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EXCURSION FIBST DAT.

Monday, 6th May, 1895.

The Members visited St. Canice's Cathedral, where they were received by the Very Rev. the Dean of Ossory, who exhibited the church plate. They were subsequently conducted over the Cathedral by Mr. Langrishe, Fellow. On the invitation of the Dean, a visit was paid to the Deanery to see a curious cabinet of the sixteenth century. The Black Abbey, St. Mary's Church, where the Keteller monument [described by Mr. Egan and Colonel Vigors, Journal, pp. 72-79) has been placed, and the Museum were visited, and at six o'clock, p.m. the Members left Kilkenny by train for Waterford.

Evening Meeting.

The Society again met after dinner in the Imperial Hotel, Waterford, where they were joined by several Members of the Waterford and SouthEast of Ireland Archaeological Society.

Deputy Surgeon-general King, M.b., M.a., M.e.i.a., Fellow,
in the Chair.

The following Paper was read and referred to the Council:—
"The Crannog of Ardmore," by R. J. Ussher, Hon. Secretary for West Waterford
The Meeting then adjourned to Tuesday evening, 7th May.

EXCURSION SECOND DAY.

Tuesday, 1th May, 1895.

The Members of the Royal Society of Antiquaries and the Waterford and South-East of Ireland Archaeological Society left Waterford at 9.40 a.m. via the Waterford, Dungarvan, and Lismore Railway for Ballylynch crossing, on the line midway between Durrow and Dungarvan, whence they proceeded by cars to visit the Ogham-lined caves of Drumloghan. They then went on to Dungarvan, passing the great glacial boulder called Cloghlourish, and visited Abbeyside Castle and the Augustinian abbey church. After luncheon at the Devonshire Arms Hotel, Dungarvan, the Members drove to the old church of Kilrush, visited the Great Moatc or Tumulus known as "Gallows Hill," the Holed Wall in the churchyard, Old House in Barrack-street, and Dungarvan Castle and Tower, returning to Waterford by special train at 5.10 p.m. The party was conducted by Mr. R. J. Ussher, Son. Secretary for West Waterford, to whom a vote of thanks was passed before leaving Dungarvan.

Evening Meeting.

The Members of both Societies again met, at eight o'clock, p.m., in the Council Chamber of the Town Hall, Waterford, kindly placed at their disposal by the Mayor, Mr. W. J. Smith, Member:

The Most Rev. De. Sheehan, Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, Fellow,

in the Chair.

His Lordship, in opening the Meeting, said :—

"Ladies And Gentlemen,—We are met here this evening for the continuation of the work of the visit of the Royal Society of Antiquaries to this city of ours, and in taking the chair I feel very great pleasure in bidding a welcome to the Members of this important Society. There is no one who knows anything of the efforts that have been made in modern times to revive a knowledge of Ireland and of what belonged to her in days of old, that has not reason to feel deeply grateful to the Society of Antiquaries. They have gone through various parts of the country, and wherever they have gone, I believe it is true to say, that their visit has been marked either by a revival of interest in Irish antiquities, or, if such already existed, of increasing it. We have been trying in our own city to do something to bring back a knowledge of the various matters of antiquarian interest that exist in our locality, and, thanks to the great efforts that have been made by some of our Members, I think the work of our local Society has been not altogether unsuccessful. I am sure this visit of the Royal Society of Antiquaries will stimulate still more the interest which we should all take in everything that concerns the history of our country in olden days; and, consequently, from what it has done elsewhere, and from what it is likely to do for us, I have very great pleasure in taking the chair this evening at a Meeting of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland."

The following Papers were read, and referred to the Council:—

"The Holy Ghost Friary, commonly called the French Church of Waterford," by

the Rev. Patrick Power, Fellow. "The Danish Christ Church of Waterford," by Thomas Drew, B.h.a., Presiient.

(Read by the Hon. General Secretary).

The following Papers were taken as read, and referred to the Council for publication:—

"On the Irish St. Patrick or Floreat Rex Coinage, subsequently circulated in New Jersey by Mark Newbie, with reasons for connecting it with Lord Glamorgan's attempt to levy troops in Ireland for Charles I.," by W. Frazer, P.b.c.s.i., Hon. p.s.A. (Scot.), Vice-President.

"History and List of the Goldsmiths of Cork," by Ceoil C. Woods, Fellow.

A vote of thanks was passed to the Mayor of Waterford for his kindness in placing the Council Chamber at the disposal of the Society.

A vote of thanks was also passed to the Waterford, Dungarvan, and Lismore Railway Company for the facilities afforded the Society on their excursion.

