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answered, because he was affraid in respect of the act he had committed against Peeter Ward. And further saith not.—EDM. FFLAHERTYn".

Soon after his examination, he was tried and executed at Galway; where his kinsman, the Lord Viscount Mayo, had shortly before suffered for the massacre at Shruel. And thus ignominiously perished two of the most leading men of the province at the time, for crimes into which they had been unfortunately urged by the unsettled state of society at that unhappy period. That Colonel Edmond O'Flaherty considered himself acting in the affair within the rules of legitimate warfare, there can be little doubt°. He left three sons, Donald, Morogh, and Edmond. Of the first tradition is silent . The second is stated to have gone to England, and to have challenged a Captain Vernor, whom he ran through the body, for asserting that the Irish Remonstrance was signed by mean persons. The third also went "to seek his fortune" in England, where he became " a captain," but in what corps is not stated. He returned to Ireland, served under James II., and afterwards farmed the lands of Renvile(which formerly belonged to his father) from the Blake family, who obtained a grant of them; and there some of his descendants long after resided. The captain left a son, Edmund, who was called Emuinn laidir, or strong Ned (O'Flaherty) of whom more in the sequel.

The following State documents, now first printed, will be found necessary to explain the concluding part of the foregoing examination, and other matters concerning


■ Depositions, tialway, vol. xxii.

» Col. O'Flaherty was first married to "Sowe [Sarah] Boorke [Bourke], daughter of Walter Bourke of Turlogh in Mayo, one of the principal men of that county, great grandson of Richard, lord Mac William Oughter, chief of the "lower"

Bourkes, A. D. 1460 See Lodge, vol. ii. 315.

Ed. 1754. During the troubles of A. D. 1641, Walter Bourke proved a steady friend to the Protestants of Mayo. Of this, a curious instance occurs

in the Depositions of A D. 1641, before referred to

"Thomas Johnson, vicar of Turloghcand Killycomon, saith, that he was sheltered in the house of Walter Bourke of Turloughe, Esq. who not only gave him clothes, but kept and defended him. Saith, that while there, the younger priests and friers demanded of Stephen Lynch, prior of Strade, in deponentas own hearinge, if it were not lawful to kill the deponent,

because he would not turn to masse; which prior answered them, that it was as lawful for them to kill this deponent, as to kill a sheep or dogg: and divers of the rebellious soldiers there, would tell the deponent to his face, that, if it were not for offending the said Mr Bourk, they would make no more conscience nor care to kill him, than they would doe of a pig or a sheepe. That he heard divers of the soldiers at Mr Burk's house earnestly protest and say, that the titulary archbishop of Tuam, Malachy Keely, had assured them that they should not need to feare, for that the English should not have power to fight against them, but should be delivered into their hands, soe as they might cutt their throats, or kill them at their pleasures; and that they should heare the holy Ghost say masse unto them thrice, before they went to battaile." Jurat. 14 Jan. 1643— Depositions, Mayo, vol. xxiii.

Iar-Connaught, and the province at large, at the time. They have been extracted from the books of the Irish Privy Council, during the Protectorate, which are now preserved in the Castle of Dublin.

After the reduction of Kilkenny by Cromwell, a council of war was held in that city, and the following order made:—

"Persons in arms against the Commonwealth (except priests Sf) promised protection upon their submission.

"Ordered, that such persons of the enemie's party, (except priests, Jesuits, and others of the Popish clergie) as shall come in and deliver up their armes, and shall engage themselves to live peaceably, and submitt to the authority of Parliament, shall have such Protections to live in the Parliament's quarters, as other protected people have, and shall have the benefitt of such terms as the Parliament shall hold forth to persons in their condition. And if the Parliament shall hold forth any terms which they shall not be willing to submitt unto, they shall have one month's time (from the publishing of such terms in their quarters, where they shall be ordered to reside) to provide their owne security elsewhere. Provided that, in the mean time, they act nothing to the prejudice of the Commonwealth of England. Provided alsoe that such protections as shall be granted to the said persons, shall not exempt such of them as had a hand, or were actors in any of the murders, massacres, or robberies that were committed upon the English and Protestants in Ireland, during the first year of the rebellion, or in any murthers or massacres since the said first year, committed upon any person not being in armes, from being questioned for the same according to due course of law. Kilkenny, 2°. Jan. 1651°."

"Places in Oonnaught excludedfrom protection.

