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to be rendered on a future day—or in consideration of any permission given by which the promissor is benefitted—or any voluntary performance of an act beneficial to the promissor, which the performer was legally compellable to perform, as in case of a surety—will support an action of assumpsit. - But though natural affection, be sufficient to raise a use, aid a trust or support a deed, (Myddleton v. Lord Kenyon, ub. sup.) it will not support an assumpsit : nor will love between the sexes. But considerations founded on promise of marriage, will support a subsequent promise. Argenbright v. Campbell, and wife, 3 Hen, and Munf. 184. Cro. El 59. o o

* See on all these points, and the other parts of the doctrine of consi

deration when coupled with assumpsit, the modern compilers, Comyns Dig. Powel on contracts, Espinasse and Selwyn's, law of nis, pri: and Comyns, on contracts. - * The subject is but meagerly treated in Pothier. The equitable nature of the action for money had and received, is treated in Moses v. M’Farlane, 2 1 Burr. Oos. Hawkes v. Saunders, Cowp. 290. I think the following rules collected by Wood (p. 207) for the construction of contracts, worth inserting in this place. These rules ought to be observed in the interpretation of contracts. b The agreement in a contract is the law of it. c The beginning and consideration of every contract is to be considered. d If the sense of the contract is obscure, that sense must be followed which is most likely and probable, or most according to common practice. * e In doubtful cases the mildest interpretation is the safest.

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b contractus legem ex Conventione accipiunt. D. 16. 3.1.6. c Uniuscujusque contractus initium spectandum est, et causa. D. 17. 1. 8. Hoc servabiturquod initio convenit. D. 50. 17. 23. Çujusque Rei potissima pars Principium est. D. 1.2.1. d In obscuris inspici solere quod verisimilius est, aut quod plerumque fieri solet. D. 50. 17. 114. e Semper in dubiis benigniora præferenda. D. 50.17. 56. . In re dubia benigniorem interpretationem sequi non minus justius est, quam tutius. D. 50. 17. 192. 1. Semper in obscuris quod minimum est sequimur. D. 50. 17.9, Eligendum est quod minimum habet iniguitatis. D. so. 17. 200.

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f All parts of the contract ought to be explained, the one by the other, and regard ought to be had to the preamble of it g If the intention of the Parties does evidently appear, the intention ought to be followed rather than the words or literal sense; and sometimes regard ought to be had to the custom of the country. . h If the terms of a contract are equivocal, that meaning ought to be followed which relates to the subject of the agreement. i Interpretation ought to be in favour of him that is to be obliged by the covenant. For he that is obliged may be presumed that he designed to perform the least. And it was the other's fault that he did not express himself in better terms. - k If an agreement is in the disjunctive, he that is to be bound hath his election. - lSometimes conjunctive words are to be taken disjunctively, where

the sense leads to it. - * m Those expressions which cannot be understood in any sense ought to be rejected, as if they had never been written. ; : . *n Superfluous words do not make a writing void. **.

f Plerumque ea quæ in prafationibus convenisse concipiuntur, etian in stipulationibus repetita creduntur. D. 45.1. 134. 1. ... • g In ambiguis orationibus maxime sententia spectanda est ejus qui eas protulisset. D. 50. 17. 96. In Conventionibus contrahentium voluntatempotius quam verba spectari placuit. D 50. 16. 219. - o: Semper in Stipulationibus et in carteris contractibus id sequimur quod actum est Aut si non appareat quid actum est, sequamur quod in Regione, in 7ua actum est, frequentatur. D. 50. 17. 32. h Quoties idem sermo duas sententias exprimit, ea potissimum accipiatur quae reigerenda aption est. D. 50, 17.67. Soloties in Stipulationi#us ambigua Oratio est, commodissimum est id accipi, quo res de qua agitur in tuto sit. D. 41. 1, 80. i In Stipulationibus cum quaritur quid actum sit, verba contra stipulatorem interpretanda sunt. D. 45. 1, 38. 18. Paetio obscura vel ambigua Venditori et qui locauit nocere placet, in quorum fuit patestate, legem apertius conscribere. D. 2. 14. 39. k Ubi verba conjuncta non sunt, sufficit alterutrum esse factum. D. 50, 17. 110, 3. 1 Conjunctio nonnunquam pro disjunctione accipitur. D. 50. 16.21, . m Qize ita stant scripta ut intelligi non possunt, perindr suut, ac si <cripta non essent. D. 50. 17. 73. 3. * n Won solent quo abundant vitiare scripturas. D. 50, 17. 94. Qua: *... o. Expresswords sometimes are prejudicial, which, if omitted, had done no harm. p if the error of the notary in writing is apparent, the contract ought to be supported. : q. In all contracts, where no day of performance is added, the performance ought to be presently. r He that is to pay or deliver, is in no delay, till after the last moment of the day appointed. * s A time is fixed for the sake of him that is to be obliged. t No one ought to be answerable for inevitable accidents, unless he entered into covenant to stand to them. * * u Every thing may be dissolved by an act contrary to that which at first made it. - w No one can do an act to himself; as one cannot mortgage to him

self, or buy, &c. what is his own. * * *

* x The agreements of private persons are not valid, if they are derqi

gatory to the public interest. or y Those that do mistake do not consent. * . .

