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or this splendid poem the first edition was that of the players
in 1623. It was, howerer, in the opinion of Mr. Malone,
frons overburdening the credulity of his audience.
strictly he same, are confounded in this play, has in all ages and coquisies been credited by the common people, and in most, by the learned themselves. The phantons have indeed appeared more frequently, in proportion as the darkness of ignorance has been more kross, but it cannot be shewni, that the brightest gleams of knowledge have at any time been suffcient to drive them out of the world. The time in which this kind of credulity was at its height, seems to have been that of the holy war, in which the Christians imputed all their efents to enchantments or diabolical opposition, as they ascribed their success to the assistauce of ihe military saints, and the learned Dr. Warburton appears to believe (Supplemenu to the Intro. duction to Don Quirore), that the first accounts of enchant. ments were brought into this part of the world by those who returned from their eastern expeditions. But there is always some distance betwren the birth and maturity of folly as of wickedness: this opinion had lok existed. though perhaps the application of it had in no fo.exving axe teen so frequeni, nor the reception so general. Olympiodorus, in Photius's Es. military magic, and having promised xipis onde tã kura tracts, tells us of one libanius who practised this kid of puppiipwv éveppeix, lo perform great things avninst the Bar. barians 1011 hout suldiers, was, at the instance of the empress Pla. cidia, put to death. when he was about io have kiven proofs of
his abilities. The empress shewed some kindness in her anger, by cutting him off at a time so convenient for his reputation.
But a more remarkable proof of the antiquity of this notion may be found in St. Chrysostom's book de Sacerdocio, which exhibits a scene of enchantments not exceeded by any romance of the middle age: he supposes a spectator pverlooking a field of battle attended by one that points out all the various objects of horror, the engines of destruction and the arts of slaughier. Δεικνύτο δε ότι παρά τοις εναντίοις και πετομένους ίππους διά τινος μαγγανείας, και οπλίτας δι' αέρος φερομένους, και τάσην γοητειας δύναμιν και ιδε αν. κι him hen proceed to shew him in the opposite armies Nying horses hy enchani ment, armed men transported through the air, and every power and form of magic. Whether St. Chrysostom believed that such performances were really to be seen in a day of battle, or valy
endeavoured to enliven his description, by adopting the notions of the vulgar, it is equally certain, that such polioas were in his time received, and that therefore they were not insported from the Saraceus in a later age; the wars with the Saracens, however, kare occasion to their propagation, not only as bi. gotry naturally discovers prodigies, but as the sceue of action
was removed io a great distance. “The Reformation did not immediately arrive at its meridian,
and though day was gradually increasing upon us, the goblins of witchcraft still continued to hover in the twilight. la the time of Queen Elizabeth was the remarkable irial of the witches of Warbois, whose conviction is sull commemorated in an annual sertion at lluntingdon. But in the reign of King James, in which this tragedy was written, many circumstances concurred to propagate and confirm this opinion,