Robert Cochbane, F.s.a., H.b. I.a., Hon. General Secretary and Treasurer, having been moved to the second Chair,

On the motion of Mr. F. J. Bigger, seconded by Mr. Molloy, Fellow, a vote of thanks was passed to the Bishop of Waterford and Lismore for the manner in which he had presided.

His Lordship having acknowledged the vote of thanks,

The Society then adjourned to Monday, 8th July, 1895.

Wednesday, 8th May, 1895.

The Members assembled at the Town Hall, Waterford, and inspected the numerous City Charters, which were taken from the Muniment Room to the Council Chamber for examination. The Cap and City Sword, the Parchment Book and other Records in the archives of the Corporation were also exhibited. From the Town Hall the party proceeded on foot to Reginald's Tower, the French church (where the Rev. P. Power read the concluding portion of the Paper read by him at the Meeting of the previous evening), St. Saviour's Priory, the Holy Trinity Cathedral, where the ancient vestments and plate were seen, the remains of the City Walls, Christ Church Cathedral, and the Deanery Crypt. The party was under the charge of the Rev. P. Power, Fellow, to whom, as well as to Mr. M. J. Hurley, Fellow, the thanks of the Members are due for the successful manner in which the arrangements in connexion with the Waterford meeting were carried out.

THE JOURNAL

OF

THE EOYAL SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES

OF IRELAND,
FOR THE YEAR 1895.

PAPERS AND PROCEEDINGS-PART III. THIRD QUARTER, 1895.

ORIGINS OF PREHISTORIC ORNAMENT IN IRELAND.

By GEORGE COFFEY, A.I.B., M.R.I.A., Fbixow.
(Continued from page 29.)

VII.

If Erringbone, chevron, and triangle ornament is characteristic of early Bronze Age decoration in Europe generally. As already stated, these forms are possibly of local origin, that is to say, native in Europe. But from the studies of independent investigators, referred to at some length in the earlier portion of this Paper, it would appear that, simple as these forms seem to be, they do not represent the first stages in the development of ornament. In the present state of the inquiry we have no reason to believe that geometric forms have ever been spontaneously invented. On the contrary they appear to have been invariably derived through a process of conventionalisation from realistic prototypes. The tendency to conventionalisation further appears be a general and continuing tendency, not confined to any one people or group of peoples.

Whatever the starting-points in naturalistic form, conventionalisation (determined by limitations of materials worked in and means of execution) would appear to lead to similar geometric forms. How far then all prehistoric ornament, including herringbone, chevron, and

JOUK. K.6.A.I., VOL. V., PT. III., 5Th 8eB. P

triangle forms, is to be considered as of outside origin is a subject on which it is not safe to generalise freely. The argument for a borrowed origin —to recapitulate—is: That before any of these forms could have been reached independently in Europe, they would have been communicated from the older centres of civilization in which they had been already developed. This argument assumes that there was no period of isolation in Europe during which ornament would have been independently developed.

It must, however, be conceded that the characteristic manner in which the triangle ornament of the Bronze Age is so frequently filled in with overlapping triangles or with hatching (possibly a simplification of the former) carries with it a suggestion of common origin, and supports a reference to the overlapping triangles of Egypt. The overlapping triangle enrichment of Egyptian ornament is frequently replaced by a filling of dots. A similar replacement by dots occurs also in European Bronze Age decoration, and may be a further point of relation.

The black ware incised with chevron and triangle ornament, found in Egypt in association with XII. Dynasty remains, is believed to be of European origin. There is evidence, as we shall see presently, that Egyptian influence was felt in the jEgean as early as the XII. Dynasty (about 2700-2500 B.C.) Whether, therefore, these patterns represent a still earlier wave of Egyptian influence in the Mediterranean, or independent European ornament, is a question which must remain in suspense for further evidence.1

But, however the case may be for the forms mentioned, and whether the chevron and triangle have been originally derived from Egypt, or the incoming of these forms in company with other patterns, chiefly from Egypt, has simply incorporated previously existing geometric patterns, the evidence for the relation of the group of forms discussed in sections II.-IV. is not disturbed by these considerations. In the sections referred to we traced the derivation of a definite group of associated forms, associated by reason of organic relation in the parent patterns. Though the derived forms have probably been caught up again and again at various stages in the process of conventionalisation, and locally adapted for decorative purposes, the recurrence on the trade-routes of the wellmarked features of the group bespeak their common origin and diffusion by trade.

One of the most clearly marked instances of Egyptian influence in the .SSgean patterns is the dominant spiral motive of Mycenaean ornament. This, as already explained, is accounted for by the great development of spiral patterns in Egypt during the XVIII. Dynasty, comprising a

1 The highly developed geometric patterns of Chaldcea, as seen in the chevron, triangle, and lozenge patterns on the temple buildings at Uruk, may indicate a contributing source in the spread of these patterns.

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