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XXXII West Virginia clings to the Union 516

PAGE XXIII. The Press and People of the North

deprecate Civil War..... ..351
The Tribune's overture-The Albany Evening
Journal's--The Philadelptia Meeting-Mayor
Henry- Judge Woodward-George W. Curtis

suppressed. XXIV. Attempts at 'Conciliation' in Cong. 367

Buchanan and Black condemn *coercion'
Mr. Crittenden and his Compromise--Mr. Cor-
win's Committee of Thirty-one-Senator Antho-
ny's proffer-C. L. Vallandigham's project--The
Corwin Constitutional Amendment adopted by

either House.
XXV. Peace Democracy at the North, and

the Peace Conference at Wash-
ington...

388
The Tweddle Hall Convention at Albany, 1861
-Seymour, Thayer, etc. ---Peace Conference or
Congress at Washington-Modified Crittenden
Com promise adopted thereby-Congress non-

concurs--Failure to compromise-Why, XXVI. The Union versus the Confederacy. .407

Organization of the Confederacy Jefferson Da-
vis chosen President, and Alex. H. Stephens
Vice-President-- Davis's Inaugural-Stephens's
'corner-stone' speech-Mr. Lincoln's journey to

Washington-Speeches--Inaugural.
XXVII. The Pause before the Shock......428

The tw) Cabinets-Attempts to Negotiate by
Forsyth and Crawford--Repelled by Gov. Sewa
ard-Judge Campbell's Statement-Northern
proposals to join the Confederacy--Society for

ihe promotion of National Unity. XXVIII. Siege and Reduction of Ft. Sumter 440

Hesitation--Futile Negotiations--Atternpt to
provision--Order to open fire-Bombardment
commenced-Fire returned-Interior of the fort
in flames-- Wigfall's volunteer embassy-Ander-
son surrenders-Garrison leaves for New York
Dixie jubilanto

Convention called-State organization effected
-McClellan advances-Fight at Ricb Moun-
tain-Rebel rout at Carrick's Ford-Union Ro-
pulse at Scarylown-Surprise at Cross Lanes-
Carnifex Ferry-Guyandotte-Romney-Alle-

ghany Suminit--Huntersville. XXXIII. The War in Old Virginia........528

Ft. Monroe-Great Bethel-Alexandria occu-
pied-Vietna-Patterson's advance-His flank
movement to Charlestown-Johnston rushes to
Manassas-Gen. Sanford's testimony--McDow.
ell advances to Centerville-Blackburn's Ford
-- Bull Run-Union defeat and Might-Causes
thereof-Gen. Scott's plan-Criticised by Hon.

F. P. Blair-Consequences of our failure. XXXIV. First session of the 37th Congress 553

Organization of the House--Mr. Lincoln's first
Message-Various propositions--Henry May's
visit to Richmond --Conservative Republicans
on Slavery and the Union - Mr. Crittenden's
resolve-- Propouls to Coinpromise-Confisca-
lion of Slaves used to promote the Rebellion-

The President's acts approved -- Adjournment. XXXV. Rebellion and War in Missouri.572

State preparations to aid the Rebellion--Flight
of Jackson from Jefferson City-Fight at
Booneville-Camp Cole- State Convention-
Jackson's Proclatdation of War-Dug Springs
-Battle of Wilson's Creek-Death of Lyon-
Freinont in command-Letter to the President
--Proclaims Martial law-Mulligan besieged
at Lexington-Surrenders - Price retreats-
Fremont pureces-- Zagonyi's Charge at Spring-
field-Fremont superseded-Halleck in com-

mand-Battle of Belmont. XXXVI. War on the Seaboard and Ocean.597

The Privateer Savannah-The Petrel-Fort
Hatterns-Pensacola and Pickens-The Sum-
ter-Hollina's Ram exploit-Dupont and Sher-
man's Expedition-Capture of Port Royal-
The Trent Case-Surrender of Mason and sli-

dell, XXXVII. Kentucky adheres to the Union.608

Politicians-Elections-Overwhelining Union
majorities-- Magoffin's neutrality-The Presi-
dent's response--Rebel Invasion-Legislature
protests-Gen, Grant occupies Paducah --Zul-
licoffer at Wild CalNelson at Piketon-
Schoepf's Retreat-Rebel Government organ-
ized at Russellville--Geo. W. Johnson in de
Governor--Kentucky gravely admitted into
the Southern Conlederucy-Full delegation
sent to the Congress at Richmond-Richard

Hawes finally declared Governor.
XXXVIII. The Potomac-Ball's Bluff......618

Scott & failure-Gen. McClellan called to
Washington-Brings Order out of Chaos-
Great increase of our Army-No advance-
Ball's Bluff-Dranesville - All Quiet'--The

Hutchinsons expelled-Whittier's Lyric.
Appended Notes...