I he king, whu was niuch celebrated for his knowledge, bad, before his arrival in England, not only examined in persou a woman ac cused of witchcraft, but had given a very fornal account of the practices and illusions of evil spirits, the compacts of witches, the ceremonies used by them, the manner ol detect. ing them, and the justice of punishing them, in his dialogues of Demonologie, written in the Scottish dialect, and published at Edinburgh. This book was, soon after his succession, re. printed at London, and as the ready way to gain hing James's favour was to Hatter his speculations, the system of Demonoluzie was immediately adopted by all who desired either to gain preferment or not to lose it. Thus the doctrine of witchcraft was very powerfully inculcated ; and as the greatest part of mankind have no other reason for their opinions than ihat they are in fashion, it cannot be doulced but this persuasion made a rapid progress, since vanity and credulity co-operated in its favour. The infection soon reached the parliament, who, in the first year of King James, made a law, by which it was enacted, chap. xii. That if any person shall use any invocation or conjuration of any evil or wicked spirit; 2. or shall consult, covenant with, entertain, employ, seed, or reward any evil or cursed spirit, to or for any intent or purpose ; 3. or take up any dead man, woman, or child, out of the grave, -or the skin, bone, or any part of the dead person, to be em. ployed or used in any manner of witchcraft, sorcery, chart, or enchantment; t. or shall use, practise, or exercise any sort of witchcraft, sorcery, charm, or enchantment: 5, whereby any person shall be destroyed, killed, wasted.consumed, pined, or lamed in any part of the body; 6. That every such person being convicted shall suffer death. This law was repealed in our own time Thus, in the line of Shakspeare, was the doctrine of witch. craft at once established by law and by the fashiou, and it beenme not only unpolite, but criminal, to doubt it; and as pro digies are always seen in proportion as they are expected, wiiches were every day discovered, and multiplied so fast in some places, lhat Bishop llall mentions a villake in Lanca. shire, where their number was greater than that of the houses. The jesuits and seciaries took advantage of this universal error, and endeavoured to promote the interest of their par ties by pretended cures of persons affected by evil spirits ; bnt they were detected and exposed by the clergy of the es. tablished church. Upon this general infatuation Shakspeare might be easily al. lowed to found a play, especially since he has followed with great exactness sach histories as were then thought true: por can it be doubted that the scenes of enchantment, however they may now be ridiculed, were both by himself and his audience thought awful and affecting."-JOHNSON.
PERSONS REPRESENTED. SCENE,—in the end of the Fourth Act, lies in Exo. Duncan, King of Scotland.
LAND; through the rest of the Play, in ScoTLAND; MALCOLM, DONALBAIN, his sons.
and, chiefly, at Macbetui's Castle.
SCENE I. - An open Place. Thunder and Lightning.
Enter three Witches.
1 Witch. When shall we three meet again, Son to Macduff.
In thunder, lightning, or in rain ? An Euglıslı Ductor.
2 Witch. When the hurlyburly 's done, A Scotch Doctor.
When the battle's lost and won: A Soldier. A Porter. An old Man.
3 Witch. That will be ere set of sun. Lady MACBETU.
1 Witch. Where the place ? Lady MACDUFF.
Upon the heath Gentlewoman attending on Lady Macbeth.
3 Witch. There to meet with Macbeth. HECATE, and three Witches.
1 Witch. I come, Graymalkin! Lords, Gentlemen, Officers, Soldiers, Murderers, All. Paddock calls :- Anon.Allendants, and Messengers.
Fair is soul, and foul is fair : The Ghost of Banquo, and severnl other Apparitions. Hover through the fog and filthy air. (Witches oanish,
SCENE II.-A Camp near Fores. Alarum within.
Great happiness ! Encer King Duncan, Malcolm, DonaldAIN, Lenox, Sweno, the Norways' king, craves composition ;
Rosse. That now with Attendants, meeting a bleeding Soldier.
Nor would we deigo him burial of his men,
Ten thousand dollars to our general use.
Dun. No more that thane of Cawdor shall deceive Mal. This is the sergeant,
Our bosom interest:--Go.pronounce his present death, Who, like a good and hardy soldier, fought And with his former title greet Macbeth. 'Gainst my captivity :-Hail, brave friend !
Rosse. I'll see it done. Say to the king the knowledge of the broil,
Dun. What he hath lost, noble Macbeth bath won. As thou didst leave it.
Doubtfully it stood;
SCENE III.- .A Heath. Thunder.
