## Library of Useful Knowledge: Mathematics I.Baldwin and Cradock, 1836 - Mathematics |

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a b c ac ac acº algebra algebraical quantities answer arithmetic becomes binomial theorem called ciphers coefficient common logarithms contained continued fraction cube root decimal fraction decimal places decimal point deduce digits divided dividend division divisor equa equal equation example exponent expression factors figure frac geometry given gives greater greatest common measure inches instance least common multiple less letters loga logarithm magnitude means metical multiply negative observe operations positive proceed proportion proved quotient reasoning reduced remainder result right angles rithm rule shillings solution square root student subtract suppose theorem things taken third tion triangle true unit unity unknown quantities vulgar fractions whole number write yards

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Page 67 - Parallelograms on the same or equal bases, and between the same parallels, are equal. The explanation of this is as follows : the whole proposition is divided into distinct assertions, which are placed in separate consecutive paragraphs, which paragraphs are numbered in the first column on the left ; in the second column on the left we state the reasons for each paragraph, either by referring to the preceding paragraphs from which they follow, or the preceding propositions in which they have been...

Page 12 - D' contains £T of G. Here then appears a connexion between the multiplication of whole numbers, and the formation of a fraction whose numerator is the product of two numerators, and its denominator the product of the corresponding denominators. These operations will always come together, that is whenever a question occurs in which, when whole numbers are given, those numbers are to be multiplied together ; when fractional numbers are given, it will be necessary, in the same case, to multiply the...

Page 51 - ... with one another. This cannot be attained by a mere reading of the book, however great the attention which may be given. It is impossible, in a mathematical work, to fill up every process in the manner in which it must be filled up in the mind of the student before he can be said to have completely mastered it. Many results must be given, of which the details are suppressed, such are the additions, multiplications, extractions of the square root, etc., with which the investigations abound.

Page 68 - Thus, that the square of the hypothenuse of a right-angled triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides, was an experimental discovery, or why did the discoverer sacrifice a hecatomb when he made out its proof ?

Page 3 - ... faculties which would otherwise never have manifested their existence. It is, therefore, as necessary to learn to reason before we can expect to be able to reason, as it is to learn to swim or fence, in order to attain either of those arts. Now, something must be reasoned upon, it matters not much what it is, provided that it can be reasoned upon with certainty. The properties of mind...

Page 82 - When it is said that the angle = arc , it is only meant that, is equal to the radius, the number of these units in any other angle is found by dividing the number of linear units in its arc by the number of linear units in the radius. It only remains to give a formula for finding the number of degrees, minutes, and seconds in an angle, whose theoretical measure is given. It is proved in geometry that the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, or that of half the circumference to...

Page 13 - This process is then, by extension, called division : y is called the quotient of £ divided by J., and is found by multiplying the numerator of the first by the denominator of the second for the numerator of the result, and the denominator of the first by the numerator of the second for the denominator of the result. That this process does give the same result as ordinary division in all cases where ordinary division is applicable, we can easily shew from any two whole numbers, for example, 12 and...

Page 78 - In each succeeding term the coefficient is found by multiplying the coefficient of the preceding term by the exponent of a in that term, and dividing by the number of the preceding term.

Page 3 - ... thought advisable to make many passages between ports that were well known before attempting a voyage of discovery. So it is with our reasoning faculties : it is desirable that their powers should be exerted upon objects of such a nature, that we can tell by other means whether the results which we obtain are true or false, and this before it is safe to trust entirely to reason. Now the mathematics are peculiarly well adapted for this purpose, on the following grounds : 1. Every term is distinctly...

Page 72 - ... number of combinations of n things r at a time is the same as the number of combinations of n things n — r at a time ; This result is frequently useful in enabling us to abridge arithmetical work.