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Adhortatio ad studium juris.

§ VII. Summăitaque ope, et alacri studio, has leges nostras accipite: et vosmetipsos sic eruditos ostendite, ut spes vos pulcherrima foveat, toto legitimo opere perfecto, posse etiam nostram rempublicam, in partibus ejus vobis credendis, gubernari.

§ 7. Receive therefore and study these our laws with diligence and alacrity; and show yourselves so competent therein, that when your studies. shall be finished, you may entertain a cheering hope of having a part of the government committed to your charge.

AD. C.P. XI. Kalend. Decemb. D. JustiNIANo PP. A. III. COS.

Given at Constantinople on the eleventh day before the calends of December, in the third consulate of the Emperor Justinian, always august. (21st Nov. 533.)

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petua voluntas jus suum cuique tri- petual disposition to render every

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*Videmus enim, caetera quoque animalia istius juris peritia censeri

animals are considered, ds- having some knowledge «fthis

Distinctio juris gentium et civilis, a definitione et etymologià.

§ I. Jus autem civile à jure gentium distinguitur, quod omnes populi, qui legibus et moribus reguntur, partim suo , proprio, partim communi omnium hominum, jure utuntur: nam quod quisque populus sibi jus constituit, id ipsius proprium civitatis est, vocaturque jus civile, quasi jus proprium ipsius civitatis. Quod vero naturalis ratio inter omnes homines constituit, id apud omnes gentes per. que custoditur, vocaturque jus gentium, quasi quo jure omnes gentes utantur: et populus itaque Romanus,partim suo proprio, partim communi omnium hominum, jure utitur. Quae singula, qualia sint, suis locis proponemus.

§ 1. Civil law is distinguished from the law of nations, because every community governed by laws, uses partly its own and partly the laws which are common to all mankind. That law, which a people enacts for its own government, is called the civil law of that people. But that law, which natural reason appoints for all mankind, is called the law of nations, because all nations make use afit. The people ofRome are governed partly by their own laws, and partly by the laws, which are common to all men. Qf these ve shall treat separately in their proper places.

Ab appellatione et effectibus.

§ II. Sed jus quidem civile ex unâquâque civitate appellatur, veluti Atheniensium : nam, si quis velit Solonis vel Draconis leges appellare jus civile Atheniensium, non erraverit. Sic enim et jus, quo Romanus populus utitur, jus civile Romanorum appellamus, vel jus Quiritum, quo Quirites utuntur: Romani enim a Romulo, Quirites a Quirino, appellantur. Sed, quoties non addimus nomen cujus sit civitatis, nostrum jus significamus: sicuti cum poëtam dicimus, nec addimus nomen, subauditus apud Graecos egregius Homerus, apud nos Virgilius., Jus autem gentium omni humano generi commune est: nam, usu exigente et

§ 2. Civil laws take their denomination from that city, in which they are established: it would not therefore be erroneous to call the laws of Solon or Draco the civil latvs of Athens : and thus the law, which the Roman people make use of, is styled the civil law of the Romans, or ofthe Quirites ; for the Romans. are also called Quirites from Quirinus. - J}7iemever we mention the vvords civil law, without addition, we emphatically denote our own law ; thus the Greeks, when they say the poet, meam Homer, and the Romans Virgil. The law qfnations is common to all mankind and all nations have endctcd some latvs, as occasion and

'humanis necessitatibus, gentes humanae jura qu edam sibi -constituerunt: bella etenim orta sunt, et captivitates secutae, et servitutes, quæ sunt naturali juri contrariæ : jure

enim naturali omnes homines ab ini

tio liberi nascebantur: et ex hoc jure gentium,omnes penè contractus introducti sunt, ut emptio et venditio, locatio et conductio, societas, depositum, mutuum, et alii innumerabiles.

necessity required : for wars arose, and the consequences were captivityand servitude ; both which are contrary to the law qfnature; for by that law, all men are born free. But almost all contracts were at first in. troduced by the law of nations ; as for instance, buying, selling, letting, hireing, partnership,a deposit, a loan. and athers without number. r.

Divisio juris in scriptum et non scriptum; et subdivisiojuris scripti.

§ III. Constat autem jus nostrum, quo utimur, aut scripto, aut sine scripto: ut apud Græcos r»» veuav oi μεν εγΓραφοι, οι δε αypa4)ou. Scriptum autem jus, est, lex, plebiscitum, senatus-consultum, principum placita, magistratuum edicta, responsa prudentum.

§ 3. The Roman law is divided, like the Greciam, into written and unwritten. The written, consists ofthe plebiscites, the decrees of the senate, ordinances afprinces, the edicts ofmagistrates, and the answers of

the sages afthe law, - *•.

i. De lege et plebiscito.

§ IV. Lex est, quod populus Romanus, senatorio magistratu interrogante, (veluti consule,) constituebat. Plebiscitum est, quod plebs, plebeio magistratuinterrogante, (veluti tribuno) constituebat. Plebs autem a populo eo differt, quo species a genere ; nam appellatione populi universi cives significantur, connumeratis etiam patriciis et senatoribus. Plebis autem appellatione, sine patriciis et senatoribus, caeteri cives significantur. Sed et plebiscita, lege Hortensia lata, non vminus valere, quam leges, cœperunt.

§ 4. A law is what the Romam people enact at the request qfa senatorial magistrate ; as a consul. A plebiscite is what the commonalty emact, when requested by a plebeian magistrate, as a tribune. The word commonalty differs from people, as a species from its genus ; for all the citizens, including patricians and senators, are comprehended under the term people. The term commonalty, includes all the citizens, except patricians and senators.. The plebiscites, by the Hortensian law, began to have thesame force, as thálaws themselves.

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