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Of all the western O'Flaherties, Donel an chogaidh, although not the chieftain, was the most powerful and opulent . He died before A. D. 1580, leaving by his wife Grace O'Mailly of Burrishoole (celebrated in after-times by the name of Grauna Weale) two sons, who were named as contracting, though not consenting, parties, in the indenture of Composition with Queen Elizabeth. Of these, Donall the eldest was slain by a party of Sir Richard Bingham's soldiers in A. D. 1586, and Morogh, the second son, surnamed Moor1 (terjeant or steward), became the principal inheritor uf a territory which embraced a line of sea-coast extending nearly 100 miles. Of this nd vantage Morogh na maor availed himself, by keeping a considerable number of galleys generally ready for service; and from several old documents he appears to have licen sedulous in extending his landed possessions'. In A. D. 1599, he was 'Ki. red by the Lord Lieutenant to join his half-brother, Tibbott na long' (Theobald >! the ships, the first Viscount Mayo), to bring the Queen's forces round the western coast of Ireland in his galleys, from Galway to Sligo, with provisions and implements of war, to assist O'Connor Sligo against Hugh ruadh O'Donnell1t; but we soon after rind him, with a large body of forces from Iar-Connaught, joined with the latter celebrated chieftain against the Government*. With him he proceeded to Mun
t Krom this word rnaor, was derived the name of the royal family of Scotland. '' Stuart, seu Steward Anglica etiam vox qusestorem ad recipiendoa proventus, ut et Scotice Maor—Mormhaor Leavna" (the
great steward of Lennox) Ogyg. Part iii. c . 81;
O'Conor, Rtrum Hib. torn. i. p. 57. See also Martin's Western Islands, pp. 98,108; Verstegan, 324; and O'Brien's Diet, in voce.
'Several deeds and other instruments, about fifty in number, extending from A. D. 1590 to 1645, and principally relating to the possessions of Morogh na maor and his sons, are now in the bands of the Editor; but he regrets that want of space prevents any further notice of them here, as they contain several curious particulars of the state of society during that period in Iar-Connaught. In them, several individuals, named in the annexed Genealogical Tables, are mentioned.
* On Rot. Pat. 3 Jac . I. dors. 47, there appears a letter from James I., directing a surrender and regrant of lands in favour of Sir Theobald Burke, Knt .
(Tibbot na long, the first Viscount Mayo), and his
na long, afterwards Sir Theobald See Lodge's
Peerage, vol. iv. p. 235, ed. 1789.
« Four Masters, A. D. 1599.
'Id. A. D. 1600. The following note, in the handwriting of our author, Roderic O'Flaherty, appears, at A. D. 1599, in a copy of the Annals of the Four Masters, preserved in Trinity College, Dublin: "25 Nov. castrametatur apud Killtolagh
prope Galviam, postridie apud Derrydonnell
27 Nov. reversus est [O'Donnell]. Cum eo tunc
ster"; but after the defeat of the Spaniards at Kinsale, Morogh na maor retreated to his native fastnesses in Iar-Connaught, where he peaceably spent the remainder of his life.
By Inquisition taken, durante vita, 15th September, 1607, it was found that "Morogh na Moyre O'Flaherty is seized of the castles of Bonowen, Ballinahinchy, and Rcnvyle. That Donell ne Cogge, father of the said Morogh, and whose heir he is, was, at the time he died, seized of several chief rents in the baronie of Ballinehinch. That O'Flaherty had and held the fines and customs following, in and through the whole baronie of Ballinehinch." [This shews that he usurped "by strong hand" the power of the chieftain.] "Imprimis, quandocunque aliquis furatus erat unam vaccam, fur solvebat predicto O'Flaherty, septem vaccas pro qualibet vacca sic furata, et sic de aliis catallis. Et quandocunque O'Flaherty se contulerat ad generalem sessinam, quod inhabitantes solebant elargire illi quandam mensuram sacci [Anglice, a bott of sacka], toties quoties. Preterea, debuit habere quotannis ex qualibet quarteria terre infra baron iam predictam, quasdam mensuras farine Hibernice vocatas sruans, cum sufficiente butiro. Et preterea, consuetus erat, quod quandocunque aliquis capiebat aliquod wreccum maris vel ambergreese, sine noticia inde data O'Flaherty vel suis servientibus [Anglice, his Serjeants'], quod quilibet sic faciens finem fecerat ipsi O'Flaherty ad septem vaccas, toties quoties. Et quandocunque O'Flaherty dederat aliquam filiaram suaram in matrimonio, consuevit habere unam sterilem vaccam duorum annorum, ex qualibet quarteria inhabitata, infra baroniam predictam'."
