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snakes of heresy, leading, as its happy result, to the termination of trouble expressed in "Quiescat Plebs." A further illustration of this is afforded by a letter sent from Glamorgan to Charles II., in which he enumerates his serious losses incurred by supporting the Boyal cause, and states his intention of appealing to the House of Lords. In this letter he asserts, "I holde with the old saying, No Bishop, No King."
It is needless to say that coins with these inscriptions would have proved neither popular or safe during the Commonwealth and Protectorate. So soon as Cromwell died, the widow of Briot made a claim for £2806 stated to be due to her. We do not know the particulars of her claim. Evidently she demanded compensation for something she did not dare to ask for so long as Cromwell ruled.
If the solution now offered to account for the origin of this coinago be accepted, it would explain the secrecy and mystery surrounding its early history; it offers also a reasonable suggestion to account for its occurrence being limited to the cities of Kilkenny and Dublin, both of which were visited by Glamorgan in pursuance of his plans, and for the large amount of coin that must have been originally minted, for its total disappearance during the Commonwealth, and for its remaining useless as a circulating medium under Charles II., who would not be likely himself to issue coins with such compromising inscriptions or permit their circulation by others. There is no difficulty in explaining their subsequently passing into the possession of the London chandler, Mark Newbie, for persons of his trade, as well as vintners, were in constant need of quantities of copper coins of small value for business purposes, hence they would be applied to by those in whose hands they were lying (more or less concealed, and useless as coins) to purchase them. That he obtained possession of a very large amount of those coins is certain, and that he took them with him to New Jersey, where they became the Colonial currency.
Through the kindness of Dr. H. B. Storer of Newport, R.I., and other friends in the United States, I have obtained rubbings of "Newbie's Coppers," and find they represent both varieties of the coinage and most of the minor types which I have given, affording an additional proof that Mark Newbie carried with him what might be termed "a job-lot" of those tokens. We have no suggestion whatever that he imported a special coinage, made for himself in England. He was the last person to select the types of kneeling David and a mitred prelate with a "steeple house " for a coinage of his own, and it is manifest he never possessed the original dies or struck a solitary piece in America from them.
ON OGHAM-STONES SEEN IN KILKENNY COUNTY. By Thb REV. E. BAURY, P.P., M.R.I.A., Fellow, 'he Ogham stones seen in Kilkenny county by the writer of this
Paper were: one in Gowran Church; one in the chancel-wall of Clara Church; one a head-stone in Tullaherin grave-yard; one at Ballyboodan; two in Lamogue grave-yard; one at Legan; and five in the Kilkenny Museum, of which five two were from Dunbell, county Kilkenny; one from Hook Point, county Wexford; and one from Topped Mountain, county Fermanagh. Of these twelve stones, those at Lamogue and Legan were the latest found to be inscribed, and have not hitherto been described in print. The rest aje all described diffusely in Mr. Brash's "Ogham-inscribed Monuments of the Gaedhil in the British Islands," 1879; but neither there nor in Sir Samuel Ferguson's "Ogham Inspriptions in Ireland, Wales, and Scotland," 1887, are the inscriptions given accurately. In 1885 the writej\of this Paper, Brash in hand, examined and made rubbings of all, except the Lamogue and Legan inscriptions, whose existence was then unsuspected. In September, 1892, for the first time he saw the Lamogue stones. In April, 1893, for the purposes of this Paper, he again saw all the stones except the Legan and Topped Mountain stones. In the autumn of 1895, he saw for the third time the Gowran and Ballyboodan stones, and saw the Legan stones three times. The Ogham inscription on the Ballyspellan Fibula is copied here from Brash.
Eight miles south-east by east of Kilkenny Bridge is the Abbey of Gowran in the town, the parish, and the barony of Gowran. According to Mr. John G. A. Prim, in this Journal, October, 1872, the Ogham stone, now lying within the Abbey, "was discovered in the earlier portion of the present century applied to the use of an ordinary building stone in the foundation of the ancient choir. The architecture of the ancient building showed it to have belonged to the early portion of the thirteenth century.