Enter the three Witches. (Worthy to be a rebel ; for, to that, The multiplying villanies of nature
1 Witch. Where hast thou been, sister? Do swarm upon him,) from the western isles
2 Witch. Killing swine. Of Kernes and Gallowglasses is supplied ;
3 Witch. Sister, where thou? And fortune, ou his damned quarrel siniling,
1 Witch. A sailor's wife had chesnuts in her lap, Shew'd like a rebel's whore : But all's too weak :
And mounch'd and mounch'd and mounch'd :-Give For brave Macbeth, (weil he deserves that name,)
quoth 1 :
Aroint thee, witch! the rump.fed ronyon crie! Di daining fortune, with his brandish'd steel, Which smok'd with bloody execution
Her husband's to Aleppo gone, master oʻthe Tiger Like valour's minion,
But in a sieve I'll thither sail,
And, like a rat without a tail,
I'll do, I'll do, and I'll do.
2 Witch. I'll give thee a wind.
1 Witch. Thou art kind And fix'd his head upon our battlements. Dun. O, valiant cousin! worthy gentleman!
3 Witch. And I another. Sol. As whence the sun 'gins his reflection
1 Witch. I myself have all the other ; Shipwrecking storms and direful thunders break;
And the very ports they blow, So from that spring, whence comfort seem'd to come,
All the quarters that they know Discomfort swells. Mark, king of Scotland, mark,
l'the shipman's card.
I will drain him dry as hay:
'd these skipping Kernes lo trust their heels: Sleep shall, neither night nor day, But the Norweyan lord, surveying vantage,
Hang upon his pent-house lid;
He shall live a man forbid :
Weary sev'n-nights, nine times nine,
Shall he dwindle, peak, and pine :
Though this bark cannot be lost,
Look what I have.
Witch. Shew me, shew me.
1 Witch. Here I have a pilot's thum, So they
Wreck'd as homeward he did come. [Drum within.
3 Witch. A drum, a drum : Doubly redoubled strokes upon the foe
Macbeth doth come.
All. The weird sisters, hand in hand,
Posters of the see and land,
Thus do go about, about;
[Exit Soldier, attended. Peace !-the charm's wound up.
Enter MACBETH and BANQUO. Who comes here?
Macb. So foul and fair a day I have not seen. Mal.
The worthy thane of Rosse. Bun. How far is't call'd to Fores?- What are these, Len. Whata haste looks through his eyes! 'So should So wither'd, and so wild in their attire ; That seems to speak things strange. she look, That look not like the inhabitants o'the earth, Rosse.
God save the king! And yet are on 't? Live you ? or are you aught Dun. Whence cam'st thou, worthy thane ? That man may question? You seem to understand me, Rosse.
From Fife, great king, By each at once her choppy finger laying Where the Norweyan banners flout the sky, Upon her skinny lips :-You should be women, And fan our people cold.
And yet your beards forbid me to interpret Norway himself, with terrible numbers,
That you are so. Assisted by that most disloyal traitor
Macb. Speak, if you can ;-What are you? (Glamis' The thane of Cawdor, 'gau a dismal conflict :
1 Witch. All hail, Macbeth ! lail to thee, thane of Till that Bellona's bridegroom, lapp'd in proof, 9 Witch. All hail, Macbeth! hail to thee, thane of Confronted him with self-comparisons,
(after. Point against point rebellious, arm 'gainst arm, S Witch. All hail, Macbeth! that shalt be king here. Curbing his lavish spirit: And, to conclude,
Ban. Good sir, why do you start ; and seem to fear The victory fell on us ;
Things that do sound so fair ?—l'the name of truuli,
Are ye fantastical, or that indeed
Do you not hope your children shall be kings;
That, trusted home,
Besides the thane of Cawdor. But 'tis strange.
Win us with honest trifles, to betray us 1 Witch. Hail !
In deepest consequences.: Witch, Ilail!
Cousins, a word, I pray you. 3 Witch. Hail !
Two truths are tola, 1 Witch. Lesser than Macbeth, and greater. As happy prologues to the swelling act ? Witch. Not so happy, yet much happier. Of the impezial theme.—1 thank you, gentlemen.
