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with a company of one hundred men, to the islands of Aran, and from thence he directed his course to the west of the County of Clare. There he laid siege to a castlicalled Tromra, which was situated close to the sea-shore, in the barony of Ibricknn. This castle was inhabited by an Englishman of the name of Ward and his familv. After a desperate defence of nearly four days the place was carried by storm. The brave owner and the principal part of his family were slain, and the castle wns plundered and burned to the ground. After this exploit, the perpetrator returned huim.' with his booty. He afterwards joined the confederate forces of Connuught, and continued in action during the remainder of the war.

In the beginning of May, 1653, John Browne, of the isles of Alan, came before the magistrates in Galway, and gave information on oath against Colonel Edmond O'Flaherty and others, for the murder of Peter Ward of Tromragh, in the County of Clare1'. A party of soldiers was accordingly dispatched to Iar-Connaught in pursuit of the accused. After a long and fruitless search, the party was returning, and passing beside a small dark wood near Renvile, their attention was attracted by


about eight in number, going about the towne in their vestments, with tapers burning, and the sacrament borne before them, and earnestly exhorting the said Murrough na mart, and his company, for Christ's sake, and our Lady's, and St. Patrick's, that they would shed no more blood, and if they did they would never have mercy. That the said Murrough and one Edmond O'Flahertic were at the committing of the said murthers, and aiding and abetting the same; and that she doth verily believe, that had it not bene for the said priests, the said O'Flahertyes and their company had killed all the English Protestants they had found in Galway."—" Martha Lovb, wife of Capt . Ilighgate Love, 23rd Feb. 1653, saith, That the town was full of Ireconnaught rogues, in their trowses and broages, all armed with pikes, skeans, and swords." —Pity it is that Mrs. Love did not tell us if these trowses fitted close to the limbs, like those of the old Irish, described by Ware, Ant. cap. xi.: "Defemoralibus illisarctissimis, Trowses vulgodictis."—" Close britches, commonly called trowses."—Harris. For at the present day the Iar-Connaught "rogues" all wear their trowsers loose and ample, which gives

their lower limbs nearly as much liberty as the Highlanders of Scotland enjoy in the kilt. But this latter curious article uf dress itself requires some explanation. The late Major Duff, of Muirtown, near Inverness, editor of the Culloden Papers, a volume of curious and valuable letters, from the year 1624 to 1746, published from the originals in Culloden House, astonished some of his Northern friends by stating, in a note to one of the letters, that the kilt, or philabeg (ufeile bheaa" Armstrong's Diet.) was not the ancient Highland garb, but was introduced into the Highlands about 1720, by one Thomas Rawlinson an Englishman, who was overseer to a company carrying on Iron Works in Glengarry's country. The convenience of the dress, he added, soon caused it to be universally adopted in the Highlands. Surely some patriotic Highlander will here rush to the rescue of the martial philabeg from tins bold assertion of its mean and modern origin. Pinkerton says, it was "quite unknown."—Hist . Scot part iv. c. vi Sec also Whitaker's Hist . Manchester, book I. c . vii. § v.

» This information will be found in the Depositions of A. D. 1641, T. C. D. vol. xxi .

the unusual noise and croaking of ravens hovering in the air, towards the centre of the wood. On arriving at the spot over which the birds still continued on the wing, the soldiers discovered a cavity in a rock, from which they drew forth a miserablelooking man, who was soon recognized as the unfortunate object of their pursuit". With him they found a poorly-attired and emaciated female, who afterwards proved to be his wife, the daughter of Sir Christopher Garvey of Lehinch, in the County of Mayo: "And truly who had seen them would have said they had been rayther ghosts than men, for pitifully looked they, pyned awaye for want of foode, and altogether ghastly with feare*." He was immediately brought prisoner to Galway, and committed to the town gaol, where he was closely examined, as follows:

"The Examination of Colonel Edmond 0''Flaherty, taken before Robert Clarke, esq., one of the Justices of the precinct of Galway, May 24,h 1653.

"Being examined how long he was in arms against the Commonwealth of England? Saith he was called hither to this towne of Gallway by the archbishop of Tuam, who was president, and by Francis Blake of Galway, who was then commander in chief of the forces in the said towne of Galway, raised against the fort; and that he came with the company under his command, and assisted the said Francis in beseeching (besieging) the said fort. Saith, that going from the towne of Gallway after the surrender of the said fort, he went with his boats to the islands of Aron, and continued there some fourteen days, until the islanders did complaine of the burthen they were unto them, upon which deponent and his company went in their boats to the countie of Clare, to a castle called Trennrowe, which was possessed by one Mr. Ward, whom he heard was an honest gentleman, and never heard of him before, and neither doth know of what religion or nation he was of; and came to said castle about 1" May, 1642, in the beginning of the night, and came within a musket shot of the said castle, to a house where he and his company kept their court of guard. Before their coming to the said howse, they made some shotts from the castle at him, and continued suteing all night, with which shotts some of his men were wounded. And


1 These particulars have been preserved by tradition, and are given above as related by the late Francis Lynch, Esq., of the island of Omey, near Renvile in Conamara. Mr. Lynch died about twenty years ago, at the age of ninety. He used to add, that the party was headed by a Colonel " Bayman, governor of the island of Bofin;" and that the discovery of

0'Flaherty was attributed to the intervention of Providence, to bring him to justice, for the outrage in the county of Clare.