"The Ogham-inscribed stone," says Mr. Brash, "is a block of hard, compact clayslate of irregular form, rough and undressed, and having portions of it knocked off, evidently by violence; it measures 4 feet 10 inches in length, 16 inches wide at centre, and from 9 inches to 11 inches thick. Upon the original base of this stone has been cut a cross of an
The Gowean Stone.
ancient type. It is formed by a broad head enclosed by a double incised line; the ends of the arms have rectangular cross-heads. The same type is to be found on the Dromkeare stone, county Kerry. The cross arms have been mutilated, a large piece having been knocked off the bottom of the stone. It is quite evident that the appropriation of this monument to Christian uses must have been long posterior to its adoption as the sepulchral memorial of a race who used the Ogham character. At a period when the knowledge of the Ogham had been lost, or when this memorial had ceased to command the veneration of succeeding generations, this pillar stone had been appropriated by a Christian people ; a cross had been carved on the original bottom, or uninscribed end of the stone ; it was then turned upside down ; the original top with its Ogham was buried in the ground, being placed probably as a monument over some deceased Christian. This is the story of the stone as plain and palpable as if we were looking at the whole process. Subsequently we find that when the mediaeval church was building by the Anglo-Norman settlers, they found this block convenient for building purposes; and not having much respect for the monuments of the mere Irish, they worked it into the foundation of their church, mutilating it in the process" (p. 281-2). Differing from Mr. Brash, Sir S. Ferguson says: "The crutched heads of the arms of the cross have been chipped off, as it would seem, to form the arrises on which the remains of the Ogham text are found, an apparent evidence of the prior existence of the cross quite contrary to what has often been advanced regarding the supposed earlier inscription of the Ogham in such cases" (p. 74).
Sir S. Ferguson could hardly have written so in full view of the stone itself, whose Ogham inscription does not extend to either of the crutched heads, and whose mutilation is the work of masons. To straighten the outer face of the stone, a part of the cross on the upper surface, and the beginning of the inscription on the top outer arris had to be punched off. Further on, that inscribed arris has been hammer-chipped. At the inner side, a long spall has been stricken off, having on its upper surface a part of the cross, and on its upper arris a part of the inscription. Further on, in sharpening tools, three Ogham notches have been effaced.
At present the shape of the cross, and the case-endings in the inscription, are the materials whence to judge whether the cross or the inscription be the older. Where, as on the Dromkeare Ogham stone, case-endings are discarded, the cross and the inscription are presumably coeval; but where, as at Gowran, s is a case-ending, while the cross is such as that at Dromkeare, the inscription is presumably the older. However, whether as foreign captives, returned exiles, traders, or missionaries, stray Christians must have reached Ireland before St. Patrick in 432; and some of these, to the memory of others, may have erected headstones signed with the cross. In that way it is possible, though not
JOUH. H.8.A.I., VOL. V., FT. IV., 5lh SeR. 2 C
probable, that on the Gowran stone the cross and the incription are coeval. The inscription is :—
On this, as on most stones having three inscribed arrises, the inscription begins on the middle arris, is resumed on the arris to the onlooker's left, and is continued across the head of the stone, and down the arris to the right. The first name begins with D, ends with two enlarged vowel-notches, and has three middle inches vacant to the left, and defaced on the arris and to the right. Here Doo, Di, Dau, Dabtt, Dlv, Dobo, or Dalo, is possible, but only Dalo is probable. Ogham vowels are not doubled; I is a genitive ending, u is a dative ending; and Dobo would be something new; while Dalo is a well-known name that has to be supplied also in No. 1, Dunbell inscription. The next word Maqa is nearly perfect, in all its scores. The I of the third word Mucoi has been chipped off. On the left arris the first score is an M character, wanting its upper side to the left, and followed by nearly five inches vacant to the right, and defaced on the arris and to the left, wherein the characters for Aq would fit, and wherein is nearly half of the fifth score of the o. character. Next comes i to complete Maqi. The next word was Eracias; but a rounded depression, made in sharpening tools, now holds the place of the last three scores of the i character, and only a little of the following A notch remains. Four and a-half inches after the s of Eracias is the top of the stone where diagonally across is the word Maqi, all complete, and followed by a natural fissure, mistaken for a o score by Mr. Brash. After Maqi on the top of the stone, comes Li in faint and uncertain characters down the back arris. The ridge between the two L scores is much worn.
