Page images

o - *. - - De solutione indebiti. o

§ VI. Item is, cui quis per errorem non debitum solvit, quasi ex contractudebere videtur; aded enim non intelligitur propriè ex contractu obligatus esse ; ut, si certiorem rationem sequamur, magis (ut supra diximus) ex distractu quam ex contractu possit dici obligatus esse: nam, qui solvendi animo pecuniam dat, in hoc dare videtur, ut distrahat potius negotium, quam contrahat. Sed tamen perindè is, qui accepit, obligatur, ac si mutuum ei daretur; et ideo condictione tenetur.

* * *

§ 6. He, to whom another has paid by mistake what was not due, appears to be indebted by quasi-contract ; for he is certainly not bound by an express agreement; and, strictly speaking, he might rather be said, (as we have before observed, ) to be bound by the dissolution than by the making of a contract; for he, who paid the money with an intent to discharge his debts, seemed rather inclined to dissolve an engagement, than to contract one. But, whoever receives money by the mistake of another, is as much bound to repayment, as if it had been lent him ; and is therefore liable to an action of condiction.

Quibus ex causis indebitum solutum non repetitur.

§ VII. Ex quibusdam tamgn causis repeti non potest, quod per errorem non debitum solutum sit ; sic namdue definierunt veteres, ex quibus causis inficiando lis crescit, exiis causis non debittim solutum repeti non posse ; veluti ex lege Aquilia, item ex legato: quod veteres quidem in is legatis locum habere voluerunt, quae certa constituta per damnationem cuique legata fuserant: nostra autem constitutio, cum unan naturam omnibus legatis-et fideicommissis indulsit, hujusmodi augmentum in omnibus legatis et fideicommissis extendi voHuit: sed non omnibus legatariis hoc praebuit, sed tantummodo in is legatis et fidei commissis, quae sacrosanctis Ecclesiis, et catteris

[ocr errors]

§ 7. In some cases, money paid by mistake, cannot afterwards be demanded: for the ancient lawyers determined, that where an action for double the value of the debt is given upon the denial of it, (as by the law Aquilia, and in the case of legacies) the debtor, who has erroneously made payment to whom it was not due, shall never recover it. But these lawyers would have this rule to take place only in regard to fixed and certain legacies, devised per damnationem. But our constitution, which assigns to legacies and trusts, one common character, hath caused this augmentation in duplum after denial to be extended to legacies and trusts in general: yet the privilege of not refunding

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]
[blocks in formation]
[ocr errors]
[merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

§ I. Item per acceptilationem toilitur obligatio: est autem acceptilatio imaginaria solutio : quod enim ex verborum obligatione Titio debetur, id, si velit Titius remittere, poterit sic fieri, ut patiatur haec verba debitorem dicere: quod ego tibi promisi, habesne acceptum ? et Titius respondeat, habeo. Sed et Graece potest acceptilatio fieri; dummodo sic fiat, ut Latinis verbis solet; exits x23ay 34,261, -roga; ex,” Aa32, Quo genere, (ut diximus,) tantum eae solvuntur obligationes, quae ex verbis consistunt, nonetiam catterac. Consentaneum enim visum

§ 1. An obligation is also dissolve ed by acceptilation or acknowledgement; which is an imaginary payment : for, if Titius be willing to remit what is due to him by a verbal contract, it may be done, if the debtor should say, do you consider what I promised you, as accepted and received 2 and TITIUS answer, I do. An acceptilation may also be made in Greek, if it be so worded, as to agree with the Latin form ; do you acknowledge to have received so many Denarii: I do. But verbal contracts only are thus dissolved : and it seems profer that an obligaest, verbis factam obligationem aliis posse verbis dissolvi. Sed et id, quod aliá ex causã debetur, potest in stipulationem deduci, et per acceptilationem dissolvi. Sicut etiam quod debetur pro parte rectè solvitur; ita in parte debiti, acceptilatio fieri potest.

tion, verbally created, may be dissolved by other words of a contrary import. But it is observable, that any species of contract may be reduced to a stipulation, and of course dissolved by acceptilation. As a debt may be paid in part by money, it may be discharged in part also by acceptilation.

De Aquilianá stipulatione et acceptilatione.

§ II. Estautem prodita stipulatio, quae vulgö Aquilianá appellatur, per quam contingit, ut omnium rerum obligatio in stipulatum deducatur, et ea per acceptilationem tollatur. Stipulatio enim Aquilianá renovat omnes obligationes, et à Gallo Aquilio ita composita est. Quicquid te mihi ex quacqunque causa darefacere oportet oportebitve, praisens in diemve, aut sub conditione; quarumcunque rerum mihi tecum actio est, quaque adversus te petitio, vel adversus te persecutio, est eritve; quodve tu meum habes, tenes, possides, dolove malo fecisti, quo minus possideas; quanti quaque earum rerum res erit, tantam pecuniam dari stipulatus est Aulus Agerius, spopondit, Numerius Nigidius. Qood Numerius Nigidius Aulo Agerio spopondit, id haberetne a se acceptum Numerius Nigidius Aulum Agerium rogavit: Aulus Agerius Numerio Nigidio acceptum fecit.


§ 2. There is another species of stipulation, called commonly the Aquilian, by virtue of which every other kind of obligation may be reduced to a stipulation, and may afterwards be dissolved by acceptilaFor the Aquilian stipulation changes all obligations, and was constituted by GALLUs AQUILIUs in the following manner. Do you promise, said Aulus AceRTUs to NUMERIUS NIGIDIUs, to pay me a sum of money, in lieu of what you was, or shall be, obliged to give me, or to perform for my benefit, either simply, at a day to come, or upon condition; and in lieu of those things, which, being my property, you HAve, DETAIN, or possess; or of which you have fraudulently quitted the possession; and for which I may, or shall be, intitled to any species of action, plaint, or prosecution; NUMERIUS NIGID1Us answered, I do: and, when this was said, NUMERIus NIGIDIus asked AULus AGERIUs, if he acknowledged the money as accepted and received, which he (NUMERIUs) had promised 2 to which AULius AGER1Us answered, that he did so acknowledge it.


« PreviousContinue »