1 Extract from Sir Richard Bingham's " Discourse of his Services in Mayo against the Bourkes, A. D. 1586," preserved in the Cotton Library, British Museum, Titus B. XIII.

saith, they could not find the doore nor windows of the said castle that night, but eleven of his men went to the hale which was jonying of the castle, thinking to get in, whereupon they threw stones from the topp of the castle, by which one of his men was wounded and bruised in his arm, and another in his back, and also they let falle a bundle of strawe upon said halle by which it was burned, and the next morning they sett on to storme the castle, in which storme one of his men was killed, and three wounded. And saith he continued seige to the said castle, from Sunday night until Wednesday morning, at which time conditions were made by John Wardk for his own

life, life, with Teige O'Bryen, and the (par), priest, which said John this examinant employed as a messenger to his father in the said castle, desiring him to take quarter several times, but the answer of Peeter Ward was, that he would nott take the quarter of Bellian or Scuell. [Bellicke or Smell?].

k This John was son of Peter Ward. On 25th April, A. D. 1643, he gave a deposition on oath, from which the following is an extract:—" Saith, that on or about the 17th day of ApriU, Anno Dom. 1642, the said Peeter Ward, Alson Ward (his wife), and George Ward of the same Gentl. (son to the said Peeter), in a most cruell and rebellious manner, were murthered and stripped by the hands and meanes of Edmund O'Fflahertie, Esqr. and others of his confederates, in manner following, that is to say, The said Edmond, about the day and year above mentioned, came by sea from Ighcr-Conaght, in the Com. Gallway, accompanied with five other boates well manned with armed men, and landing his men at or near Tromroe aforesaid, the said Edmond then and there, in a most rebellious and hostill manner, with collours displaied, assaulted the castle of Tromroe aforesaid, late at night (where this deponent, the said Peeter, George, Alson, and others fled for refuge) but being then resisted by the said Peeter and the rest in there owne defence, the said fHahertie, with the rest of his forces and the country besides, continued siedge to the said castle for three daies and three nights, during which time, and especially the second day of his 9aid siedge, being the 18th day of ApriU aforesaid or thereabouts, amonge divers other acts of hostility, don and perpetrated by the said fftahertie and the rest of his associats, he then and there murthered, or caused or consented to murther, the said Alson and George, having shott or caused to shoote with a bullet tho said Alson under the right side, whereof she died immediately, and IriSH arch. SOC. 15. 3

likewise gave the said George eighteene woundes, whereof he likewise instantly dyed upon the 20,h day of ApriU afores'1, or thereabouts. Wednesday on the momeing (being the last day of their said siedge) the said Edmond O'Fflahertie caused the said castle to be fired, and entering the same that day, the said Peeter Ward was then and there traytorously murthered by the said fflahertie and his company, having recaived divers mortaU wounds in his body; whoe together with the said Alson and George, was stripped, and they three buryed in or neer the said castle walls, from whence by directions from Donncll O'Bryen of Dowgh in the said Com. Esq. they were removed, and enterred in the parish church of Killmurry afoesaid. Yeet notwithstanding, Donnell Mr scanlane Mc Gorman of Dunsallagh, in the said Com. Mass-preist, caused their corps to be digged up againc, and buried without in the churchyard, for noe other cause (as farr as the deponent could learne) but that they saide no unsanctified or hereticaU corps of protestants (as they tearme them) must remaine within their churches.

"This deponent likewise saith, that the said Edmond O'Fflahertie was abetted, counscUed, and assisted in the said rebellious and traytorous designe, by the undernamed persons, namely, by Donnogh O'Brien of Newtowne, in the said Com. esq.; Mohowne Mc Dermod of Tromroe, aforesaid, gent. Therlagh Mc Dermod and Connor Mc Dermod of the same gent . Richd Fizpatrick (seneschall of Ibrackane aforesaid, and then and now receaver to the earle of Thomond within the said Ba


"Being further examined, he saith, that on Wednesday about 9 of the clock, there came out of the castle the said Warde's twoe daughters and twoe younger sonnes, and alsoe there came oute an Englishe man and his wife; but upon which day this Examinant remembereth not. And further saith, that the sonne and heire of the said