fuerunt Torlogh Mr Morogh O'Brien, O'Conor Sligo, lectu, p. 559, quoted in Gratianus Lucius, p. 41. et Morogh na maor O'Flaherty." Sir (ieorge Carew was " Presbyteri films." The late
"See Pacat. Hib., A. D. 1601. "The O'May- Sir Francis Burdett, who was well acquainted with lies and O'Flngherties had a purpose with six hiiu- Irish history, once observed to the Editor, that " Cadred men (which they had already furnished) to rew was created Earl of Totncss, in England, for his invade Kerr}-." In that work, c . viii., there appears atrocities in Ireland."
a letter to Sir George Carew, dated 3rd July, 1600, * Original Inquisition, Rolls Office, Dublin. See and signed "William Burke, Morogh ni Moe [na in the same Repository, Hot. Pat. 15° Jac . I. fac. maor ?] O'Flarty." In that letter the following 54, for an instrument perfected by the gentry and passage occurs: "So that your Honour consi- "freeholders" of Conamara, empowering Morogh na der us with a peece of money." This passage has maor O'Flaherty of Bonowen, in the county of Galall the appearance of an interpolation. "My faith- way, Esq., to procure grants to himself, as trustee ful George" (see the Queen's letter to Carew, c. xiv.) for them, of their lands, then recently surrendered to is charged with not having been a faithful narrator; the Crown. Among these parties, the present " old but the " Pacata" was written for him, and not by stock" of Conamara, viz. the Mac Conroys (Kingt), him. He is also charged with having destroyed Clan Conors, Mac Donoughs, O'Duans, O'Lees, many old Irish books and records. See Roth's Ana- Mac Coneelys, fkc , may trace their ancestors, who all
Morogh na maor died A D. 1626. The following abstract of his last will has been made from the Inquisition, post mortem, taken on that occasion:—
"In The Name Of God, Amen, I, Murrough ne moyre O'Fflahertie, of Bonowen, in the baronie of Ballinahinch, within the countie of Galway, esquire, beinge weake and sicke of bodie, but perfect in minde and memorie God be praised, do make my testament and last will in manner and forme followinge: Firste, I bequeathe my soule to God almightie, and my bodie to the grave to be buried amongst my ancestors in Sainct Fraunces' abbey neere Gallway. I bequeath, and my will is, that all my castles, manors, lands, heretofore estated to my eldest sonne and heire, Murrough na marte O'Fflahertie, shall be absolutelie in the said Murrough his heires and assigns, for ever; and all the castles and lauds heretofore estated to my second sonne, Edmond O'Flahertie, shall be absolutelie to him his heires and assigns, for ever. Item, that my third sonne Bryen O'Flahertie and his heires shall have the Cleggan', excepting only the aiery of hawkes upon Barnanoran reserved to the said Murrough na marte. Item, that my married wife Onora Flahertie alias Bourke, shall have three qTM and a half of Ballindoone whereupon the castle and towne of Bonown stands, and the ^ qr of Bally Mr Eniely thereunto adjoinninge, without rente, and after her decease, to be and remayne to the said Morrough na marte. Item, that mee fourthe sonne Teige O'Flahertie shall have to him and his heires the qTM of Kilkieran and Inniscrevar of the landes allotted to Morroughe, he himself redeeminge them from Geoffrie Martin and others who may challendge anie mortgadge thereupon; and that Teige shall have noe power to alienate or mortgadge the said lande, without the license of the