Page images
PDF

gests, iw was thought expedient by justiniam, for the benefit of students, that an abridgment should be made of the whole Romam law; which work was soon performed in obedience to his order, and confirmed with the digests, under the title of institutions.

The emperor afterwards, upon mature deliberation, suppressed the first edition of his code, and published a second, which he intitled Codex repetitæ prælectionis, having omitted several useless laws, and inserted others, which were judged serviceable to the state.

The }ustinian-law now consisted of three parts, the institutions, the digests, and the second code. But the emperor, after the publication of the second code, continued from time to time to enact diverse new constitutions or novels, and also several edicts; all which were collected after his decease, and became a fourth part of the law.

The 13 edicts of justinian and most of the novels were originally conceived in the Greek tongue; and so great was the decline of the Romam language at Constantinople within forty years after the death of this emperor, that his laws in general were not otherways intelligible to the major part of the people, than by the assistance of a Greek version: but, notwithstanding this disadvantage, they still subsisted intire, till the publication of the Basilica, by which the east was governed, till the disso

lution of the empire.

•* non per sigla, manifestari.“ Cod. 1. t. 17. 1. 2. § 22.

Confirmed with the Digests.] ** Leges “ autem nostras, quæ in his codicibus, id ** est, institutionum seu elementorum et di** gestorum, posuimus, suum obtinere robur ** ex tertio nostro felicissimo sancimus com* sulatu praesentis duodecimae indictionis, ** tertio calendas januarias, in omne aevum ** valituras, &c.” Cod. 1. t. 17. l. 2. § 23.

Suppressed the first edition of his code.] ** Nemini in posterum concedimus, vel ** ex decisionibus nostris, vel ex aliis con** stitutionibus, quas antea fecimus, vel ex “prima Justinianei codicis editione, aliquid “ recitare; sed, quod in praesenti purgato et ** renovato codicenostro scriptum invenitur, “ hoc tantummodo in omnibus rebus et ju“ diciis et obtineat et recitetur: cujus scrip“turam, ad similitudinem nostrarum insti“ tutionum et digestorum, sine ulla signo“ rum dubietate conscribi jussimus.” De

emendatione cod § 5.

Basilica.] “Versionibus juris Justinianei “ Graecis, et novellis eadem lingua scriptis, “ in foris scholisque utebantur, donec, de ** eo in compendium mittendo, saeculo nono “ cogitare inciperent imperatores Byzanti

** ni. Ex his primum Basilins Macedo anno ** 838 ediderat reexttgov r&v voμων, quod con** stabat titulis quadraginta. Deinde Leo ** cropo;, patri Basilio succedens, collectionem ** illam paternam perfecit, eamque sub- titu** lo $uara£tav βασιλιxwv promulgavit, anno ** Christi 886. Denique subsecutus Leonem ** Constantinus, cognomento Porphyroge“ neta, paternum opus sub incudem revoca“vit, et libros illos Baor.xuxwv publicavit sub ** initium saeculi decimi. Et hi quidem sunt “ libri illi Baorix/xav, ex Graeca institutionum, ** pandectarum, codicis versione, Justinia** ni novellis et edictis tredecim, nec non ex **juris-consultorum quorundam orientalium “paratitlis, aliisque libris, quin et patribus ** et conciliis collecti; ita tamen ut multa ** omissa videamus, quae fortassis tum ab usu * recesserant, multas etiam leges in com** pendium contractas, multa denique ex ** posteriorum principum legibus et consti** tutionibus addita animadvcrtamus. Opus ** istud in sexaginta libros divisum, præter “ pauca, quae nondum integra reperiri po** tuerunt, cum glossis graece et latine edi** tum est a Car. Annib. Fabrotto, Paris. ** 1647. fol. vol. vii.° vid. Heineccii hist. jur. civ. 1. 1. § 405.

The dissolution of the empire.] Constan*inople was taken by the Turks, and a period was put to the eastern empire in the year of Christ, 1453.

[ocr errors][merged small]

The laws published by }ustinian were still successful in the west; where, even in the life-time of the emperor, they were not received universally; and, after the Lombard invasion, they became so totally neglected, that both the code and the pandects were lost, till the 12th century; when it is said, that the pandects were accidentally recovered at

Amialphi, and the code at Ravefina.

But, as if fortune would make an IMPERATORIAM majestatem non solurn armis decoratam, sed etiam legibus oportet esse armatam; ut utrumque tempus et bellorum et pacis recte possit gubernari: et princeps Romanus non solum in hostilibus praeliis victor exis

atonément for her former severity, they have since been the study of the wisest men, and revered, as law, by the politest nations.

After the Lombard invasion.] The Lom

bards entered Italy under Alboinus about the

year of Christ 568, in the reign of justin , the second, successor to 5*ustiniam.