Nominative singular Maqa, a "son," is found in one other Ogham
inscription, Tria Maqa Mailagni Curcttti, Ballintaggart. Nowhere
in Ogham is found the prior form *maqas, or any nom. sing. mas. in -as or -os, the presumed primitive Irish equivalents of Greek -a, -as, -77s, -01, and Latin -a, and -us; though masculine and feminine genitives in -* abound in the older inscriptions. In the loss of a final Maqa is on a par with such Latin words as nauta = Gr. vavnj^; and Moco with Comelio, Furio, &c., of old Latin inscriptions, and Maqu and Maco with Philargurn, Secundu, of later, chiefly imperial, inscriptions. Perhaps the best comparison of Maqa is with Caesar's Belga, Volca, from which words we may conclude that forms like Maqa were current in Celtic both in the north and in the south of Gaul, fifty years before the Christian era.
In Ogham, for Maqa are found Maou once, Macu once, Maq six times, and Mac three times. The Old-Irish form was mace, the Middle-Irish mace, and mac, the Modern-Irish mac and, rarely, mag. In Ogham inscriptions the genitive singular of Maqa is Maqi over ono hundred und thirty times, Maqqi twenty-one times, Mmaqi once, Macui once, Maci twice, and Maic once. In Old-Irish it is maicc, in Middle-Irish maicc, maic, meic, and meig, and in Modorn-Irish mic.
Muco and Moco are variants of Maqa. Ogham inscriptions have nora. sg. Mttco once, and Moco once; gen. sg. Mdcoi forty-two times, Muccoi thrice, Muccoe (for Mcccoi) once, Mocoi four times, Moccoi once, and Moqoi once; and gen.-pl., Moco N once; Moco apparently heing equivalent to Maqa, and Moqoi to Maqi; but Mocoi being for Mucoi. In texts of the Old-Irish period moccu-, mocu-, and maccu-, in the sense of remote descendant, are found in compound family-names, thus: nom. sg. Maccu-Lngir in an Irish text in the "Book of Armagh," A.d. 807; and nom. Kg. MaccuMachteni, Maccu-Lugil, and Maccu-Boin, and gen. sg. Moccu-Echach, Maccu-Lugir, Maccu-Greccae, and Maccu-Chor in Latin texts in the "Book of Armagh." St. Adamnan's "Vita Sancti Columbae" has nominative or genitive indifferently Mocu- in Mocu-Alti, -Aridi, -Blai, and fourteen other family-names. The Acta Sancti Fintani Cluana Ethnich has nom. Maccu-Edagur. Maccu-, Moccu-, and Mocu- are undeclined in those Latin texts, through perhaps a traditionnl following of the Latin rendering of Gaelic words in Great Britain towards the fall of the Roman Empire, as in Tbenegussi Fili Macuteeni, for Ogham, TkenaO cau Maqi, Maqi-tbeni, Cilgeran ; and in Sarinifili Macco Decheti, Buckland Monachorum. In texts of the Middle-Irish period, this Maccu-, or Macu-, &c., is sometimes written Maccui in Irish, and translated "films nepotis" in Latin, as if it were a compound of mac "son" and ui the genitive sg. of ua or 6, grandson, thus: "Miliuc maccu-Boin" of Tirechan's collections in the "Book of Armagh," is the "Miluc, Alius nepotis Buain" of Marianus Scotus, and the Miliuc mac hui Bhuain of the Lismore " Life of St. Patrick," but more correctly the " Miliuc mac Buain" of the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick. For Moccu-, Mocu-, Maccu-, Macco-, or Macu-, Modern-Irish family-names have nom. Mac-, gen. Mic-, and Anglicised Irish family-names have an invariable Mac-: thus ModernIrish, nom. Mac Carthaigh, and gen. Mic-Charthaigh, are both in English Mac Carthy ; and nom. Mac Domhnaill, and gen. Mic-Dhomhnaill are both in English MacDonnell, or Mac Donald.
In Ogham inscriptions Mucoi is never a member of a compound proper name; but, like Middle-Irish TTlaic, Maqi is often the fore-part and sometimes the hind-part of such names. Where Maqi, with or without an intervening proper name, follows another Maqi, one of the two is a common noun denoting a step in the pedigree, and the other is a member of a compound proper name. In perfect inscriptions, Mucoi, with or without an intervening proper name, is ever preceded by a Maqi, and denotes one