said Morrough na marte. Item, that my seconde sonne Edmonde shall passe an estate unto my sixt son Hughe and his heires of the quarter of Ballinikill, with a provisoe that Hugh shall not alienate, imortgadge, or sell withoute the lycense of Edmonde or his heires. Mee will is, that my said children, Edmond, Brian, Teige, and Hugh and their heires, shall yearlie paie to said Morrough na marte and his heires thre shillingos sterling, oute of everie quarter for ever; and that they and theire heires shall aunswere all suites and services due the mannors of Bonowne and Ballenehinse, and from henceforth shall be obedient to the said Morroughe*. Item, if anie of the said sonnes die without issue male lawfully begotten, then all the portions of lands of him or them shall retorne to the said Morrough na marte, paieinge to the daughter or daughters of hym soe dieinge a proportion of marryage goods
acknowledged Morrough na d-i<tagh, Teige na buille, our own time.
and Morogh na maor, as their chiefs and leaders. 1 Seep. 118, note *.
But at the time alluded to, the old clan feelings pre- » See the will of Sir Morrough na d-tuagh, ante, vailed, and many of them have continued even to p. 399.
towards preferment, as to the dyscretion of fower of the principallest of theire indifferentest kindred of each side, shall be thought fytt. Item, that my said sonne and heyre Morrough, and the rest of my sonnes for Edmond and Bryan, and my sayd wife Onora, shall, in one intire paiement satisfie and paie to my fift Sonne, Patricke, who is become a scholler1, 20"' sterling when he is readie and determined to goe beyond seas to studie, together with 10"' sterling everie yeare duringe his continuance beyond the seas. Item, that my three eldest sonnes shall paie proportionably oute of the lands allotted to each of them all the debtes which I doe owe. Item, that both my daughters, Soragh ni Flahertie and Owna ni Flahertie, shall have suche portions for their preferment in marriadge, oute of all the lands allotted to my said three eldest sonnes, proportionable as to the dyscretyon of Sir Tybbott Bourke, knight, or his sonne and heire Mylcs Bourke, and Sir John Bourke, knighth, calling to their assistance two or more of my neerest friends in Gallway, as shall be thought fitt. Item, that mee said three eldest sonnes shall paie oute of their several proporcons of lands, all chardges that will be laid oute about my funeral expenses, devotions, and legaties. Item, my will is, that my saide children shall remayne loveing brothers henceforward; whereupon I give them my blessing, to give them that grace for to continue: and if anie ambiguitie, doubt, or question should differ or arise betwixte them in the misconstring the premisses, my will is that the said Sir Tybbott Bourke, or his sonne Miles Bourke, and Sir John Bourke, together with two of my neerest friends in Galway, shall decide that controversy, and settle them friends and loveing brothers, soe often as anie such doubte shall arise betwixt them0. And the rather that they have been formerly acquainted with the contentes of this my last wyll, and were all contented I should soe distribute it, to avoyde all further dissension. Item, I give to my said wife Onora, all my plate, cowes, garrans, and sheep, with my household stuffe, besids her third of all my lands. In Witness, I have hereunto putt mee hand and seale the 13,h day of April, in the yeare of our Lord God, 1626.
