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à nostrá constitutione hodie rectè haeres instituitur, quasi et jure ciwili non incognitus. Aliquandú tamen, neque emendandi neque impugnandi veteris juris, sed majis confirmandi gratiá, praetor polliceturbonorum possessionem : nam illis quoque, qui, rectè testamento facto, haeredes instituti sunt, dat secundum tabulas bonorum possessionem. Item ab intestato suos haeredes, et agnatos, ad bonorum possessionem vocat: sed et remotă quoque bonorum possessione ad eos pertinet haereditas jure civili. Quos autem solus pretor vocat ad haereditatem, haeredes quidem ipso jure non fiunt: nam praetor haeredem facere non potest: per legem enim tantùm, vel similem juris constitutionem, hacredes fiunt, vel per senatus-consulta et constitutiones principales: sed, cum eis praetor dat bonorum possessionem, loco haeredum constituuntur, et vocantur bonorem possessores. Adhuc autem et alios complures gradus praetor fecitin bonorum possessionibus dandis, dum id agebat, ne quis siné successore moreretur. Nam, angustissimis finibus constitutum per legem duodecim tabularum, jus percipiendarum hareditatum praetor ex bono et aequo dilatavit.

when he had received the assistance of the praetor. Such stranger may at this time, by our constitution, be legally instituted heir as a person not unknown to the civil law. But the praetor sometimes bestows the possession of goods, intending neither to amend nor impugn the old law, but to confirm it: for he gives possession. secundam tabulas to those, who are appointed heirs by regular testament. He also calls properheirs and agnates to the possession of the goods of intestates ; and yet the inheritance would be their own by the civil law, although the practor did not interpose his authority. But those, whom the praetor calls to an inheritance merely by virtue of his office, do not become legal heirs ; inasmuch as the pretor cannot make an heir ; for heirs are made only by law, or by what has the effect of a law, as a decreee of the senate, or an imperial constitution. But, when the prator

gives any persons the possession of

goods, they stand in the place of heirs, and are called the possessors of the goods. He hath also devised many other orders of persons, to whom the possession of goods can be granted, so that no man may die without a successor; and, by the rules of justice and equity, he hath enlarged the right of taking inheritances, which was bounded within very narrow liinits by the laws of the twelve tables.

De speciebus ordinariis.

§ I. Sunt autèm bonorum possessiones ex testamento quidem hæ ; prima, quæ præteritis liberis datur vocaturque contra tabulas : secunda, quam omnibus jure scriptis haeredibus prætor pollicetur; ideòque vocatur secundum tabulas. Et, cum de testatis prius locutus est, ad intestatos transitum fecit : et primo loco suis hæredibus, et iis, qui ex edicto prætoris inter suos h:eredes connumerantur, dat bonorum possessionem, quæ vocatur unde liberi. Secundo, legitimis hæredibus. Tertio, decem personis, quas extraneo manumissori præferebat. Sunt autem decem personæ hæ ; pater, mater, avus, avia, tam paterni quam materni ; itèm filius, filia ; nepos, neptis, tam ex filio, quam ex filia; frater sororve, consanguinei vel uverini. Quarto, cognatis proximis. Quinto tanquam ex familia. Sexto, patrono patronæque, liberisque eorum et parentibus. Septimo, viro et uxori. Octavo, cognatis manuIn ISSOrus.

Jus vetus. § 1. The possessions of goods or

prætorian testamentary successionis, are these. First, that which is givento children, not mentioned in the testament ; this is called possession contrary to the testament. The second, that which the prætor promises to all wrttten heirs, and is therefore called possession according to the testament. These being fixed he goes to intestacies ; and first he gives the possession called unde liberi, to the proper heirs, or to those, who by the prætorian edict are numberedamong the proper heirs : secondly, to the legitimate (legal) heirs : thirdly, to ten persons, in preference to a stranger, who was the manumittor, viz. to a father, a mother, or a grand father or grand-mother, paternal or maternal ; to a son, d. daughter, or to a grand-son or grand-daughter, as vel, by a daughter as by a son ; to a brother or sister, either consanguine or uterine : fourthly, to the nearest cognates : fifthly, to those who are, as it were, qf the family : sixthly, to the patron, or patroness, and to their child;em, and their parents : seventhly, to ant husband and wife : eighthly, to the cognates qf a manumittor or patr07?.

Jus novum.

§ II. Sed eas quidem prætoria

introduxit jurisdiccio : à nobis ta

mèn nihil incuriosum pretermissum est; sed, nostris constitutionihus omnia corrigentcs, contra tabu

