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By thus accosting each Epopt as a son, viê, might be implied the heavenly origin of man: by toxuże might be denoted regeneration. This day I should presume to fix upon, as the particular time, when the painted earthen vases, which form the subject of these researches, were received or purchased from the priests at Eleusis by those who were now deemed KAAO1, to be preserved by them, as in the personal instance of Apuleius, until their dying day, and to be then deposited with them in their tombs, to commemorate the fact of the possessors having been both initiated and perfected.

It is highly necessary, therefore, that we cultivate an acquaintance with these priests; for a knowledge of them may facilitate our admission to the temple. They meet us on the very threshold of the Eleusinium, in a passage of Eusebius, where he says: - Ο μεν Ιεροφάντης είς εικόνα του Δημιουργού ενσκευάζεται, “ The Hierophant is attired as an allegorical image of the Creator;" in like manner the Aądoũxos, or torch-bearer, of the sun; the assistant é à Bejewo of the moon, and the 'Iepoxýcuz of Hermes. Their number was four, corresponding with the three Cabirs and Camillus in Samothrace. But the reason why the hierophant assumed the character of the demiurgus, no writer has disclosed to us. The genuine meaning of the word is artifex, opifex ; and it might be supposed to indicate merely the priest who directed the construction of the machinery, and who set the mystic fantoccini in motion, while the sacred herald might have explained their allegoric meaning. It is probable that in the mysteries of Eleusis, the priests were originally actors in a drama, wherein the demiurgus exposed the notions of the ancients respecting the cosmogony, while the representatives of the sun and moon, enforced the system of decay and reproduction, and that hence the sacred herald deduced useful conclusions for the moral conduct of he people. But in later times, when the shows were necessarily celebrated on a larger scale, the mysteries were then illus

trated by scenery, as a more compendious and striking mode of instructing the spectators. Some allusion to the characters of the priests might have been then preserved in the opaque and transparent groups exhibited ; and this appears probable from the first example I shall offer. We will then go forward, and these very priests, who seem to have escaped from us in the vestibule, will reappear in their assumed characters upon the stage, still to be recognised by the reference they will bear to the description of Eusebius. And if we shall succeed in detecting them, we may accept it as a conclusive argument, that the paintings on the vessels found in tombs in Magna Gràcia were really copied from the Eleusinian transparencies, or from those in temples elsewhere established, in which similar shows were displayed.

Explanation of a Sicilian Vase, illustrating the Mysteries of the

Idæi Dactyli.

The scholiast on the poem of Apollonius Rhodius has noticed three of the Idæi Dactyli, whose names are expressed in the following verse: –

Κέλμις, Δαμναμενεύς τε μέγας και υπέρβιος "Ακμων.

Whether these are to be identified with the Cabirs, whom he has termed Axieros, Axiocersa, Axiocersos, and Camillus, does not immediately appear ; but as the officiating ministers at Eleusis were four in number, in imitation of those in Samothrace, we need not be surprised if we should meet with them under their Greek titles, as above cited, concerting a religious mystery on the

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stage at Eleusis. Such are the characters in the transparency now produced, in which the demiurgus, the assistant at the altar, the sacred herald, and the torch-bearer are discoverable. The subject of the painting I conceive to be Acmon and Damnameneus preparing to animate the universe by means of their minister Celmis ; illustrated by the allegory of Pan, in a sitting or quiescent posture, waiting for his torch to be lighted at the furnace of Hephæstus. I presume I cannot be mistaken in my conjecture, because á xepwv, which in Greek denotes an anvil, whence the word supáxpwr, a blacksmith, has also the signification of oupavès, heaven. The first of these figures, then, the demiurgus, or workman, implies celestial fire. Damnameneus, evidently composed of the words cæperów, domo, and révos, vis, robur, is that which allayeth the power of fire, or which tempereth metals which fire hath fused, WATER. The Baron de Ste. Croix would explain this to be earth, but it was an anciently received opinion, that earth was a deposition or sediment from

She is here an assistant at the altar, or in other words, at the forge of Vulcan. Κέλμις I should derive from κέλομαι, jubeo, one who delivers orders, the same as Camillus, Hermes, and Mercury; and the arm and hand of the third figure stretched forth over the head of Pan, properly convey this meaning. The Aądoữxos, or torch-bearer, personates Pan, that is, to tã, the universe. Ptha or Hephæstus, who, according to Egyptian mythologists, was produced from the

egg

in the mouth of the supreme Cneph, is here introduced to us as the demiurgic deity, conducting the process of creation in the great workshop of nature. The animation of the universe, also, under the character of Pan, may be collected from two interesting plates in the work of D'Hancarville. The first of these, vol. iii. plate xciv., where

water.

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