3 Witch. Thou shalt get kings, though thou be none: This supernatural soliciting So all hail, Macbeth and Banquo !
Cannot be ill; cannot be good :-If ill,
Macb. Stay, you imperfect speakers, tell me more : Commencing in a truth? I am thane of Cawdor :
Against the use of nature ? Present fears
[Witches vanish. But what is not. Ban. The earth hath bubbles, as the water bas, Ban.
Look, how our partner's rapt. And these are of them: Whither are they vanish'd ? Macb. Ifchance will have me king, why, chance may Macb. Into the air: and what seem'd corporal, melted Without my stir.
(crown me, As breath into the wind.-'Would they had staid ! Ban.
New honours come upon him Ban. Were such things here, as we do speak about? Like our strange garments; cleave not to their mould, Or have we eaten of the insane root,
But with the aid of use. That takes the reason prisoner ?
Come what come may; Macb. Your children shall be kings.
Time and the hour runs through the roughest Jay. Ban.
You shall be king Ban. Worthy Macbeth, we stay upon your leisure. Macb. And thane of Cawdor too; went it not so ? Macb. Give me your favour:-my dull brain was Ban. To the self-same lune, and words. Who's here?
With things forgotten. Kind gentlemen, your pains Enter Rosse and Angus.
Are register'd where every day I turn Rosse. The king hath happily receiv'd, Macbeth, The leaf to read them. Let us toward the king.The news of thy success : and when he reads Think upon what hath chanc'd ; and, at more time, Thy personal venture in the rebels' fight,
The interim having weigh'd it, let us speak His wonders and his praises do contend,
Our free hearts each to other. Which should be thine, or his : Silenc'd with that, Ban.
Very gladly. In viewing o'er the rest o' the self-saine day,
Macb. Till then, enough.-Come, friends. (Eseunt. He finds thee in the stout Norweyan ranks, Nothing aseard of what thyself didst make,
SCENE 1V..-Fores. A Room in the Palace. Strange images of death. As thick as hail,
Flourish. Enter Duncan, Malcolm, DONALBAIN, Came post with post; and every one did bear
Lenox, and Attendants. Thy praises in his kingdom's great defence,
Dun. Is execution done on Cawdor? Are nor And pour'd them down before him.
Those in commission yet return'd?
They are not yet come baek. But I have spoke
With one that saw him die : who did report,
That very frankly he confess'd his treasous;
Implor'd your highness' pardon ; and set forth
A deep repentance : nothing in his life
Became hím, like the leaving it; he died
What, can the devil speak true ?
As one that had been studied in his death,
(me As 'twere a careless trifle.
There's no art,
To find the mind's construction in the face :
He was a gentleman on whom I built
An absolute trust.-0 worthiest cousin !
Enter MACBETH, Bavquo, Rosse, and Anous.
Was heavy on me : Thou art so far before,
Glamis, and thane of Cawdor : That swiftest wing of recompense is slow
That the proportion both of thanks and payment And that which rather thou dost fear to do,
And chastise with the valour of my tongue
Which fate and metaphysical aid doth seem Are to your throne and state, children, and servants; To have thee crown'd withal. What is your tidings! Which do but what they should, by doing every thing Safe toward your love and honour.
Enter an Attendant. Dun.
Welcome hither: Atten. The king comes here to-night. I have begun to plant thee, and will labour
Thou'rt mad to say it: To make thee full of growing.–Noble Banquo,
Is not thy master with him ? who, wer't so, That hast no less deserv'd, nor must be known
Would have inform'd for preparation. No less to have done so, let me infold thee,
Atten. So please you, it is true; our thane is comAnd hold thee to my heart.
One of my fellows had the speed of him; [ing: Ban.
There if I grow,
Who, almost dead for breath, had scarcely more The harvest is your own.