§ 2. The fraetor's authority hath introduce? these successions; as to ourse';es, huving' pas«ed aver nothirg . negligenfi,, ve have adh.itted by our constitutions the possession áfs zodò

las quidem et seeundum tabulas bonorum possessiones admissimus, utpote necessarias constitutas : nec non ab intestato, unde liberi, et unde legitimi, bonorum possessiones. Quæ autem in prætoris edicto quinto loco posita fuerat, id est, unde decem personae, eam pio proposito et compendioso sermone supervacuam ostendimus. Cum enim præfata bonorum possessio decem personas præponebat extraneo manumissori nostra constitutio, quam de emancipatione liberorum fecimus, omnibus parentibus eisdemque manumissoribus, contracta fiducia, manumissionem facere dedit ; ut ipsa

manumissio eorum hoc in se habeat

privilegium, et supervacua fiat supradicta bonorum possessio. Sublatâ igitur praedictâ quintâ bonorum possessione in gradum ejus sextam antea bonorum possessionem induximus, et quintam fecimus, quam prætor proximis cognatis pollicetur. Cumque antea fuerat septimo loco bonorum possessio, tanquam ex fanmilia, et octavo, unde patroni patronæque, liberi et parentes eorum, utramque per constitutionem nostram, quam de jure patronatùs fecimus, penitùs evacuavimus. Cum enim, ad similitudinem successionis ingenuorum, libertinorum successiones posuerimus, quas usque ad quintum gradum tantummodò coarctavimus, ut sit aliqua inter ingenuos et libertinos differentia, sufficit eis tam contra tabulas bonorum possessio, quam unde legitimi, et unde cognati, ex quibus possunt

contra tabulas and secundum ta

bulas, as necessary ; and also the

possessions ab intestato, called un

de liberi and unde legitimi ; but we have briefiy shewn, that the pos

session, called unde decem personae, which was ranked by the prætor's edict in the fifth order, was unnecessary : for, whereas that posses

sion preferred tem kinds of persons to astranger, being the manumittor, our constitution om that subject, hatfi permitted all parents to manumit their children, under the presumption of a fiduciary contract; so that the possession unde decem personæ is now useless. The qfore-mentiøned ffth possession being thus abrogated, ve have now made that the fifth, which was formerly the sixth, by which the prætor gives the succession to the nearest cognates. And, whereas formerly the possession tanquam ex familiâ, was in the, seventh place, and the possession unde patroni patronæque, liberi et parentes eorum, was in the eighth, we have now annulled them both by our ordinance concerning the right of patronage. And having brought the successions qf the libertini to a similitude with those of the ingenui, (except, that we have limited theformer to thefifth degree, so that there may still remain some difference between them ) we think, that the pos

sessions contra tabulas, unde legiti

mi, and unde cognati may stffice,

by which all persons may vindicate their rights ; the miceties and inex

tricable errors ofthose two kinds of

sua jura vindicare, omni scrupulositate et inextricabili errore istarum duarum bonorum possessionum resoluto. Aliam vero bonorum possessionem, quæ unde vir et uxor appellatur, et nono loco inter veteres bonorum possessiones posita fuerat, et in suo vigore servavimus, et altiore loco, id est, sexto, eam yosuimus: decima quoque veteri É possessione, quae erat unde cognati manumissoris, propter causas enumeratas meritò sublata, út sex tantummodò bonorum possessiones ordinariæ permaneant, suo vigore pollentes.

possessions, tanquam ex familia anâ unde patroni, being removed. The other possession of goods, callea vir et uxor, which held the nimth place among the ancient possessions, we have preserved in full force and have placed in an higher, to wit, the sixth degree. The tenth of the ancient possessions, called unde cognati manumissoris, being deservedly abolished for causes already enumerated, there now remain in force only <ix ordinary possessions of goods. ' '

Species extraordinaria.

§ III. Septima eas secuta, quam optimâ ratione prætores introduxerunt : novissimè enim promittitur edicto iis etiam bonorum possessio, quibus, ut detur, lege vel senatus«consulto vel constitutione comprehensum est : quam neque bonorum possessionibus, quæ ab intestato veniunt, neque iis, qu ^ ex testamento sunt, prætor stabili jure connumeraverit ; sed quasi ultimum , et extraordinarium auxilium (prout res exigit) accommodavit, scilicèt iis, qui ex legibus, senatus-consultis, constitutionibusve principum, ex novo jure, vel ex testamento, vel ab intestato veniunt.

§ 3. To these a seventh possession hath been added, which the prætors have very properly introduced : for, by a late edict, this possessione is promised to all those, to whom it is appointed by any law, senatus-consultum, or constitution : and the prætor hath not positively numbered this possession qf goods either with the possessions of the goods qfintestate or testate persons, but hath given it, according to the exigence of the case, as the last and extraordinary resource qf those, who are called to the successions of testates or intestates, by any particular law, decree of the senate, or new constitutiom.

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easque per ordinem disposuisset, et in unaquaque specie successionis sepe plures extent dispari gradu personae, ne actiones creditorum differentur, sed haberent, quos convenirent, et ne facile in possessionem bonorum defuncti mitterentur, et eo modo sibi consulerent, ideo petende bonorum possessioni certum tempus praefinivit. Liberis itaque et parentibus, tam naturalibus quam adoptivis, in petenda bonorum posssessione anni spatium, casteris autem (agnatio vel cognatis) centum dierum, dedit.

cessions, and as persons of different degrees are often found in one species of succession, he thought fit to limit a certain time for demanding

, the possession of goods, that the ac

tions of creditors may not be delayed for want of a proper person against whom to bring them, and that the creditors may not possess themselves of the effects of the deceased too easily, and consult solely their own advantage : therefore to parents and children, whether natural or adopted, he hath allowed one year, within which, they may either accept or rejuse the possession. To all other persons, agnates or cognates, he allows only an hundred days.

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