Fundamentals Of Aquatic Toxicology: Effects, Environmental Fate And Risk Assessment

Front Cover
Gary M. Rand
CRC Press, Oct 5, 1995 - Science - 1125 pages
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This text is divided into three parts. The first part describes basic toxicological concepts and methodologies used in aquatic toxicity testing, including the philosophies underlying testing strategies now required to meet and support regulatory standards.
The second part of the book discusses various factors that affect transport, transformation, ultimate distribution, and accumulation of chemicals in the aquatic environment, along with the use of modelling to predict fate.; The final section of the book reviews types of effects or endpoints evaluated in field studies and the use of structure-activity relationships in aquatic toxicology to predict biological activity and physio-chemical properties of a chemical. This section also contains an extensive background of environmental legislation in the USA and within the European Community, and an introduction to hazard/risk assessment with case studies.
 

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Contents

The Aquatic Environment
8
CHAPTER
15
Factors that Affect the Environmental Concentration of Chemicals
16
ExposureEffects
19
Toxic Agents and Their Effects
23
Toxicity Testing
34
CHAPTER 11
43
Interpreting Toxicity Test Data
44
Metal Metabolism and Toxicity
545
Summary
553
Supplemental Reading
560
The Mass Balance Concept
571
An Illustrative OneCompartment Case Study
580
Supplemental Reading
586
Functional End Points
589
Screening Functional End Points for Assessment and Monitoring
599

Biomonitoring
54
Supplemental Reading
66
Freshwater Toxicity Test Procedures
72
General Procedures
82
Factors that Modify Toxicity
94
Saltwater Tests
103
Developing Community Tests
126
Vascular Plants
148
Supplemental Reading
169
Fucus
183
Discussion
201
FETAX Positive and Negative Controls
214
FETAX Methodology
215
Validation Study Results
228
Interpretation and Significance of Results
243
CHAPTER 9
257
Conclusions
295
Considerations for Designing Experiments
308
Nonparametric Techniques
328
Appendices
341
Good Laboratory Practices
345
QAQC Program Designs
360
Fish ImmunologyDefensive Responses
374
ImmunotoxicologyEffects of Classes of Toxicants
391
Supplemental Reading
404
Summary
417
Considerations in the Design of Carcinogenicity Tests Using Small Fish
431
Supplemental Reading
446
Transport and Transformation Processes
449
Inorganic Chemicals
471
Organometallics
487
CHAPTER 16
493
Predictive Models and Experimental Approaches
507
Conclusions and Future Directions
515
Supplemental Reading
521
Activated Oxygen Metabolism and Oxidative Stress
538
Supplemental Reading
607
Historical Background
613
Use of QSAR Models for Estimation of Physicochemical and Biological Properties Exposure Assessment
624
Use of QSAR Models for Ecotoxicity Effects Assessment
630
Summary of QSAR Models for Ecotoxicity
642
Environmental Legislation
657
Risk Assessment under FIFRA
663
CHAPTER 22
669
The Chemical Industrys Development of Aquatic Toxicity Bioconcentration and Chemical
680
Literature Cited
698
Ecotoxicity Testing and Estimation Methods Developed under Section 5 of the Toxic
703
QSAR Development
709
CHAPTER 24
717
Emerging Activities
731
Pertinent NEPA Legal Issues
742
Literature Cited
762
Other OECD Chemicals Programme Activities
769
CHAPTER 27
775
Structure of the European Community with Regard to Environmental Legislation
782
Environmental Legislation in View of the Basic Principles of Environmental Impact Assessment
792
Outlook
801
Quantitative Methods of Risk Characterization
813
Planning the Assessment
823
Risk Assessment Approach
837
Literature Cited
855
Terminology
864
Risk Assessment
877
CHAPTER 32
883
Exposure Assessment
894
Risk Evaluation
900
The Toxicity Identification Evaluation Process
918
Sediments
931
Glossary
939
Appendix
947
Index
1083
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