I. The Synod of Kentucky and Slavery. IL
Now School Presbyterians condemn the insti-
tution. III. The Albany Erening Journal on
Gov. Seward and Judge Campbell. IV. Jere.
Clemens on Alabama secession--the Rebels
feared delay. V. The confidence of the Rebels
-Russell on the capture of Washington. VL.
The North Carolina Convention-an error

corrected,
ANALYTICAL INDEX.... .633

XXIX. The Nation called to arms-and responds....

449 Virginis sende Envoys to Washington--The President's response to them--He calls for 75,000 Militia ---Comments of the Press-Response of the Border State Governors-Baltimore in a ferment-Attack on the 6th Massachusetts--Do, on Pennsylvanians - The Rebels uppermost-Railroads and telegraphs broken upMayor Brown and the Young Christians visit Washington to demand that no more Northern troops enter Baltinore--Their success-General Butler lands at Annapolis and recovers Maryland-Her traitorous Legislature.

XXX. Secession resumes its march......473

Shameful surrender of the Norfolk Navy Yard-
Secession of Virginia--Tennessee-North Caro-
lina - Arkansas- Missouri--Blair and Lyon rally
a Union force at St. Louis---Kentucky.

....631

XXXI. The Opposing Forces in conflict...497

Davis's first Message--Relative strength of the
North and the South-European opinion--
Slavery - Cotton - Military training - Ariny
Officers-Northern sympathy with the South
-The heart of the People for the old tag and
their wbole country.

ILLUSTRATIONS.

FRONTISPIECE.

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PRESIDENT AND CABINET. 1. ABRAHAM LINCOLN, President 2. HANNIBAL Hamlin, Vice-President . 3. William H. Seward, Secretary of State 4. Salmon P. CHASE, Secretary of the Treasury 5. Edwin M. STANTON, Secretary of War. 6. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy 7. John P. USHER, Secretary of the Interior 8. Montgomery Blair, Postmaster-General . 9. EDWARD Bates, Attorney-General 10. Simon CAMERON, ex-Secretary of War 11. CALEB B. Smith, ex-Secretary of the Interior.

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66

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CONFEDERATE CHIEFTAINS. 24. JEFFERSON DAVIS

336 | 29. JOHN B. FLOYD . 25. ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS

30. R. BARNWELL RHETT 26. JUDAH P. BENJAMIN

31. James M. Mason 27. ROBERT Toombs .

32. John SLIDELL 28. William L. Yancey. .

33. ISHAM G. HARRIS 34. HENRY A. WISE

336

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UNION GENERALS. 35. Lieut.-Gen. WINFIELD Scott 448 41. Maj.-Gen. Don Carlos BUELL · 448 36. Maj. Gen. John E. Wool

42.

JOSEPH HOOKER 37. HENRY W. HALLECK 43.

AMBROSE E. BURNSIDE 38. Geo. B. MCCLELLAN 44.

BENJAMIN F. BUTLER 39, IRWIN McDowell.

45.

DAVID HUNTER. 40.

John C. FREMONT 46. Brig.-Gen. ROBERT ANDERSON

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CONFEDERATE GENERALS.

PAGE

PAGE

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66

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47. General ROBERT E. LEE

528 53. Lt.-Gen. John C. PEMBERTON 528 48. JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON

54.

LEONIDAS Polk. .. 49.

BRAXTON BRAGG. . 55. Maj.-Gen. Jno. C. BRECKINRIDGE“ 50. Lt.-Gen. P. G. T. BEAUREGARD 56.

Simon B. BUCKNER 51. THOMAS J. JACKSON

57.

ALBERT SYD. JOHNSTON 52. James LONGSTREET.

58.

STERLING PRICE

66

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UNION NAVAL OFFICERS.

608

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59. Rear-Adm'l ANDREW H. FOOTE 608 | 65. Commodore CHARLES WILKES .
60.
David G. FARRAGUT

66.

CHARLES H. Davis 61. L. M. GOLDSBOROUGH 67.

HENRY W. MORRIS 62.

SAM'l F. Du Pont . 68. Captain JAMES WARD
David D. PORTER

69.

John L. WORDEN 64. John A. DAHLGREN 70.

CHARLES S. Boggs.

63.

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ILLUSTRATIONS CONTINUED.
TEXAS AS SHE WAS, AND AS SHE CLAIMED TO BE
VIEW OF HARPER'S FERRY.
VIEW IN THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY.
FORT SUMTER
THE APPROACHES TO CHARLESTON
NORFOLK, PORTSMOUTH, AND THE Navy YARD
WEST VIRGINIA
TEN MILES AROUND FORTRESS MONROE
WASHINGTON CITY AND VICINITY
Bull Run BATTLE-FIELD AND CENTERVILLE
MISSOURI .
BATTLE-FIELD OF Wilson's CREEK, NEAR SPRINGFIELD, Mo.
LEXINGTON (Missouri) DEFENDED BY MULLIGAN
BATTLE-FIELD OF BELMONT, MISSOURI .
HATTERAS INLET-Forts HATTERAS AND CLARK
SINKING OF THE PETREL BY THE ST. LAWRENCE
Fort PICKENS–SANTA Rosa ISLAND-PENSACOLA .
Hilton HEAD-REDUCTION OF FORT BEAUREGARD
BATTLE-FIELD OF Ball's BluFF_HARRISON ISLAND, ETC.
BATTLE-FIELD OF DRANESVILLE, VIRGINIA

160 288 294 440 445 474

517 . 530

532 . 540 . 573 . 578 . 586 595 599 600 601 604 620 624

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THE AMERICAN CONFLICT,

I.