Than would make
Give him tending. Wanton in fulness, seek to hide themselves He brings great news. The raven himself is hoarse, in drops of sorrow.-Sons, kinsmen, thanes,
[Erit Attendant And you whose places are the nearest, know,
That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan We will establish our estate upon
Under my battlements. Come, come, you spirits Our eldest, Malcolm ; whom we name hereafter
That tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here; The prince of Cumberland : which honour must And fill me, from the crown to the toe, top-full Not, unaccompanied, invest him only,
Of direst cruelty! make thick my blood, But signs of nobleness, like stars shall shine Stop up the access and passage to remorse; On all deservers.-From hence to Inverness, That no compunctious visitings of nature And bind us further to you.
Shake my fell purpose, nor keep peace between Macb. The rest is labour, which is not us'd for you: The effect, and it ! Come to my woman's breasts, I'll be myself the harbinger, and make joyful And take my milk for gall, you murd'ring ministers, The hearing of my wife with your approach : Wherever in your sightless substances So, humbly take my leave.
You wait on nature's mischief! Come, thick night. Dun.
My worthy Cawdor! And pall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell ! Macb. The prince of Cumberland !—That is a step, That my keen knife see not the wound it makes ; On which I must fall down, or else o'er-leap, [Aside. Nor heaven peep through the blanket of the dark, For in my way it lies. Stars, hide your hres ! To cry, Hold, hold ! Great Glamis ! worthy Let not light see my black and deep desires :
Cawdor! The eye wink at the hand! yet let that be,
Enter MACBETH. Which the eye fears, when it is done, to see. (Exit.
Dun. True, worthy Banquo; he is full so valiant; Greater than both, by the all-hail hereafter ! And in his commendations I am fed ;
Thy letters have transported me beyond It is a banquet to me. Let us after him,
This ignorant present, and I feel now
The future in the instant. Whose care is gone before to bid us welcome :
Mucb. It is a peerless kinsman. (Flourish. Exeunt.
My dearest love,
Duncan comes here to-night.
And when goes hence ?
Macb. To-morrow,-as he purposes. Inverness. A Room in Macbeth's Castle.
0, never Enter Lady Macbeth, reading a letter. Shall sun that morrow see! Lady M. They met me in the day of success ; and I Your face, my thane, is as a book, where men have learned by the perfectest report, they have more in May read strange matters ;-To beguile the time, them than mortal knowledge. When I burned in desire Look like the time ; bear welcome in your eye, to question them further, they made themselves-air, Your hand, your tongue: look like the innocent flower, into which they vanished. Whiles I stood rupt in the But be the serpent under it. He that's coming wonder of it, came missives from the king, who all-hailed Must be provided for: and you shall put me, Thane of Cawdor ; by which title, before, these This night's great business into my despatch ; weird sisters saluted me, and referred me to the coming Which shall to all our nights and days to come on of time, with, Hail, king that shalt be! This have Give solely sovereign sway and masterdom. I thought good to deliver thee, my dearest partner of Macb. We will speak further. greatness ; that thou mightest not lose the dues of re- Lady M.
Only look up clear : joicing, by being ignorant of what greatness is promised To alter favour ever is to fear : thee. Lay it to thy heart, and farewell.
Leave all the rest to me.
[Ereunt. Glaruis thou art, and Cawdor; and shalt be What thou art promis'd:-Yet do I fear thy nature;
SCENE VI.-The same. Befo e
'astle. It is too full o''the milk of human kindness,
Hautboys. Servants of Macbeth anonding.
Enter Duncan, Malcolm, DonalBAIN, BANQUO, The illness should attend it. What thou would'st
LENOx, Macduff, Rosse, ANGUS, and Attendants. That would'st thou holily; would'st not play false, Dun. This castle hath a pleasant seat; the air And yet would'st wrongly win: thou'dst have, great Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself Glamis,
Unto our gentle senses. Tbut which cries. Thus thou must du, if thou have it ; Ban.
