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at least by a disposition, on the part of its rulers, to lessen its vexations, and diminish its most painful privations, will be admitted by every true friend to the peace and the security of the British empire. From an attentive perusal' of the following pages, the young statesman' will derive much-ivformation ;-the industry he will there see exhibited, may animate him to honorable imitation; and the genius and integrity with which the cause of the poor is pleaded, may light up in his breast that spark of feeling for the sufferings of Irishmen,' which foreign habits, and foreign conDections, and foreign sympathies, might have otherwise extinguished. .
On Saturday, the 10th March, 1787, Mr. Grattan gave notice, that he would, on the fol. lowing Tuesday, bring on the subject of Tithes, in order to take the sense of the country gentlemen, whether any, and what regulation should hereafter take place for the benefit of the clergyman and the farmer, and how far it might be proper, this season, to lay a foundation for such a measure
Parsuant to the above notice, Mr. GRATTAN addressed the House, on Tuesday, 13th March, to the following effect: '
«Sir, in this Session we have, on the subject of tumalts, made some progress, though we have pot made much. It has been admitted that such a thing does exist among the lower order of people as distress; we have condemned their violence, we have made provisions for its punishment, but we have admitted also, that the pea-santry are ground to the earth; we have admitted the fact of distress.
6. We have gone further; we have acknow: ledged that this distress should make part of our parliamentary enquiry--we have thought proper, indeed, to postpone the day, but we are agreed, notwithstanding, in two things the existence of a present distress, and the necessity of a future remedy. . .
, P 4 A multitude of particulars would be tedious ; but there are some features so very striking and prominent, we cannot avoid the sight of them. Dar present system of supporting the clergy, is liable to radical objections ; in the South, it goes against the first principle of human existence; in the South, you tithe potatoes. Would any man believe it? the peasant says, I am informed, often 71. an acre for land, gets 6d. a day for his labour, and pays from eight to twelve shillings for his Tithe! If the wholo case was comprised in this fact, this fact is sufficient to call for your inter
ference-it attacks cultivation in its cradle, and tithes the lowest, the most general, and the most compassionate. subsistence of human life-the more severely felt is "this, because it is chiefly confined to the South, one of the great regions of poverty. In Connaught, potatoes do not pay Tithe ; in the North, a moderate modus takes place when they do pay; but in the South they do pay a great Tithe, and in the South you have perpetual disturbances! That the tithe of potatoes is not the only distress, I am not pow to be informed. 61. or yl. an acre for land, and 6d. a day for labour, are also causes of misery ; but the addition of eight, ten, or twelve shillings Tithe, to the two other causes, is, and must be, a very great aggravation of that misery; and as you cannot: well interfere in regulating the rent of land, or price of labour, I do not see that you therefore should not interfere where you can regulate and relieve; I do not see why you should suffer a most heavy Tithe to be added to the high price of rent, and the low price of labour; neither am. I sensible of the force of that supposition, which conceives a diminution of the tithe of potatoes would be only an augmentation of the rent, for I do not find that rent is higher in counties where potatoes are not tithed, nor can I see how an existing lease can be cancelled, and the rent increased, by the diminishing or taking off the Tithe ; neither do I see that similitude between Tithe and Rent, which should justify the comparison ; rent is payment for land, tithe is payment for capital, and labour expended on land; the proportion of rent diminishes with the proportion of the produce, that is, of the industrythe proportion of tithe increases with the in. dustry, rent therefore, even a high rent, may be a compulsion on labour, and tithe ja -penalty. The cottager does pay Tithe, and the grazier does not; the rich grazier, with a very beneficial lease, and without any system of husbandry, is exempted, and throws the parson on labour and poverty. As this is against the first principle of husbandry, so another regulation is against the first: principle of manufacture. You tithe flax, tape, and hemp, the rudiments of manufacture. Hence, in the North, you have no flax farmers, though there are many who cultivate flax. You give a premium for the growth of flax, a premium for the land carriage and export of corn, and you give the parson the tithe of the land, labour and cultivation occupied therein, contrary to the prosperity of either ; as far as you have settled, you are wrong, and wrong where you have unsettled. What is the Tithe is one question, what is Titheable is another. Claims have been made to the
tithe of turf, the tithe of roots moduses have been disputed, litigation has been added to oppression, the business has been ever shamefully neglected by Parliament, and has been left to be regulated, more or less, by the dexterity of the Tithe proctor, and the violence of the parisb, so that distress has not been confined to the people, it has extended to the Parson ; your system is not only against the first principle of human existence
against the first principle of good husbandry against the first principle of manufacture---against the first principle of public quiet-it goes also against the security and dignity of the clergy. Their case has been reduced to two Propositions, that they are not supported by the real Tithe or the Tenths, and that they are supported by a de. grading annual contraet ; the real Tithe or Tenth is therefore unnecessary for their support, for they have done without it, and the annual icontract is improper, by their own admission, and the interference of Parliament proper therefore. Certainly the annual contract is below the dignity of a clergyman; he is to make a bargain with the squire, the farmer, and the peasant, on a sub. jeet which they do, and he does not understand; the more his humanity and bis erudition the less his income ; it'is a situation where the parson's property falls with his virtues, and rises with bis