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De jurejnrando.

§ IV. Æque, si debitor creditore deferente juraverit, nihil se dare oportere, adhuc obligatus permanet ; sed, quia iniquum est de perjurio queri, defenditur per* exceptionem jurisjurandi. In iis quoque actionibus, quibus, in rem agitur, æquè necessariæ sunt exceptiones ; veluti si petitore deferente possessor juraverit, eam rem suam esse, et nihilo minus petitor eandem rem vindicet : licèt enim 'verum sit, quod intendit, id est, ejus esse; iniquum tamen est, possesorem condemnari.

§ 4. Jfan oath be administeredto a debtor at the instance of his creditor, and he swears, that nothing is : due, yet he still remains bound : but, as it would not be right, that the plaintiff should afterwards complain, of perjury, the debtor may defend himself by alledging his owm oat/& by way of exception. Exceptions are equally necessary in real actions ; as whem the party in possession at the request qf the demandant, swears, that the thing in dispute is his own, and the demandant will nevertheless

endeavour to recoverit: for although the demandant's allegation be true ; viz. that the thing' claimed appertains to him, yet it is unjust, that the possessor should be condemned,

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Divisio prima.

§ VII. Quarum quaedam ex le.

§ 7. Some exceptions proceed

gibus, vel iis, quae legis vicem ob- from the laws themselves, or from. tinent, vel ex ipsius prætoris juris. regulations that hold the place of

£ictione, substantiam capiunt.

laws ; others from the authority of the prætor.

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§ X. Temporales atque dilatoriæ sunt, quæ ad tempus nocent, et temporis dilationem tribuunt} qualis est pacti conventi, cum ita convenerit, ne intra certum tempus ageretur, veluti intra quinquennium : nam, finito eo tempore, non impeditur actor rem exequi. Ergo ii, quibus intra certum tempus agere volentibus objicitur exceptio aut pacti conventi, aut alia similis, differre debent actionem, et post tempus agere ; ideò enim dilatoriæ istæ exceptiones appellantur. Alioqui, si intra tempus egerint objectaque sit exceptio, neque eo judicio quicquam consequebantur

§ 10. Temporary and dilatory exceptions are those, which operate for a time, and create delay; such is an agreement not to sue within a certain time, as five years ; but at the expiration qf that time the creditor may proceed : and therefore those, against whom this exception pacti conventi or any other similar can be objected, must delay their action, and sue when the time is expired; hence, these exceptions are termeddilatory : and formerly, ifthe plaintiff had sued before the time, and exception was taken, it not only

` barred the claih for that time, but

prevented the plaintiff from proceed

proper exceptionem, neque post tempus olim agere poterant, cum temeré rem in judicium deducebant et consumebant; quá ratione rem amittebant. Hodie autem non ita strictè hoc procedere volumus ; sed eum, qui ante tempus 'pactionis vel obligationis liten inferre ausus sit, Zenonianae constitutioni subjacere censemus, quam sacratissimus legislator de iis, qui tempore plus petierint, protulit : et inducias, quas ipse actor sponte indulserit, vel quas natura actionis continet, si contempserit, in duplum habeant ii, qui talem injuriam passi sunt; et, post eas finitas, non aliter litem susciplant, nisi omnes expensas litisantea acceperint: ut actores, tali paná perterriti, tempora litium doceantur observare.

ing at the expiration of the time agreed on; for he was reputed to have lost his right, by having rashly. commenced suit. But we have been willing to mitigate this rigor, so that whoever presumes to commence a suit before the time limited by agreement, shall be subject to the constitution of Zeno concerning those, who demand more than their due ; and, if a plaintiff break in upon the time, which he has spontaneously granted, or contemns the limits which the nature of some actions allow, the defendant thus injured, becomes intitled to twice, the time before allowed, and, even when that is expired, cannot be obliged to enter an appearance, until he has been reimbursed the whole of his expenses ; and this we have ordained in terrorem, that plaintiffs may be taught to observe the proper time a commencing their suits.

De dilatoriis ex personá.

s XI. Praetereaetiam ex persona sunt dilatoriae exceptiones, quales sunt procuratoriae ; veluti si per militem, aut mulierem, agere quis velit: nam militibus nec pro patre, vel matre, vel uxore, nec ex sacro rescripto, procuratorio nomine experiri conceditur ; suis vero negotiis superesse siné offensä militaris disciplinae possunt. Eas verö exceptiones, quac olim procuratoribus propter infamiam vel dantis, vel ipsius procuratoris, opponebantur, cum in judiciis frequentari nullo modo perspeximus, conqui

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§ 11. Dilatory exceptions may also be personal, as those against proctors, where a suitor employs a soldier, or a woman to act for him ; for soldiers are not permitted to act as proctors even in behalf of a father, a mother, or a wife, although, they obtain the sanction of an imperial rescript; but they may superintend their own affairs, without offending against military discipline. But we have put a stop to the exceptions of infamy, which were formerly made, both against proctors and their constituents, having observed them to be B


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INTERDUM evenit, ut exceptio, quae primâ facie justa videtur, tamen iniqué noceat : quod cum accidit, aliá allegatione dipus est, adjuvandi actoris gratiâ; quae replicatio vocatur, quia per eam replicatur atque resolviturjusexceptionis; veluti cum pactus est aliquis cum debitore suo, ne ab eo pecuniam petat, deinde postea in contrarium pacti sunt, idest, ut creditori petere liceat: si creditor agat, et excipiat debitor, ut ita demum condemnetur, si non convenerit, ne eam pecuniam creditor petat, nocet ei exceptio ; convenitenim ita : namgue nihilominus hoc verum manet, licet postea in contrarium pactisint. Sed, quia iniquum est, creditorem excludi, replicatio ei dabitur ex posteriore pacto convento.

Sometimes an exception, which appears at first view to be valid, is not so : and when this happens, an additional allegation is necessary in aid of the plaintiff, called a replication, because the force of the exception is replicated, that is, unfolded, and destroyed by it; as if a creditor should covenant with his debtor not to sue him, and the contrary should afterwards be agreed between them, in consequence of which the creditor brings an action, to which the debtor excepts, alledging the agreement of his creditor not to sue: in this case the exception would be of weight, as such an agreement was actually made, although another was made afterwards to a contrary of fect; but, as it would be unjust, that a creditor should be thus concluded, he is allowed to plead the subsequent compact, by way of replication.

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