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with descriptions of the ancient capitular organisation, and the importance and integrity of Elphin Diocese. Twelve full-page illustrations, well-executed, brighten the pages of a very readable book, which must prove of much local interest.
* The Parish of Taney: a Hhtory of Dundrum, near Dublin, and itt Neighbourhood. By Francis Ellington Ball and Everard Hamilton, B.a., M.b.s.a.i. (Dublin : Hodges, Figgis & Co., 1895.) Price 3*. 6d.
This is a welcome addition to the local parish histories of the country, and the present volume is produced in a manner which compares favourably with similar compilations. The authors, it is evident, have the advantages of knowing their subject thoroughly from personal observation, as well as by intimate acquaintance with the various sources from which reliable information could be drawn, and much discrimination has been exercised in handling such ancient records as would best throw light on the history of the parish.
The name was spelled formerly in various ways, "Tanhy," li Tacheny," "Tathtoin," "Tawney," " Tane'e," and "Tawny." In addition to being the name of a rural deanery and a parish, it was anciently the title of a prebendal stall in St. Patrick's Cathedral. Tanee appears also to have been the name of the townland now known as Churchtown.
There is an interesting and well-digested chapter on the "Antiquities" of the parish, and in it reference is made to the valuable Paper* written by Mr. James Mills, M.b.i.a., on " The Manor of St. Sepulchre," and "The Norman Settlement in Leinster," both of which have appeared in the Journal of this Society. This chapter was revised, the authors state, by the Rev. Canon Stokes, D.d.
Not the least valuable portion of the work is the chapter on "The Graveyard," which contains the inscriptions, in full, from 80 of the inscribed stones, and about 150 extracts from others. This chapter commends itself particularly to the appreciative notice of the Editors of the "Journal of the Society for the Preservation of the Memorials of the Dead." It is stated that in the space of twenty-one years, 1044 burials were entered in the Register during the period from the year 1814 to 1835.
A list of curates, under the Archdeacon of Dublin as rector, is given from 1615, and of rectors and curates from 1851, with biographical notice of each. Then follows a chronological list of churchwardens from 1791, with a good deal of information about them. Another chapter deals with a very full list of the more prominent, or remarkable persons, who have resided in the parish, which includes the names of many who, in their day, were well known citizens of Dublin, and whose families are still represented in the city. The work is of more than local interest, and the compilers are to be congratulated on the success of their labours.
* Maynooth College: its Centenary History. By the Most Rev. John Healy, D.d. (Dublin: Messrs. Browne and Nolan.)
This large and handsome volume has been compiled as a special memento of the celebration, in 1895, of the Centenary of Maynooth College. The publishers are to be congratulated on the style in which the work has been produced, the printing and paper being alike excellent. It is profusely illustrated, and the photographic reproductions of all the important portions of the College, with Maynooth Castle, and especially the large number of portraits of distinguished men, clerical and lay, greatly enhance its value. The work gives a full summary of all official documents relating to the history of Maynooth College; the Reports of Commissioners, and State Papers, debates in Parliament, the Journal of the Trustees, the Records and Calendars have all been put under contribution, and copious extracts given in a convenient form. These form a considerable portion of the volume, and to the future historian of this century they will prove of the greatest service and value. Appended is a list of works of reference, which shows that the author spared no pains in making the work worthy of his subject.
The history of a college of 100 years' standing would not, under ordinary circumstances, prove of sufficient interest and importance to warrant the production of such a work as this. But the history of Maynooth College is exceptional in the highest degree. Perhaps thero is no other institution in these countries round which there raged for many weary years so fierce a controversy. The subject embraces the whole question of Roman Catholic education in Ireland, the Penal laws and their repeal; and hence the establishment of the right to receive from the State such a measure of support as would remove the discredit of sending youths designed for the priesthood abroad to receive that education which could not be obtained at home.