"Whereas the places hereafter mentioned, within the province of Connaught, are known harbors and receptacles for the enemy, and other bloudy and mischeivous persons, who from thence take advantage and appointments to committ murders, rapines, thefts, and all kind of spoyle upon the English and others in the said province, under the protection of the Parliament of England, and their army and forces: For the prevention of such mischiefs, it is ordered, that the County of Leitrim (except the baronies of Leitrim, Moghell, and Drumahere) be excluded from protection. In the County of Roscommon, O'Hanly's country, and the country and territories of [ ] and Ferchowle, be likewise excluded. The county of Mayo, (except Kil

meane, Carrow, and Tirawly) be also excluded. In the County of Galway, the baronies of Mucullin and Ballinahinchy, the half barony of Ross, the half barony of


0 Orig. Council Book.

Buryshule, the half barony of Arran, and the half barony of Killiane, the parishes of Beunagh, Killkerin, Moylagh in the barony of Teaquin; the parish of Ballinekilly in the barony of Collavin (except the Rands) be likewise excluded from protection.

"It is further ordered, that Sir Charles Coote do cause proclamation of this order to be made within some publique places within the said counties, to thend that the inhabitants of the said baronies and places, may, before the 10'.h March next, remove themselves, families, cattle and other goods into the parliament's quarters, and to dwell and reside in such waste untenanted places there, as to the Lord President (Coote) &*, shall seem most convenient: and in case they doe not remove as aforesaid, they shall be excluded from protection, be accounted as enemies, and shall be taken, slayned and destroyed as enemies, and their cattle and other goods shall be taken and made prey of, as goods of enemies. At Dublin, 6th Feb. 1651'."

"By the Council of Warre, Ordered. "That commissary General John Reynolds, be and is hereby authorized, to allow a reward to any person or persons, that shall bring in the person or head of any rebell, now in armes against the Commonwealth of England, and under the command of Colonell Donough O'Connor; the same being proved or otherwise well known to be the person or head of such rebell, and that he was so taken or slayne by such persons. Provided that the said reward exceed not forty pounds for the person or head of the said Donough, and forty shillings for each soldier or other officer, or one month's pay according to the quality of the officer. And provided the said reward bee not given, till the expiration of one month after the person or head is so brought in. Dublin, 11* Feb. 165 2V

"Order for Transplanting. "To his Highness the Lord Protector, his council for the affairs of Ireland. Barronies in the Province of Connaught, and County of Clare, appointed to receive the Inhabitants of certayne countyes in the other three provinces; so that the transplanted persons might receive lands suitable (as neare as may be) in quantity and quality to the places from whence they are removed. "The inhabitants of the province of Ulster (except the counties of Downe and Antrim) to be transplanted into the barronies of Muckullin, Rosse, and Ballynehinsey, in the territorie of Ere-Connaught', and county of Gal way (except what is


P Orig. Council Book. 1 Id.

r At this period, Iar-Connaught was nearly depo

pulated. The opposite district of Clare was also desolated by the wars, and almost entirely deserted by the ancient natives. This appears by a petition of reserved by the lyne in the sea), and into the baronijs of Moyriske, Barryshowle, the half barony of Irish (Erris) parte of Tyrawly barony (parte of it being given to the soldiers), and Costello barony (except what is within the bine aforesaid) in the county of Mayo, and into Tyaquin barrony in the county of Galway.

"The inhabitants of the countys of Corke and Wexford, to be transplanted into the barronys of Dunkellyn, and Killtartan in the county of Galway (except what is in the lyne on the sea), and into Athlone barrony, and the half barrony of Moycarnan (except what is in the lyne on the Shannon) in the county of Roscommon.

"The inhabitants of the county of Kerry, to be transplanted into Inchiquin and Burren barronys in the county of Clare, and into the territories of Artagh, in the Barony of Boyle, county Roscommon.

"The inhabitants of the counties of Downe and Antrim, to be transplanted into the barronys of Clanmorris, Carew (Carra), and Kilmaine, in the county of Mayo.

"The inhabitants of the Counties of Kilkenny, Westmeath, Longforde, King's County, and Tipperary, to be transplanted into the baronies of Tullagh, Bunratty, Islands, Corcomroe, Clondrelaw, Moyfartoe, and Ibrican, in the county of Clare, and into the half barony of Ballamo, in the county of Galway.

"The inhabitants of the countyes of Catherlagh, Waterford, and Limerick, into the half barronies of Loughrea and Leitrim, the barronies of Dunmore and Kilconnell, and the half barony of Longford (except what is in the lyne) in the county of Galway.

"And the inhabitants of Kildare, Eastmeath, Queen's Countie and Dublin, into the barronies of Roscommon, and Ballintobber, the half barony of Bellamoe, and the barony of Boyle, except the territory of Artagh, in the county of Roscommon.

