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Ireland, there living about the birth-time of Christ. On the east side thereof the island is somewhat low, so that about the year 1640, upon an extraordinary inundation, the sea, overflowing that bank, went cross over the island to the north-west." This fearful wave was traditionally remembered, at any rate, in 1878. The view is singu.

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The chevaux de frise, Dun Angus, 1893.
larly fine; the desolate-looking island, “the soil almost paved with
stones," rising to Dun Oghil and the lighthouse, the sheer descent
of the cliffs, “the trouble of the sea that cannot rest,” and, beyond,
the cliffs of Moher and hills of Clare and Kerry, even to Mount

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Dun Ængus. By T. J. Westropp, 1878.
Brandon, if the air is clear, and north to the Twelve Pins. The fort
has three ramparts, and the remains of a fourth. The inner cashel
is 150 feet north and south, and 140 feet east and west along the cliff ;
in the middle is a natural square platform. The rampart is 18 feet

1 O'Flaherty, “H-Iar Connaught,” p. 76.

high on the west, and 12 feet 9 inches thick ; it is of three sections, like Dun Onaght; the inner section is only 7 feet high, and like many other forts had the centre of the wall lower than the faces. The door is to the north-east ; its sides only slope from 3 feet 5 inches to 3 feet 4 inches, and 4 feet 8 inches high; the lintel 5 feet 10 inches long. The four lintels are raised like reversed steps to keep the passage of even height as it leads up a slope. In the north-west side a passage leads into the thickness of the wall. The second rampart is not concentric; it consists of two sections, and enclosed a space about 400 feet long and 300 feet deep ;


Doorway, Dun Ængus. its gateway is defaced. Outside it, is a broad band of pillar stones. forming a chevaux de frise 30 feet wide; many of the stones to the north are removed; their worn and furrowed appearance seems to support the tradition of the vast age of the building. Inside these stones to the west, is a small enclosure, its wall, 7 feet 9 inches high and 6 feet thick, which in the fine plan in Petrie's MSS., “Military Architecture of Ireland,” is shown as an annexe like that in Dun Conor. Finally an outer rampart, nearly demolished, runs round the fort, 129 to 434 feet from inner wall, enclosing 11 acres. O'Flaherty says the fort could hold 200 cows; O'Donovan says 1050.2 We leave this question to

1 This is the original door. Lord Dunraven's “Notes," vol. i., p. 4, would lead one to believe it had "shared the mournful fate which awaits the whole structure.”

2 The plan in Ordnance Survey Letters, and that copied from it in Lord Dun. raven's Notes, need serious revision, being self-contradictory, or else not to scale.

farmers. Perhaps the old writer thought only of the inner fort. A bronze hook, now in the Royal Irish Academy collection, was found in 1839 by boys digging out a rabbit. Dr. March, in a valuable Paper on the age of this fort, read before the Society of Antiquaries, London, states he found a hinged ring of bronze, with a cable decoration of a kind assigned to the fifth century; but he also found a chert flake or arrowhead, which inclined him to accept the prehistoric origin of this noble fort. The ancient legend attributed this fort to a Firbolg prince. This tradition receives some support from the statement of Ptolemy that the Ganganoi lived north of the Shannon; while Irish authorities mention Firbolg tribes with the cognate names Gann, Genann, &c. Bearing these facts in view, we may at least form no hasty judgment, as some have done, that the fort was of monastic origin. At least ten stone forts in these islands, and over 100 in Clare, surround no church, while we have record of some eight churches in Aran, surrounded by no cashel.

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Near Mr. Johnson's house at Kilmurvey is another interesting group of ruins. Chief of these is—

TEMPLE MAC DUACH, a very fine specimen of massive masonry and early type, is named after the famous Colman mac Duach, founder of Kilmacduach in the seventh century. It consists of nave and chancel, the former 18 feet 6 inches x 14 feet 6 inches, the latter 15 feet 9 inches x 11 feet 9 inches, or, as in Dunraven, 18 feet 8 inches x 14 feet 6 inches, and 15 feet 4 inches x 11 feet 2 inches. The chancel arch and east window have semicircular heads; the south window head is formed of two slabs leaning together. It has a remarkable doorway, with inclined jambs, 5} feet 1 foot 3 inches at top, and 1 foot 11 inches at bottom ;


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Brendan of Band has a large corbellow and pointed north

TEAMPULL AN CHEATHRAIR ALUINN.-Westward, near the village of Cowroogh, is the late Gothic church of the Four Comely Saints (Fursey, Brendan of Birr (570), Conall, and Berchan); it is 28 feet long x 12 feet 6 inches, and has a large corbel in the east gable, and remains of the altar. The trefoil-headed east window and pointed north door have been rebuilt. There were formerly two windows in the sonth wall. The graves are plain stone slabs, lying west of the church, and beyond them are two pillar stones. South of the church is a holy well, still in much repute, to judge from the numerous small offerings.

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Sketch Plan of position of Primitive Stone Houses at Baile-na-Sean.

BAILE NA SEAN.—Continuing southward along the bohereen we find a ruined cashel, 60 feet in diameter, but, as some think, later than the other forts. West from it lies a larger fort, “the Doon,” 220 feet x 110 feet, and oval. The whole district from it to Dun Oghil, and far to the south, is strewn broadcast with the remains of nearly forty primitive houses; among them another small fort, and a chambered mound, as shown on the plan. All of these have been much defaced by rabbit

The whole group is carefully described by Mr. Kinahan in the Proceedings R.I.A., 1866, p. 25, from which we adapt the above plan.

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