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De testamento irrito; et quibus modis fit irritum.

§ IV. Alio autem moda testamenta jure facta infirmantur; veluti cum is, qui fecit testamentum, capite diminutus sit: quod, quibus modis accidat, primo libro retuliInus,

§ 4. Testaments, legally made, are also invalidated, if the testator suffer diminution, (that is, change his condition: ) in the first book (of these institutes,) we have shewn by what means diminution may happen.

Cur dicatur irritum.

§ V. Hoc autem casu irrita fieri testamenta dicuntur ; cum alioqui, et quae rumpuntur, irrita fiant, et ea, quae statim ab initio non jure fiunt, irrita sint. Sed et ea, quae jure factasunt, et postea per' capitis diminutionem irrita fiunt, possumus nihilominūs rupta dicere. Sed, quia sané commodius erat, singulas causas singulis appellationibus distingui, ideo quaedam non jure facta dicuntur, quaedam jure facta rumpi vel irrita fieri.

S 5. In case of diminution, testaments are said to become irrita, (ineffectual; ) although those which are broken, or which, from the beginning, were not legal, are equally so. We may also consider those testaments broken, which being at first legally made, are afterwards rendered ineffectual by diminution. But, as it is proper, that every particular defect should be distinguished by a particular appellation, those testaments, which are illegal in their formation, are termed null ; those which were at first legal, but afterwards lose their force, by some revocatory act of the testator, are said to be rupta, or broken; and those, since the making whereof, the testator hath suffered a change of state, are irrita, or ineffectual.

Quibus modis convalescit.

y VI. Non tamen per omnia inutilia sunt ea testamenta, quae, ab initio jure facta, per capitis diminutionem irrita facta sunt : nam, si septem testium signis signata sunt, potest scriptus hæres, secundum tabulas testamenti, bonorum possessionem agnoscere, si modó defunctus et civis Ronianus, et suae potes

§ 6. But a testament, àt first legally made, and afterwards rendered ineffectual by diminution, may not be altogether void; for the written heir is intitled to the possession of the goods, under the testament, if it appear, that it was sealed by seven witnesses, and that the testator was a Roman citizen, and not under

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Si princeps litis causâ, vel in testamento imperfecto institutus fuerit.

§ VIII. Eâdem oratione expressit, non admissurum se hæreditatem ejus, qui litis causâ principem reliquerit hæredem : neque tabulas non legitimè factas, in quibus ipse ob eam causam hæres institutus erat, probaturum ; neque ex nudâ voce, hæredis nomen admissurum : neque ex ullâ scripturâ, cui juris auctoritas desit, aliquid adepturum. verus et Antoninus sæpissimè rescripserunt. Li^et enim, inquiunt,

Secundùm hoc Divi Se

§ 8. The emperor Pertinax hath declared by the same oration, that he would not take the inheritance of any testator, who left him his heir, because a law-suit was depending' ; that he would mever establish a will legally deficient in form, jf he was upon that account instituted the heir ; that he would by mo means suffer himself to be nominated heir by , arol; and that he would mever derive emolument from any writing not authorised by strict rules of law. The

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QUIA pleråmdue parentes sine causa liberos suos exhaeredant vel omittunt, inducturm est, ut de inofficioso testamento agere possint liberi, qui queruntur, aut iniqué se exheredatos, aut iniquè praeteritos; hoc colore, quasi non sange mentis fuerint, cum testamentum ordinarent. Sed hoc dicitur, non quasi verè furiosus sit; sed rectè quidem testamentum fecerit, non autem ex officio pietatis. Nam, si verè furiosus sit, nullum testamentum est.

Since parents often disinherit their children without cause, or omit to mention them in their testaments, it has therefore been introduced, that children, who have been unjustly disinherited, or omitted, may complain, that such testaments are inofficious, under colour, that their parents were not of sane mind, when they made them : not that the testator was really insane, for the testament may have been well made; but that it is not cansistent with the duty of a parent. For, if a testator were really insane at the time, his testament is null.

Qui de inofficioso agrunt.

§ I. Non autem liberis tantúm permissum est testamentum paren

tum inofficiosum accusare, verúm *

etiam liberorum parentibus : soror autem et frater turpibus personis scriptis haredibus, ex sacris consti

$ 1. Not children only are allowcd to complain, that testaments are inofficious ; for parents are permitted to do the same. Also the brothers and sisters of a testator, by the imperial constitutions, are profirred to

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jectum, boni viri arbitratu debere eam compleri.

portion, or fourth part, though not added by the testator, may be completed according to the arbitration of some person of approved character.

Si tutor, cui nihil a patre relictum, pupilli nomine legatum acceperit.

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$ VI. Igitur quartam quis debet hab, re, ut de inofficioso agere non posit, sive jure haereditario, sive jure legati vel fidei-commissi, vel si mortis causa ei quarta donata fuerit, vel inter vivos in iis tantummodo casibus, quorum mentionem nostra facit constitutio, vel aliis molis, qui in nostris constitution. Quod autem de quarta diximus, ita intelligen

us continentur.

§ 6. No person, entitled to a fourth can be barred from bringing a come plaint (de inofficioso) of undutifulness, unless he hath received it either by being appointed heir, by having a legacy, or by means of a trust for his use; or unless his legal part hath been given him by donation mortis causa or inter vivos, (in those cases, noticed by our constitution, ) or by any other means set forth in our

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