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Pubitationis tallendae causa, cantractibus inseruntur, jus commune non Jaedunt. D. 50. 17.81. o Expressa nocent, non expressa non nocent. D. 50. 17. 195. p Si Librarius in tramscribendis Stipulationis verbis errasset, nihil nocet. D. 50. 17. 92. - s q. In omnibus obligationibus in quibus dies nan ponitur, praisenti die. debetur. D. 50. 17. 14. r. Totus dies arbitrio solventis tribui debet. I. 3.16. 2. * , a s. In Stipulationibus promissoris gratia tempus adjicitur. D. 50. 17. 17. t out sine culpa accidunt a nullo praestantur. D. 50. 17.23. u Ni! tam naturale est quam eogenere quodgue dissolvere, quo colligatum est. D. 50 17 35. Omnia qual jure contrahuntur contrario jure pcreunt. D. 50. 17. 100. Fere quibus cunque modis: obligamur in contrarium actis, liberamur, et cum quibus modis acquirimus, iisdem in contrarium actis amittimus. D. 50 17. 153. w Neque pignus, neque depositum, neque precarium, neque emptio, neque locatio reisual consistere potest. D. 50. 17 45. x Privatorum conventio juri publiconon derogat D. 50, 17.45 1. -Utilitas publica prafertur contractibus privatorum. C. 12.63. 3. y Mon videntur, qui errant, consentire. D 50. 17. 116. 2. In omnibus Rebus qua Dominium transfertint, concurrat oportet Affectus ex utraque parte contrahentium. D. 44. 7. 55.

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. z What is prejudicial to the Parties contracting, is prejudiciai *• their heirs or successors. - 'a No Man is cheated that knows it and consents toit. b An obligation to perform what is impossible is void. c He thatis to bear the loss of any thing, ought to receive the pro£ts of it. d He that contracts with another, ought to know whohe deals with, kis state and condition. e An agreciment to cheatis not valid. , f No one ought to enrich himself by doing injustice to others. * No man shall take a benefit of his own wrong., g Contracts againstlaw and good manners are not to be observed. h No one ought to be suffered to act against his own agreement. i If one confirms what has been done in his name, he shall be esteemed to have given a commission forit.

z Quod ipsis qui contraxerunt obstat, et successoribus eorum obstabit, IX. 50. 17. 143. Non debeo melioris Conditionis esse quam auctor meus. D. 50, 17, 175. 1. a Nemo videtur fraudare eos qui sciunt et consentiunt. D. so. 17. 145. b Impossibilium nulla obligatio est. D. 5o. 17. 185. Ea quæ dari impossibilia sunt, vel quae in rerum natura non sunt, pro non adjectis habentur. D. 50. 17. 135. vid. D. 50. 17. 182. and 188 c Secundum naturam est commoda cujusque Rei eum sequi quem sequuntur incommoda, et e contra. D. 50. 17. 10. Ex. qua persona quis lucrttm capit, ejus factum præstare debet. D. 5o. 17. 149. d Qyi cum alio contrahit vel est, vel esse debct, non ignarus conditionis ejus. D. 50. 17. 19. e Won valet si convenerit ne Dolus præstetur. D. 50. 17. 23. f jure naturæ æquum est neminem cum alterius detrimento fieri locupletiorem. D. 50. 17. 206. * Nemo ex suo delicto meliorem suam Conditionem facere potest. D. 50. 17. 134. 1. g Pacta quæ turpem causam continent non sunt observanda. D. 2. 14. 27. 4. h Nemini licet adversus pacta sua venire et contrahentes decipere. C. 2. 3. 29. i Si quis ratum habuerit quod gestum est, obstringitur mandati actione. I). 50. 17. 60. Ratihabitio retrotrahitur et mandato comparatur. X. de Reg. Juris 1o.

k The solemn form of contracts cannot be altered by private agreement, though the accidental circumstances may be altered. 1 A legal contract may continue in force, though a case afterwards happens from whence it could not commence. m A debtor is rather to be favoured than a creditor. n Creditors upon good consideration ought to be paid before those that claim by gift, &c. o He that has been forgiven a debt may be supposed to have received so much money. p It is one thing to sell, and another thing to consent to a sale; where there is a different reason for it, or where the consent is to be from a different person. q He that may alienate may consent to the alienation, where there is the same reason for the one as well as the other. r He that may give a thing, may sell it, unless a particular law forbids it. s No one takes away a thing by force that pays the full price of it. t The creditor of my creditor cannot make a demand of me by paying my debt.

k Nec expratorio nec ex solenni jure privatorum conventione quicquam immutandum est, quamvis obligationum causa pactione possunt immutariet ipso joure. D. 50. 17.27. 1 Non est novun ut quo seme! et utiliter constituta sunt, darent licet §lle casus extiterit, a quo initium capere non potuerunt. D. 50 17. 85. 1. m Favorabiliores Rei fatius quam Actores habentur. D. 50. 17. 38. —Cui damus Actiones, eidem exceptionem competere multo magis quis dixerit. D. 50. 17. 156. 1. n In re obscura melius est favere repetitioni quam adventitio lucra. 1). So. 17. 41.1. o Si quis obligatione liberatus sit, potest videri cepisse. D. 50. 17. 115. p. Aliud est vendere, aliud vendenti consentire. D. 50. 17. 26. q Cum quis alienare, poterit et alienationi consentire. D. 50. 17. 165. r cujus est donandi, eidem et vendend; et concedendi jus est. D. 50. 17. 163. s Nemoprado qui pretium numeravit. D. 50. 17. 126. t Nemo ideo obligatur quia recepturus estab alio quod prastiterit. D.

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