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All the O'Flaherties, particularly those of Conmaicne-mara and Gnobeg, became incensed at Murrough for "joining the Queen of the English;" but above all, for presuming, under pretence of her authority, which they despised, to claim any jurisdiction to the disparagement of Donell Crone (the mighty or valiant) O'Flaherty°, the legitimate chief whom they all acknowledged.

To the same Annalists the reader is again referred for subsequent transactions; particularly in A. D. 1572, by the Mac an larlas, the sons of the earl of Clanrickard. These "graceless impes," as they are termed by Holinshed, levied an army and broke out into open rebellion against the Cailleac jpanoa, "the ugly hag," as they themselves commonly called the Queen. Amongst other projects, they resolved to penetrate into Iar-Connaught, and seize and fortify the strongholds there, as ultimate places of retreat, to enable them to hold out the longer against the government. Morrough of the battle-axes communicated their plan to the president of the Province, who immediately proceeded, with his disposable force and cannon, to Iar-Connaught; and laid seige to the strong castle of Achadh na n-Iubhar (Aghnanwre), then held by the descendants of Donell O'Flaherty, who were disaffected to the State, and ready to join the Mac an Iarlas. The President having taken the castle, delivered it to Morrough, by whom it was soon after re-fitted and fortifiedc; and it thenceforth became the principal residence of himself and his descendants. After this, he rapidly increased in power and possessions, or, as described by one of his contemporaries, he "waxed strongc." The Queen had it in contemplation to raise him to the dignity of the peerage1', by creating him a baron, but that intention was not carried into effect. Although, in general, he preserved his "loialtie to the State," more through policy than inclination, yet he was guilty of frequent and violent acts of injustice against his less powerful kindred and neighbours. Of those outrages, I select one, which shall be told in the words of the parties concerned; and will be found to present a curious picture of the state of society at this period in IarConnaught.

"To the right honorable Sir John Perrott, knight, lo: deputy of her Majesties realm of Ireland. A.D. 1584. "Complaynninge sheweth unto your honnorable good lordshipp, your poore and dayly orator Roger Fflahartie of Moycullirit in the county of Gallwaie, that wher he


"Gen. Tabic, II. No. 34. of Banagher was rebuilt by O'Carroll in A. D. 1544.

0 About this period several of the Irish chiefs —Four Masters built and repaired castles in various parts of the P Seeanrr, p. 307, note, par. 10. kingdom. Thus we find that the castle of Leitrim 1 Our Author's grandfather. See ante, p 309, was built bv O'Rourke in A. D. 1510, and the castle note d.

hath been verie unjustlie and tiraniously expulsed out of his lands and inheritance of Gnobegg, in the said countie. and his castle of Moycullin aforesaid taken, spoyled, and raised, his corne burnt, and his goods and cattles forciblie taken away by one Moroghe ne doe CPFfiahartie, and his sonnes and ffollowers; and the renntes and proffitts of his said launds detained these ten years past, with certaine unlawfull contribucions and ymposicions, also taken and exacted by the said Morogh, uppon and out of your orator's said laund of Gnobeg, countrarie to law and equitie, as by a note hereof hereunto annexed more particulerly doth appere: notwithstandinge that her Majestie's most honnorable privie counsaile, hath written their letters unto the 1l . Justices of this realme, and the governnor of Connaght, for abolishinge of the said unlawfull ymposicions and exactions; contrary to divers orders sett down by the severall governors of this realme, for redresse of the harmes comitted unto your orator by the said Moroghe. And for as much as the said Moroghe never came in to any cessions without protection or some other assurance, and never suffreth any of her Majesties officers to come into this countrey (a greater prerogative than any subject ought to be permitted to have) whereby your orator could geatt no kind of restitucion or remedy against him, to his utter undoinge and to his domadges of the some sett downe in the said note. It may please your lo. to take such order as the said Moroghe maie be compelled to make satisfaction of the premisses, and to desist from hencforth to exact any such thinge out of the said countrey, nor interupt your orator in the quiet and peaceable possession of his said inheritaunce, and he shall pray."— Ex Orig.

