all othe means of publie transportation and com. munication; the employees to operate th same co-operatively under control of th Federal Government and to elect the own, superior officers, but no employ shall be discharged for political reasons The municipalities to obtain possession o the local railroads, ferries, water works gas works, electric o and all indus tries requiring municipal franchises; thi employes, to operate the same co-opera. tively under control of the municipal ad. ministration and to elect their own su. Perior officers, but no employe shall b discharged for political reasons. The pub. lic lands to be declared inalienable," re. Vocation of all land grants to corporation. 9r individuals, the conditions of which have not been complied with. The Unite, States to have the exclusive right to issu oney. Congressional legislation provid. ing for the scientific management of for. ests, and waterways, and prohibiting "th, waste of the natural resources of th country. Inventions to be free to all; thi inventors to be remunerated by the nation Progressive income tax and tax on inheri. ances; the smaller incomes to be exempt, School education of all children unio fourteen years of age to be compulsory gratuitous and accessible to a:l by publi assistance in meals, clothing, books, etc. where necessary. Repeal of all pauper tramp, conspiracy and sumptuary laws Unabridged right of combination." Prohi. bition of the employment of children", school. age and the employment of remas, labor in occupations detrimental to ho or morality. Abolition of the convic labor contract system. Employment o the unemployed by the public authorities (county, city, State and Nation). Al Yaşes, to be paid in lawful money of th United States; equalization of women" wages with those of men where equal ser. vice is food; Laws for the protec. tion of life and limb in all occupations and an efficient employers' liability haw The people to have the right to propose laws and to vote upon aii" measure; o, importance, according to the referendum Principle. Abolition of the veto power o the Executive (National, state and muni. cipal), wherever it exists. Abolition o the United States Senate and all uppe legislative chambers. Municipal self–gov. ernment. Direct vote and secret bailots in all elections: universal and equal right o suffrage without regard to coior, creed o sex: election days to be legal holidays the principle of proportional representation to be introduced. All public officers to b subject to recall by their respective con. stituencies. Uniform civil and crimina law throughout the United states: admin. istration of justice to be free of charge abolition of capital punishment.

REPUBLICAN NATIONAL LEAGUE.

August 26, 1896.-"we heartily indors. the platform adopted at St. Louis by # National Republican Convention, o, o 1895. The Republican party was righ when it elected Abraham Lincoln. It was right in its effort to save the Union. It was right when it struck the chains from 4,000,000 slaves and made them free men. It was right in carrying into successful operation the resumption of specie payment. It was right in making Protection to American industries a cardinal doctrine of the American people. It was right in insisting that Reciprocity should be come the permanent law of the land. It is right now and always has been right in advocating a safe and stable currency, worth its face the world over, whether in the hands of rich or poor. It was right when it confided in the leadership of Grant, Hayes, Garfield, Arthur and Harrison. It was right when it nominated William McKinley. of Ohio, and Garret A. Hobart, of New—Jersey, and we pledge them our hearty and loyal support.

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We believe that a return to the Republican policy of protection is as essential to the solvency of the Nation as is the

maintenance of the present financial standard to her credit and honor. A cheap dollar means low wages, a financial panic, distress to the people, obligations repudiated, a dishonored country, a boot on our fair history. The Republican party stands for honest money, honest treatment of our country's defenders, an honest system of revenue, protecting our industries and producing sufficient income to conduct the affairs of the Nation, an honest sys– tem of exchange with foreign countries, as embodied in the reciprocity idea of the immortal Blaine, an honest administration of public affairs.

The name of its candidates is synonymous with honesty, patriotism, statesmanship and the highest ideal of life, duty and government. Our policies and candidates inspire the student, quicken the best thought of the voter, elevate the citizen and add new lustre to our country's history.

POLITICAL STATE PLATFORMS.

ALABAM.A. REPUBLICAN PLATFORM.

April 28, 1896.-We contend for honest money, for a currency of gold, silver and paper, with which to measure our exchange, that shall be as sound as the Government and as untarnished as its honor, and to that end we favor bimetallism and demand the use of both gold and silver as standard money, under such restrictions to be determined by legislation as will secure the maintenance of the parities of the values of the two metals: also, that the purchasing and debt-paying power of the dollar, whether of gold, silver or paper, shall be at all times equal, and we believe the best way to continue the parity of our dollars and at the same time enlarge the circulating medium commensurate with the growth of population is the unlimited use of the domestic silver product of our own monetary system and the prohibition of foreign silver, modified by financial reciprocity.

We are unalterably opposed to any echeme that will give to this country a depreciated and debased currency. We favor the use of silver as currency, but to the extent only that its parity with gold can be maintained, and in consequence are opposed to a free and unlimited and independent coinage of silver at the ratio of 16 to 1. We believe that every American dollar should be an honest 100-cent dollar, always and everywhere, whether gold, silver or paper.

DeMOCRATIC.

April 22, 1896.-The platform favors the free and unlimited coinage of silver and gold at the ratio of 16 to 1, as the standard morey of the country, without dis– crimination akainst either metal and without the consent of foreign nations. It also calls for the repeal of the 10 per cent tax cm State bank issues, and for the government of the State by white men. President cleveland was commended for his attitude on the Monroe Doctrine, but his financial policy was condemned. The

minority report, which was in opposition to free coinage, was tabled by a vote of 331 to 173. The National Convention delegates were instructed to vote as a unit for free filver. SOUND MONEY DEMOCRATS.

August 27, 1896. – Resolutions were unanimously adopted indorsing Secretary Herbert's course in bolting the Chicago Convention; declaring in favor of nominating a National Democratic candidate in each district in Alabama: deploring the death of ex-Governor Russell of Massachou'setts; indorsing the action of the National Provisional Executive Committee, and especially the work of J. M. Falkner, Alabama's member: providing for a thorough organization in every county in Alabama: demanding that the National Democracy be treated fairly at the pol’s in Alabama: declaring in favor of the Indianao lis Convention placing a National ticket in the field.

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