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colour of the freedom of the press, the worst of men may step forth under its shield, and tarnish for a time, the reputation of the best men. Oglethorpe stood high enough to treat these charges with contempt; but the rude attack of an inferior officer, required such a repulse, that himself might fait into the pit, which his ingratitude had prompted him to dig for another. The general accordingly embarked, and arrived in England in September : a general court-martial was ordered for his trial, to convene at the Horse-guards; several days were spent in the examination of the various articles of complaint lodged against him, and after the most mature deliberation, the court adjudged the charges to be false, malicious, and groundless; and his honorable acquittal was reported to the king : in consequence of which, lieutenant-colonel Cook, was dismissed from the service, and declared incapable of serving his majesty in any military capacity whatever. By these means the reputation of general Oglethorpe, was cleared of those calumnies with which it had been assailed, and he appeared to the world in his true character. Carolina owed to this benefactor, her friendship and affections: Georgia was indebted to him for her existence and protection : and his generous services to both colonies, deserve to be deeply imprinted on the memory of every inhabitant, and the benefits resulting from them to be gratefully remembered to the latest ages.
A list of the Spanish forces, employed in the invasion of Geor-
Florida Militia, - - - . 400
Total, • * * - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5,090
General OGLETHoRPE's command consisted of
His Regiment, - - - - 472
Total, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652
Ensign Stuart's command at fort William, on the south end of Cumberland island, consisted of sixty men: fort William was about fifty miles south west from Frederica.
In this expedition, Tomochichi the old king, had no share: he died on the 15th of October, 1739, about four miles from Savannah, in the
ninety-seventh year of his age. He appeared to be apprised of his approaching fate, and observed in his last hours, that he had but little concern about dying, as he should in the event of war with Spain, be unable to take an active part in it. He expressed the greatest tenderness for general Oglethorpe, and exhorted the Indians to bear in remembrance the kindness with which he had been received by the king of England, and hoped that they would always be friendly to his subjects. ... He had requested that his body might be buried amongst the English in Savannah; the corpse was accordingly brought there and interred in Percival square, with military honors, and the general ordered a pyramid to be erected over the grave, with an inscription suitable to his character and standing. General Oglethorpe did not return to Georgia; but upon all occasions, discovered an uncommon zeal for its prosperity and improvement. From its first settlement, the colony had been under a military government, executed by the general, and such officers as he chose to nominate and appoint. But now the trustees thought proper to establish a kind of civil government, and committed the charge of it to a president, and four councillors or assistants, who were to act agreeably to the instructions they should receive from them; and to be accountable to that corporation for their public conduct. William Stephens was appointed president or chief magistrate ; and Thomas Jones, Henry Parker, John Fallowfield and Samuel Mercer, were appointed members of the council, or assistants: they were instructed to hold four general courts at Savannah every year, for the regulation of public af. fairs and to determine all differences relating to private property: no public money could be disposed of but by a warrant under the hand and seal of the president and a majority of the assistants in council assembled, who were instructed to exhibit monthly accounts to-the trustees of money expended, and of the particular purposes to which it was applied. The militia were organized for the purpose of keeping the men properly disciplined for military service, and Oglethorpe's regiment was left for the defence of the colony, under the command of major Hor. ton. The infant province under the care of general Oglethorpe, had combatted and surmounted many difficulties and disadvantages, yet it promised but a poor recompense to the mother country, for the great sums of money expended for its protection and settlement. The indigent emigrants, especially those from England, having lit. tle acquaintance with husbandry and less inclination to labor, made bad farmers; and as great. er privileges were allowed them in the adjoining province, they were easily decoyed to that colony: the Highlanders and Germans being more frugal and industrious, succeeded better; but hitherto had made but little progress, owing to the wars with
the Spaniards, and to the hardships attending all kinds of culture. The staple commodities intended to be raised in Georgia, though profitable articles, were of the most improper kind for the first settlers of a new country. It appears that the Saltzburghers at Ebenezer as early as the year 1738, had made some small experiments in cotton, which they found to yield abundantly and of an excellent quality. The trustees however seem to have fixed their minds upon wine and silk, and were not disposed to encourage any other cultivation. With all their industry, their farms turned out to little amount; the most successful could little more than subsist their families, and the indolent remained in a starved and miserable condition about Savannah.
Notwithstanding all that Great-Britain had done for the population and improvement of the colony, it still remained in a poor languishing condition. The settlers consisted of two descriptions of people ; first, of indigent subjects and foreigners, whom the trustees supported and maintained for many years: secondly, of men of some substance, whom flattering descriptions of the province had deceived and seduced: after the peace with Spain, a considerable part of Oglethorpe's regiment being disbanded, a number of soldiers accepted the encouragement offered them by government, and took up their residence in the colony : all adventurers who had brought property with them, having by this time exhaust