Peeter Peeter came oute on tuesdaye, and was cominge to the court of Guarde where Examinant was, and was slained in the way by Sorrell Folone, who is now gone with Cusack. And being further examined saith, that he gave quarter to each of them that came oute of the castle, except him that was killed as aforesaid. And saith, that Peeter Warde did keepe his chamber in the said castle, from Tuesday night until Wednesday morning, and that the said Peeter Ward's wife was slaine by a shott through the window of the said chamber, but who made the said shott he knoweth not. And further saith, that he ordered his men to keepe the saide Peeter Warde awake, with intention to give him quarter, and the said Peeter Ward making a thrust out of the doore with some weapon, was taken by the arme and drawen foorth, and there slained. And further said, that he defended himself in his chamber, for foure and twenty hours after the rest went foorth. And being demanded, saith, that he conveied seven persons safely to Richard White in Kilmurry, which was the place they desired to goe unto. And saith, that he and his companie plundered the said house, and divided it, havinge firste carried the saide plunder to Strawe island. And being further demanded wherefore he went to the said place? saith, he went thither to quarter his men, by reason the winde was contrary, that he could not goe to his owne country. Being further examined, saith, he knew John Browne, inhabitant of Inishier island, who was with him at taking of the said castle, but did not goe with him as anie of his company, and knew nothing of his intentions; but, being a drummer, this Examinant did use words in threatening of him to goe, which when he refused, he lay hands upon him and guarded him to the boaets, and kept him with him during their stay at Tromra foresaid1: and saith he doth not know of any plunder he had, but that the said Browne desired a silver cupp, which this examinant refused to give him.

rony) Hugh Mr Crutton (M'Ciirtin) of in

the said Com. gent . Donnell Mc ScanUne Mc Gorman aforesaid, Teige Fitzpatricke of flintraghtbegg, in the said Com. gentl. Teige Roe O'Bryen, son to Sr Donnell O'Bryen Knight aforesaid, Mohowne Mc Encarrigy of Flenoremore, in the said Com. yeoman, and divers others whose names this deponent doth not remember. This deponent's cause of knowledge (concerning the said parties their ayding, counsellinge, and assisting the saide fflaherty) is, that first Donogh O'Bryen above mentioned, about the eight [eighteenth?] day of Aprill aforesaid, did entertaine, with meate, drinke, and lodging, the said fflahertie at Newtowne aforesaid, whereby this deponent beleeveth that he was privy to the said rebellious enterprise ; and also that the said Donogh O'Bryen possessed himself of woorth a hundred pounds of the said Peeter's cattle, which he detaineth to this day. He alsoe saith, that he saw and observed the rest of the said parties in armes at the seidge of the said castle, and divers times consulting and advising howe to surprise the same. He also saw and observed that, then and there, the said Teige Roe O'Brien gave out, that if the said castle were not then taken by the said Ffiaherty, he himselfe would suddenly come and besett the same with his forces. He also observed, that during the said siedge, the said Hugh Mc Crutton did use to take a note in writeing of as many of the besiedgers, as were either hurt or killed against the said Castle, openly extolling them for their valour and good service in assaulting the said castle, to noe other pur

pose (as this deponent then understood) but to give intimation to the rest of the country, and to encouradg them to like rebellious actions. These were the motives that induceth this deponent to beleeve, that the said parties were aydinge, counselling, and assisting the said Fflahertie. He further informeth, that he heard it credibly affirmed by several! persons in the said siedge, that they, meaning the Irish, had his Majestye's commission to take the said castle, amonge other castles in this kingdome.

"He, being further examined, saith, that this deponent, about the beginning of January 1641, at a place called Curragh-Catlin, in the said Countie, meetinge with the saide Teige Roe O'Brien, he then and there in the presence of this deponent, one Cormac O'Hicky, in or neere Bunratty, in the said County, Surgeon, and divers others, uttered the words ensuing, or others like them in etfecte; for (quoth he) the Irish are reviled by all other nations, because of their remissness in not ayding one another; but now because it is a generall cause (quoth he) God confound and the Devill take him that will not assist them to his dyeing day; adding further, that in England the King was against the English as much as they heere, and that there was never any hopes of agreement there, and that it was their intent meaning the Irish, to root out the English Nation, affirming that it was his Majesty's express will and pleasure soe to doe.—John Warde."—Depositions, Clare, vol. xxi. [The remainder of this Deposition will be found curious. Among other things, it charges the then earl of Thomond with high treason]

"And being further examined, denied that he hath not since that time been at the taking of any place, or in any other service: and saith, the man that killed Peter Ward was Teig Mc Donell Mc Owen Mc Enrya, who is now living as is supposed; and the other, by name Dowdarra oge Mc Enrya, is dead, And being examined whether he was under protection to the Common Wealth of England, when he was taken? he saith he was not. And being demanded wherefore he came not under protection?


1 This compulsion was a remnant of the old clan in this state of subjection all those who resided within system. The Irish chiefs considered themselves the territory, as instanced above. The O'Flaherties entitled, not only to the implicit obedience and ser- for a long period claimed the dominion of the isles vice of every member of the clan, but also to the of Aran, ownership of their very persons; and they included

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