OUR

COUNTRY.

The United States of America, ed two or three hundred miles westwhose independence, won on the ward, to the bases and more fertile battle-fields of the Revolution, was valleys of the eastern slope of the tardily and reluctantly conceded by Alleghanies; and there were three Great Britain on the 30th of Novem- or four settlements quite beyond that ber, 1782, contained at that time a formidable but not impassable barrier, population of a little less than Three mainly in that portion of Virginia Millions, of whom half a million which is now the State of Kentucky. were slaves. This population was But, in the absence of steam, of camainly settled upon and around the nals, and even of tolerable highways, bays, harbors, and inlets, which ir- and with the mouth of the Missisregularly indent the western shore of sippi held and sealed by a jealous the Atlantic Ocean, for a distance and not very friendly foreign power, of about a thousand miles, from the the fertile valleys of the Illinois, the mouth of the Penobscot to that of the Wabash, and even of the Ohio itself, Altamaha. The extent of the settle- were scarcely habitable for civilized ments inland from the coast may have communities. No staple that their averaged a hundred miles, although pioneer population would be likely, there were many points at which the for many years, to produce, could be primitive forest still looked off upon sold on the sea-board for the cost the broad expanse of the ocean. of its transportation, even from the Nominally, and as distinguished site whereon Cincinnati has since from those of other civilized nations, been founded and built, much less the territories of the Confederation from that of Indianapolis or Chicago. stretched westward to the Mississippi, The delicate, costly fabrics of Europe, and northward, as now, to the Great and even of Asia, could be transLakes, giving a total area of a little ferred to the newest and most inland more than eight hundred thousand settlement for a small fraction of the square miles. At several inviting price at which they would there be localities, the “clearings” were push- I eagerly bought; but when the few coins which the settlers had takened, desolating Revolutionary strugwith them in their journey of emi-gle, rich, indeed, in hope, but poor in gration had been exhausted, there worldly goods. Their country had, was nothing left wherewith to pay for seven years, been traversed and for these costly luxuries; and debt, wasted by contending armies, almost embarrassment, bankruptcy, were the from end to end. Cities and villages inevitable results. A people clothed had been laid in ashes. Habitations in skins, living on the products of the had been deserted and left to decay. chase and the spontaneous abund- Farms, stripped of their fences, and ance of nature, might maintain ex- deserted by their owners, had for istence and a rude social organization years produced only weeds. Camp amid the forests and on the prairies fevers, with the hardships and priof the Great Valley; any other must vations of war, had destroyed many have experienced striking alterna- more than the sword; and all alike tions of factitious prosperity and uni- had been subtracted from the most versal distress; seeing its villages and effective and valuable part of a popcommercial depots rise, flourish, and ulation, always, as yet, quite inadedecay, after the manner of Jonah's quate. Cripples and invalids, melangourd, and its rural population con- choly mementoes of the yet recent stantly hunted by debt and disaster struggle, abounded in every village to new and still newer locations. and township. Habits of industry The Great West of to-day owes its had been unsettled and destroyed by unequaled growth and progress, the anxieties and uncertainties of its population, productiveness, and war. The gold and silver of antewealth, primarily, to the framers of revolutionary days had crossed the the Federal Constitution, by which ocean in exchange for arms and its development was rendered possi- munitions. The Continental paper, ble; but more immediately and pal- | which for a time more than supplied pably to the sagacity and statesman- (in volume) its place, had become ship of Jefferson, the purchaser of utterly worthless. In the absence of Louisiana; to the genius of Fitch and a tariff, which the Confederate ConFulton, the projector and achiever, gress lacked power to impose, our respectively, of steam-navigation; to ports, immediately after peace, were De Witt Clinton, the early, unswerv- glutted with foreign luxuries-gewing, and successful champion of artifi- gaws which our people were eager cial inland navigation; and to Henry enough to buy, but for which they Clay, the eminent, eloquent, and effec- soon found themselves utterly unable tive champion of the diversification to pay. They were almost exclusively of our National Industry through the an agricultural people, and their Protection of Home Manufactures.

products, save only Tobacco and In. The difficulties which surrounded digo, were not wanted by the Old the infancy and impeded the growth World, and found but a very restrictof the thirteen original or Atlantic ed and inconsiderable market even States, were less formidable, but kin in the West Indies, whose trade was dred, and not less real. Our fathers closely monopolized by the nations emerged from their arduous, protract- | to which they respectively belonged.

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