"Morrogh na Moyre O'flahertie'1." The only sons of Morogh na maor, of whom any certain accounts remain, were Morogh na mart (Morogh of the beeves), the eldestc, and Edmond, the second, still
» He became an Augustine friar; but that it was Mylcs Bourke, the testator's nephew by the halfconsidered dangerous to state. blood, was the second viscount of that name.
h Of Derrymacloughny, brother-in-law of the c See the will before referred to, p. 399. testator, and cousin of the Marquis of Clanricarde. d Inquis. Rolls Off. 23 Oct. 1027. Sir Tibbott Bourke (who was soon after created c Gen. Table, II. No. 38. See ante, p. 108, Viscount Mayo), was the testator's half-brother. noteTM. On 1st March, 1633, livery of seisin was remembered by the name of Emuinn mac Morogha na maor. In the troubles which followed, A. D. 1641, these brothers, unfortunately for themselves and their posterity, took a prominent partt. The former fitted out his long-boats or galleys, with which he commanded the western coasts of Ireland during the hostilities. In A. D. 1642, they both joined their kinsman, Morough ne doe of Aghnenure, and marched with a force of 1800 men to besiege the fort at Gal way. On that occasion their men, who were called by the Marquis of Clanricarde "the rude kearns of Irr-Conaght" (Memoirs, pa. 176), were charged with having committed several outrages, and some murders, in the town*. Pending the hostilities there, Edmond O'Flaherty proceeded,
granted to him fur the sum of £40 Irish Rot.
Pat. 8 Car. I. 2. p. d.
r The Memoirs of the Marquis of Clanricarde, and Carte's Life of Lord Ormonde, detail many of the proceedings of the O'Flaherties of Iar-Connaught during the troubles. The most active of the leaders were, Lieut,-Col. Morrough na doe (Gen. Table, II. No. 39), of Corr or Lemonfield, near Aghenure, (great-grandson of Sir Murrough na d-tuadh), Sir Morogh na mart, and Col . Edmund, his brother. Of the proceedings of the latter some particulars are iriven above and in the ensuing notes; from curious original documents, of which some notice will be found in the sequel.
* The following extracts, taken from the famous Depositions relating to the rebellion, A. D. 1G41, preserved in the MS. Library of Trinity College, Dublin (F. 2, 3), have reference to those outrages: "thomas Scott, 23rd Dec. 1653, saith, That at the beginning of the rebellion, he saw in the street of Galway one Morrogh O'Flaherty, stiled colonel, of Eer-Connagh (being a tall, swarthy young man), marching down the street, with about 300 Irish rebels following him: that they broke into a house, and five of the soldiers stabbed, with their skenes, Mrs. Collins."—" John Tuknkk, .... 1642, saith. That the Irish people of Ere -Connaught robbed the English inhabitants, and killed and murthcred several of them; amongst which, they cut off the heads of one John Fox and his wife, and murthcred a Mrs. Collins, as she was kneeling at her prayers,
and tumbled the heads of Fox and his wife about the streets; yet the mayor or aldermen did not in any way punish the offenders."—"john Sheely, of Galway, baker, 25 May, 1644, saith, That in Galway the very children, according to their powers, exceeded the men, insomuch as their very frie, or young children, would with skeanes, wherewith generally they were armed, come to the English women, and say, with their skeanes presented, 'You English jades, or doggs, I will cut your throats!' and none durst so much as contradict any of those graceles impes."—"Lieut. John Geix, 7March, 1653,saith, That it was commonly spoken in Galway, that the O'Flaherties of Ire-Connaught were brought into the towne purposely to murther all the English; and he bclieveth they would have murthered them all accordingly, had not some priests hindered them, by going out in their vestments, with tapers and a crucifix carryed before them, commanding the said murtherers to surcease. And where some goods had been plundered, they commanded restitution to be made, as the cxaminant, being then in the Fort of Galway, was credibly informed."—"mary Bowler, spinster, aged 21 years, sen-ant to Lieut . John Gell, 7th March, 1653, saith, That she heard by several of the towne-people that it was the Maior and council of the town that had brought in the said Ire-Connaught people to kill and murther all the English Protestants, because their own hands should not be embrued in their blood. That she herself saw the priests of the towne, and other priests, being