The beginning of the book deals with education in Ireland in early times; and as Dr. Healy's recent work, Ireland's Ancient Schools and Scholars has already been reviewed in these pages, we need not further refer to his summary here. On the subject of the Penal Laws and their effects on education, Dr. Healy deals. He briefly sketches the course of events to the end of the last century, and shows the growth of a more liberal and tolerant spirit among the rulers of our State, and which finally showed itself in concession to Catholic demands. The time was ripe for such, as the propagation at home and abroad of revolutionary ideas paved the way for a wide and more liberal policy.
The portion, however, which will prove of special interest to many of the readers of this Journal is the chapter devoted to the history of Old Maynooth. The name is derived from Magh Nuadhat, the Plain of Nuadhat, King of Leinster, who had a fortress near here. After the Anglo-Norman invasion the district round Maynooth, called Hy-Faelen, went to Maurice Fitz Gerald. Within it was the Church of Laithreach Briuin, now Laraghbryan, which gives name to the parish in which Maynooth stands. Gerald, first Baron Offaly, son of Maurice, secured these lands, as we learn from the Earl of Kildarc's Red Book (1503). Some doubt exists as to the date of the erection of the castle, but it was built probably in 1176, by Maurice the Invader. Maurice, second Baron of Offaly and Justiciary of Ireland, built the keep and chapel; and Luke, Archbishop of Dublin, made the chapel of Maynooth into a prebend of St. Patrick's Cathedral. In 1286, Edward I granted a patent for holding a market at Maynooth on the vigil, feast, and morrow of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the 7th, 8th, and 9th September. The castle, as it existed in the 14th century, is described as built of stone, having two gates, with garden extending to the fosse and river. It was then, and for some time afterwards, one of the border fortresses of the Pale. In 1426 it was greatly enlarged by John, the 6th Earl of Kildare: "It is most likely that, up to that time, the castle consisted of the great square keep, which is clearly the oldest, as it was also the strongest, of all the buildings within the castle walls. The flunking towers and noble arches that carried the vaulted floors of the upper chambers were probably built at this period, for the architecture is evidently of a later date than that of the great keep of the Castle." In connexion with the history of Maynooth an incident of special importance, to those interested more particularly in the college, is the founding of the Old College of Maynooth. This was due to the 8th and 9th Earls of Kildare. Gerald Mor, or the Great Earl, who was so conspicuous a figure in the reigns of the House of York and Henry VII., assigned lands for that purpose. In 1518, Gerald, 9th Earl, applied for a license to carry out his father's intentions, and that was granted. The College had appointed to it a master, five fellows, two clerks, and three boys, who were "to pray for the prosperity of the kings of England, for the good state of the Earl of Kildare, his wife, and their kindred while living, and for their souls after their death."
The rebellion of Silken Thomas brought ruin on his house, and on the Castle of Maynooth, which he intrusted to his foster-brother Christopher Paris, or Paresc. It was said at the time that "nothing equal to it in strength had been seen in Ireland since the English first held rule in the land." It was attacked by Sir William Skeffington on the 13th March, 1535, and of its capture an account was written by Skeffington himself, which does not speak of the treachery of Paris. A fuller account, however, has been given by Holinshed, and the fate of the traitor. Stanihurst naively says that " the governor willed the money to be tolde to Paris, and presently caused him to be cut shorter by the head." Holinshed says that "great and rich was the spoile; suche store of beddes, so many goodly hangings, so rich a wardrob, suche brave furniture, as truely it was accompted for householde stuffe and utensiles, one of the richest Earle his houses under the Crowne of England."
In 1538 the College was suppressed, the Castle became a Royal Castle, where Skeffington remained till he died, and here Lord Leonard Grey and Sir Anthony St. Leger also resided. In 1552 Gerald, 11th Earl, had the manor and Castle of Maynooth restored to him. The wars of the 17th century sealed its fate, however. It was taken and retaken several times; and in 1642 the library, which was of great value, was destroyed. In 1647, a strong detachment from the camp of Owen Roe O'Neill, at Trim, took the Castle and dismantled it.