At Amalphi.] ** Eo tempore (anno Dom. 1130) ** injustis perturbatisque comitiis, la** cerarat ecclesiam falsus pontifex Petrus Leonis, Anacletus secundus nuncupatus ab “sua factione; cujus dux erat Rogerius Apu** liae ac Siciliae comes, Regis nomine a fal** so pontifice donatus. Adversus Anacle** tum creatus rite ac solenniter fuerat In** nocentius secundus, cui favebat imperator * Lotharius Saxo, summa virtute atque pru** dentia princeps; quo bellum gerente ad** versus Rogerium, Amalphi, urbe Salerno “ proxima, Š; perperam aliqui locant ** in Apulia, Melphiam cum Amalphi confun** dentes,) inopinato reperti fuerunt digesto** rum libri; quos Pisani, qui classe Lotha** rium contra Rogerium adjuverant, prae** mio bene navatæ operae sibi exorarunt. ** Pisis vero post longam obsidionem a Ca

** ponio militiæ duce strenuo expugnatis, “ translati fuere Florentiam; ubi, pro Au** gusta Mediceae domus magnificentia, in ** museo magni ducis conservantur. Hinc ** promiscua Pisanarum et Florentinarum ** apud scriptores pandectarum appellatio. ** Iisdem temporibus repertum Ravennæ fuit ** constitutionum imperialium volumen, ** quod codex appellatur; indeque caeteros li** bros juris, imo et digestorum aliud exem** plar in lucem aliqui rediisse putant: nec ** mirum, cum ea urbs longo tempore Ro** manis legibus vixerit, et orientali Roma“ norum imperio diu obtemperavit. No: vellae vero constitutiones etiam antea per * Italiam vagabantur; utque mea fert opi** nio, multi juris civilis libri, postquam in: gessit homines cupido recipiendi Romani 'juris, agniti potius fuere, quam reperti: ** nam, et aliquot ante Lotharium annis, jus ** civile Justiniani commemoravit Ivo Car** notensis, et libros pandectarum; cum an** tea, si occurrerent, forsan socordia et ob** livione prætermitterentur.*' vid. Gravimæ orig.jur. civ. lib. 1. cap. 140. et Hein. hist.jur. cje. lib. 1. § 412.

de - CONFIRMATIONE INSTITUTIONUM.

--

IN NOMINE DOMININOSTRI JESU CHRISTI.

IMPERAToR, CesAR FLAVIUS JUSTINIANUS, ALEMANicus, Gor. THIcus, FRANcicus, GERMAN1cus, ANT1cus, ALAN1cus, VANDAL1cus, Africanus, Pius, FELIX, INCLytus, Victor Ac TRIUMPH- . Ator, semper AUGUSTU's-cuPIDAE LEGUM JuventuTI S.

De usu armorum et legum.

The imperial dignity should not only be supported by arms, but guarded by laws, that the people may be properly governed in time of peace as well as war; for a Roman emperor ought not only to be victorious in the hostile field, but should take

tat, sedetiam per legitimos tramites--every legal course to expel the ini

calumniantium iniquitates expellat; et fiat tam juris religiosissimus, quam, victis hostibus, triumphator magnificus.

quities of men regardless of law; and become equally renowned for a religious observance of justice, as for warlike triumphs.

Debellis et legibus Justiniani.

§ I. Quorum utramque viam cum summis vigiliis, summâque providentiá, annuente Deo, perfecimus: et bellicos quidem sudores nostros barbaricae gentes, sub juga nostra redactae, cognoscunt: et tam Africa, quam aliae innumerae provinciae, post tanta temporum spatia, nostris victoriis a coalestimumine praestitis,

§ 1. By our incessant labors, and the assistance of divine providence, we have pursued this double path r the Barbarian nations have acknowledged our prowess and submitted to our yoke; even Africa and many other provinces, after so long an interval, are again added to the Roman empire; and yet this vast people are

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

§ III. Cunique hoc, Deo propitio, peractum est, Triboniano, viro magnifico, magistro, et exquaestore sacri palatii nostri, et exconsule, nec non Theophilo et Dorotheo, viris illustribus, antecessoribus, (quorum omnium solertiam, et legum scientiam, et circa nostras jussiones fidem, jam ex multis rerum argumentis accepimus,) convocatis, mandavimus specialiter, ut insi nostrá auctoritate, nostrisque suasionibus, Institutiones componerent; ut liceat vobis prima legum cunabula non ab antiquis fabulis discere, sed ab imperiali splendore appetere: et tam aures, quam animi vestri, nihil inutile, nihilaue perperan, positum,

- - - - * sed quod in ipsis rerum obtinet ar

gumentis, accipiant: et quod priore tempore vix post quadriennium priDribus contingebat, ut tumc consti

§ 3. So soon as by the blessing of God this was accomplished, we summoned Tribonian, our former chancellor, with Theopilus and Dorotheus, men of known learning and tried fidelity, whom we enjoined by our

authority to compose the following

Institutes, that the rudiments of law might be more effectually learned, by the sole means of our imperial authority; and that your minds for the future should not be burdened with obsolete and unprofitable doctrines, but instructed in those laws only, which are allowed of and practiced: and, whereas Students formerly could

scarcely sit down to the imperial con

stitutions under four years previous study, they may now, (having been thought worthy of our princely care, to which they are indebted for the beginning and end of their legal

[blocks in formation]

Ex quibus libris compositæ sunt Institutiones, atque earum recognitio, et confirmatio.

§ VI. Quas, ex omnibus antiquorum Institutionibus, et præcipuè ex

commentariis Caii nostri, tam in

stitutionum, quam rerum quotidianarum, aliisque multis commentariis compositas, cum tres viri prudentes prædicti nobis obtulerunt, et legimus, et recognovimus, et plenissimum nostrarum constitutionum robur eis accommodavimus,

§ 6. Thefaur books of Institutes thus compiled by Tribonian, Theophilus, and Dorotheus, from all the institutions of the ancient law, bus chiefy from the commentaries, institutions, and other writings of Caius, being presented to us, we read and diligently examined their contents ; and, in testimony afour approbation, we have now given them our fulless constitutional authority.

« PreviousContinue »