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De senatus-consulto.

- § V. Senatus-consultum est, quod senatus jubet atque constituit : nam, cum auctus esset populus Romanus in eum modum, ut difficile esset, in unum eum convocari legis sanciendæ causâ, æquum visum est, senatum vice populi consuli.

§ 5. A senatorial decree is what the senate commands and appoints * for, when the people qf Rome became so increased that it was difficult to assemble them for the enacting of laws, it seemed right, that the senate should be consulted instead qf the

people.

De constitutione.

§ VI. Sed et, quod principi placuit, legis habet vigorem : cum lege regia, quæ de ejus imperio lata est, populus ei, et in eum, omne imperium suum et potestatem concedat. Quodcumque ergo imperator per epistolam constituit, vel cognoscens decrevit, vel edicto præcepit, legem esse constat. Hæc sunt, quæ constitutiones appellantur. Planè ex his quædam sunt personales, quæ nec ad exemplum trahuntur, quoniam non hoc princeps vult: nam quod alicui ob meritum indulsit, vel si quam pœnam irrogavit, vel si cui sine exemplo subvenit, personam non transgreditur. cum generales sint, omnes proculdubio tenent.

Aliæ autem,

§ 6. The ordinance of the prince hath also the force of a law ; for the people by the lex regia, make a concession to him qf their whole power. Therefore whatever the emperor ordains by rescript, decree, or edict, is lav. Such acts are called constitutions. Qf these, some are personal, and are not to be drawn into precedent ; for, ifthe prince hath indulged any man om account qf his merit, or inficted any extraordinary punish' ment on a criminal, or granted somc unprccedented assistance, these acts extend not beyond the individual. But other constitutions bcing gence.

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De jure honorario.

§ VII. Praetorum quoque edicta non modicam obtinent juris auctoritatem. Hoc etiam jus honorarium solemus appellare : quod, qui honores gerunt, (id est magistratus,) auctoritatem huic juri dederunt. Proponebant et ædiles curules edictum de quibusdam causis ; quod et ipsum juris honorarii portio est.

§ 7. The edicts of the praeiors are also afgreat authority. These edicts are called the honorary law, because the magistrates who bear honors in. the state, have given them their sanction. The curule ædiles also, upon. certain occasions, published their edicts, which bccame a part of thp jus honorarit;:a.

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Sed et, si quis ex matre nascitur liberâ, patre verò servo, ingenuus nihilominus nascitur: quemadmodum, qui ex matre libera et incerto patre matus est : quoniam vulgò conceptus est. Sufficit autem, libcram fuisse matrem eo tempore, quo nascitur, licet ancilla conceperit: et, è contrario, si libera conceperit, deinde ancilla facta pariat, placuit eum, qui nascitur, liberum nasci : quia non debet calamitas matris ei nocere, qui in ventre est. Ex his illud quæsitum est, si ancilla praegnans manumissa sit, deinde ancilla postea facta pepererit, liberum an servum pariat ? Et Martianus probat, liberum nasci : sufficit enim ei, qui in utero est, liberam matrem vel medio tempore habuisse, ut liber nascatur ; quod et verum est.

mother, altho' theftther bea slave, or. unknowm, is free : notwtthstanding he was conceived discreditably. And ifthe mother is free at the time ofthe birth, although a bond-woman when she conceived, the infant will be free. - Also if a woman, free at conception, becomes a slave and is , delivered, herchild, is nevertheless free born ; for the misfortune afthe motherought not to prejudice her unborn infant. Kt has been a question, whether the child, of a woman, who is made free during pregnancy, but becomes bond before delivery, would be free bqrm ? Martianus proves the affirmative ; for, he deems it sufficient to the unborn child, if the mother hath been .free at any time between conception and delivery ; and this is true,

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