This guest of summer,
The temple. hai ning o a'tle! dits aft tre,
Face you not, he has ? By His löslicon: ijaz,'hid tae je van i brust'i Mech. W i Malpiviced i lartice n this business : Incils wocirziy lore: 1.0 mily, fritze : toes, Il : hith huonetiline ol lui : a.d I have bought Nur coigie of varlags, lutirš lird lid, mude (illede: opinio 13 C100, ail so is of people, Jis pendert boul, and increut cradle Where :ley which would gewinn now in their newest gloss, Jl si breed and hiun, I have observ'd the air Nut cast a: ide 50 km. Is dalica.e.
Was the hope drunk,
Wherein you dress d yourself? hath it slept since !
And wakes it now, to look so green and pale
At what it did so freely? From this time,
As thou art in desire ? Would'st thou have that Anul thank us for your trouble.
All our service
Which thou esteem'st the ornament of life, 1.ady 11.
And live a coward in thine own esteem; In overy point twice done, and then done double,
Letting 1 dare not wait upon I would, Were poor and single business to contend
Like the poor cat i' the adage ? Ag-inst those honours decp and lroad, wherewith
Pr'ythee, peace : Your majesty loads our house : For thc se of old, And the latc dignites heap'd up to them,
I dare do all that may become a man ;
Who dares do more, is none. We rest your hermits.
What beast was it then,
Lady M. Dun.
Where's the thane of Cawdor? That made you break this enterprise to me? We cours'd liim at the heels, and had a purpose
When you durst do it, then you were a man ; To be his purveyor : but he rides well; And his great love, sharp as his spur, bath holp him Be so much more the man. Nor time, nor place,
And, to be more than what you were, you would To his home before us : Fair and noble hostess, We are your guest lo-night.
Did then adhere, and yet you would make both :
l'hey have made themselves, and that their fitness now Lady M.
Your servants ever Have theirs, themselves, and what is theirs, in compt, How tender 'tís, 10 love the babe that milks me :
Does unmake you. I have given suck; and know To make their audit at your highness' pleasure, I would, while it was smiling in ray face, 3till to return your own.
Have pluck'd my nipple from his boneless gums, Dun. Give me your hand :
And das hid the brains out, had I so sworn, as you Conduct me to mine host ; we love him highly,
Hlave done to this. And shall continue our graces towards him.
If we should fail,
We fail ! SCENE VII.- The same. A Room in the Castle.
But screw your courage to the sticking place,
And we 'll not fail. When Duncan is asleep, Hautboys and torches. Enter, and pass over the stuge, (Whereto the rather shall his day's hard journey
a Sewer, and divers Servants with dishes and service. Soundly invite linn,) his two chamberlains
Will I with wine and wassel so convince,
What cannot you and I performi upon
Bring forth men-children only f ['o plague the inventor: This even-handel justice For thy und:untel mettle should compose. Commends the ingredients of our poison'd chalice Nothing but inales. Will it not le receiv'd, l'o our own lips. He's here in double trust : When we hive mark'l wille blood those sleepy two First, as I am his kinsman and his subject.,
Of his own chum er, and vs'd their very daggers, Strong both against the deel; then, as his host, l'hat they have drae 't? Who should against his murderer shut the door, Lady M.
Who dares receive it other,
Macb. I ara settled, and bend up
Aivar, and rock lhe time with fairest show:
Fuse fa:3 must lile what the fale heart doth know. Striding the blast, or heave i's cherubim, hors'd
(Eseunt. Upon the sightles:: couriers of the air, štall blow the ho rid leed in every eye, l'lat tears shall drong the wid. - I have no ef!
ACI II. l's prick we si:les of my inih: 1:, bu.only Vanlling ambii:ion, which ocije: & itsell,
SCENE I.-Tine awne. Crurt within the Castle And falls on the other.--flow now, wbai news 1
Euer Benguo ari Full MCK, and a Servant with a Enter La ly MACBRT II.
Mitch bil ure thes. Lany M. He has alroost supp d; Wły have you!! Ban. }} vw goe: the ni;ht. boy ? Muc. Hath te ask d for me? (ihe chan bur! Fle. Tlu, moon is down; I have not heard the clock