The old Council House (which contained the Stone Table (1533) of the 9th Earl of Kildare, and now in the lawn at Carton) was taken down in 1780. On it was built Mr. Stoyte's house, who was steward to the Duke of Leinster. This house still forms the centre of the front range of the College buildings. The decision to make Maynooth the home of the new College was made at the first meeting of the trustees (1795); and the proposal of Mr. John Stoyte to dispose of his house and grounds was accepted. On the 9th of June, that year, Royal assent was given to the Bill, by which £8000 was granted by the Irish Parliament for the education of the Catholic clergy. "That day," as the author properly says, "marked the dawning of a new era in Ireland." On the subsequent history of the College it is needless to dwell. The main facts are well known to the readers of modern history. The Imperial Parliament continued the grant after the Union; and the College struggled on for forty years under great financial difficulties. In 1845 Peel, in the face of great opposition, carried his generous measure for relief, by which £30,000 was granted for building, and £26,300 annually from the Consolidated Eund. The Irish Church Act of 1869 was the last Imperial measure which affected the College. By it £369,040 was given as compensation for the cessation of the annual grant, and Maynooth entered on a new phase of its history, free and untrammelled by any Act of Parliament, and no longer the subject of strife and bitterness in legislative debates. Independent now, she addressed herself in her new conditions to carry on the great work which under past difficulties she had well performed. How far she has succeeded the success of her Centenary celebration in the summer of 1895, and the volume before us, amply shows.
Pagan Ireland: an Archaological Sketch. A Handbook of Pre-Christian Antiquities. By W. G. Wood-Martin, M.r.i.a. (London : Longmans, Green & Co.) Pages i-xxviii, 1-689: with 411 Illustrations.
The title of this work should, perhaps, read "Ireland in the Earlier Ages," for several of the subjects treated of, such as Crannogs, or lakedwellings, were used for habitations up to a comparatively recent period.
Querns also, for grinding corn, the employment of which has scarcely yet ceased in outlying districts of Ireland and Scotland; and Currachs, boats covered with skins, for which, in later times, tarred canvas is substituted, can yet be seen along our northern and western coasts. These and other survivals of the past are still employed, and belong alike to recent and pre-Christian times; indeed, it is impossible to draw the line, for many of our lingering superstitions and modes of thought, as well as strictly archaeologic remains, are the outcome of former conditions of life in Ireland.
Numerous well-chosen illustrations (upwards of 400 in number) are of material advantage when reading the pages of this book, and ought to assist in popularising the prevalent interest taken in our earlier times, and augment the roll of those desirous of arriving at some knowledge of the way in which our Irish tribes managed to live in the dim past.
Beginning with the employment of rude weapons, made from stone and flint, and passing their existence as a race of wandering hunters and fishers, the earlier race was succeeded by men acquainted with copper and bronze. Gold, too, appears to date back a long time. At last warriors became acquainted with iron to form their swords and spears. All these successive changes are duly figured and described. A comparatively high state of organised society must have prevailed when the vast stone residences, or fortresses, known as "duns," were constructed, with their elaborate arrangements for defence and massive ramparts—see the representations on pp. 190, 191 ; or that cyclopean protecting wall, with its huge stones and enclosed bee-hive huts, of Cahernamactierich, erected across the neck of a Kerry headland ; or Dun Aengus and similar constructions in the Islands of Aran, many of which, in the counties of Clare, Kerry, Mayo, and elsewhere still remain comparatively unknown, and as yet undescribed in an adequate manner. In the building of some of these, enormous blocks of stone were made use of; thus, to form a lintel to one of these duns in Kerry, a single block measuring upwards of 7 feet long, and of corresponding thickness, was laid across the doorway, a feat in construction of no mean difficulty.
Intended as a handbook for students of Irish antiquities, the incidental, and often interesting, information derivable for comparative investigation of prehistoric remains found in Britain and on the Continent, cannot be fairly expected to be treated of, at least in detail, although such studies are indispensable for more perfect comprehension of our own early archaeology. Indeed, such discussion would have required far more room than a handbook could afford. Whilst therefore treated in a subsidiary and secondary manner, they have been pointed to so as to show their importance whenever an exhaustive investigation is designed.
Antiquaries are proverbially prone to differ, and each student of the past should be permitted to develop and ventilate his own theories,