"Memorand. that Lowth is reputed much better land than Wicklow, and to be

accordingly estimated Dated, Dublin, 12th Feb. 1655.

"har. Waller.Cha. Coote.Robert King.John Hewson Wm

Jepson.Hierome Sankey'."

To return to the descendants of Morogh na maor. The most remarkable of these was Edmund O'Flaherty, before-named', a man of great strength and stature, whose name, as Emuinn laidir, or "strong Ned," is to this day familiar in Iar-Con


the surviving inhabitants there, to Government, at the most, of the whole country (and lying in the praying to be relieved from the monthly contribu- barony of Bonratty), at present inhabited, excepting tion. "The said county of Clare having in it nine some few persons, who, for their own safety, live baronies containing above 1300 plough-lands, is now in garrisons."—Council Book, A. D. 1653. totally ruinated and deserted by the inhabitants 'Id. A. D. 1655.

thereof; there not being above 40 plough-lands, 'Page 411, ante, Gen. Table, II. No. 40.

naught. Tradition has handed down many wonderful narratives of his prowess and achievements°. Among others, it relates that he had frequent rencounters with captain Richard Martin, who obtained several grants of the confiscated lands of the O'Flaherties, under the Act of Settlement, and that they generally fought on horseback, sword in hand; but that the latter, being continually surrounded by his followers, always escaped, while Emuinn laidir was often obliged to cut his way through them, to avoid being overpowered. He was first married to Mable, daughter of Brian oge na samthach', by whom he had a son, Edmund oge". Secondly, to Kate Martin, of Coslough in the county of Mayo, by whom he had three sons*. And thirdly, to the daughter of McCormick of Castlehill, in Erris, in the same county, by whom he had no issue*. In A. D., 1720, he was appointed executor in the will of


* Emuinn laidir was the Hercules of Iar-Connaught. The Irish, like the Greeks, were fond of celebrating men of great physical powers. The mythological heroes were deified in Greece. Fion Mac Cuil and the Fion Eirean will never be forgotten in Ireland. Some remarkable notices of human size and strength will be found in our ancient writers. Thus, we read in the Annals of Clonmacnoise, at A.D. 1153, that "the head of Eochie mac Lughti," an ancient king of Mmister, taken out of the earth where it had lain for centuries, "was as big as anve cauldron; the greatest goose might eaailie go through the holes of his eyes, and in the place or hole where the marrow was, towards the throat, a goose might enter."—Mac Gtoghegan's Transl. This is also related by the Four Masters, at A. D. 1157, where Doctor O'Conor was so puzzled by %&b, the goose, that he left a blank space for it in his printed translation. See also Ogyg. part Hi. c. 45, and the addition to Caradoc's History of Wales, about A. D. 1086 and 1179.

Even in our own days, some curious discoveries of the kind have been made. The Rev. Mr. Molloy, late parish priest of Donaghpatrick, in the barony of Clare, the old ul bpiuin r-eola 0f the O'Flaherties (See Map), is said to have discovered, some years ago, in an ancient cam there, a skeleton which measured fourteen feet in length, but he had it soon after secretly interred, in order to put an end to idle

curiosity, and to prevent its being carried away by virtuosos. According to tradition, the earn was raised over one of the early chiefs of the O'Flaherties.

* Gen. Tab. II. No. 40.
» Id. No. 41.
« Id. No. 41.

'"Frivola hssc fortasse cuipiam et nimis levia esse videantur."—Usser. in Prtfat. a Flav. Vopisc. But they may possibly be excused, when it shall be considered how little is known of the western O'Flaherties for the last two centuries; during which they have been almost totally eclipsed by their more affluent and fortunate kinsmen of Lemonfield. Even this latter branch itself was rescued, perhaps from similar oblivion, in the following manner:— After its inheritance had been granted by the Crown to the Earl of Clanrickard, his lordship, on 11th May, A. D. 1687, demised the castle and lands of Aghnenure, Lemonfield, fcc., comprising 24 qrs., to Gerald Dillon, in trust for Bryan Fflaherty (Gen. Tab. Il . No. 40.), and Morogh, his son, for 81 years, at £76 yearly rent. The Earl, in A. D. 1719, transferred to Bryan the fee of those lands for £1600; which sum was borrowed from the lord St . George, on a mortgage of the entire. That mortgage was afterwards foreclosed, and lord St. George became the purchaser of the principal part of the inheritance; leaving a comparatively small portion unsold, which

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