"A brief noate of such lostes and domadges as Roger Fflahertie of Moycullin gent, hath sustained by Moroghe na doe CPFflahertie, his sonnes and followers, thes tenne yeares past. May, 1584.

1. Ffirst, the said Moroghe have taken upp everie yeare out of the said a Rogers owne laundes and Inheritaunce of Gnobegg, and unlawfull contribucon, never used afore his time, of the some of Xl.u per ann. to say xx." out of the Spedle, and xx," out of Tolkkihain and Balle Imulgauin. So it amounts theis ten years, CC."

2 Itim, he hath received of rente out of the said Rogers landes of" Bocunan, Coyll Roe, Garmant and Ohaire, the some of ten" sterr. per ann. monting theis ten yeares, c."

3. Itim, he hath received yearely out of the said Rogers laundes in -j Cunamara, vix. Balle mcEnry, Baille I luy, Baille meleymie, and Ryne myll Ohuoy, the some of Xl. cowes and xx." in money per ann. which amounteth for theis tenn yeares iiiic cowes and iic" in money

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4. Itim, he hath received out of the said Rogers laundes of Moycullin, to say, in beoves, corne, butter, and money, Xl." per ann. which amounteth theis ten years to the sum of, with Xl.' yearely out of Inish me Trier, maks

5. Itim, in an order for buyldinge the castle and towne of Moy Cullin j aforesaid, rased, burned, and spoyled by him the said Morogh, his t n.* U. sonnes and followers, the som of J

6. Itim, contained in the said Rogers booke againste the said Moroghe and his sons and ffollowers, in prayes, burning of corne and houses, besides other spoyles, and murtherin of his tenauntes, the some of

vIII.0 LVI."

7. Itim, the said Rogers chardges theise ten yeares, in prosecutinge and | followinge theis suits, cometh to the some of M." sterr. f

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Ex orig. Sum totall is J *947-u TMd

* | 400 cowes."

"The aunswere of Moroghe ne doe. "Thereunto cometh the said Moroghe and saieth, that he knoweth not what landes or tenementes doth the complainante demande, for the truth is, that Gnovegg is a great pice of a countrie, wherein many freeholders and gent., as well of other nacons and surnames as of the Fflaherties, hath severall inheritaunces and freholds, for which eich of them are to make answer, when the said Roger doe or will exhibit complaint against them; wherfore this deff. praieth that the pi. may be compelled to lay downe in his bill, in certain, what towns and laundes he doth demaunde of the said de£f., that he may make answer thereunto. And as to the rasinge and breaking downe of the castle of Muckullin, the deff. saieth that divers notorious traytours, as Williame Negillaghe O'Hallowran, and divers other notable traytours and malefactours of the said O'Hallorans, did garde and kepe the said castle, who made daily incursions out of the said castle uppon her Ma"c' good subjectes that dwelled in the countrie thureaboutes, and comitted divers roberies, spoiles, and owtrages uppon her Ma''e' said subjectes, to ther greate hindraunce, and to the open breach of her Matte* peace; for redresse whereof the said deff. was forced, being then as nowe he is, chief captain of that countrie, to raise upp aforce of her Ma"TM subjectes to withstand and rcpresse the owtragious disorder of the said treytours, which he could be no meanes bringe to passe till such tyme as he toke the said castle, which then, for the comon quiet, he rased and defaced some part thereof, fearinge least the said malefactours, or others of lick disposicions, would inter in the said castle againe, and of new fall to the comittinee

of of like hurttes: without that he burned any corne in the said towne and castle, or toke any goods from thence, which if he had, as in dede he did not, he thincketh that he maie lawfullie doe, seeinge that the said traitours wer with the corne and cattle of the said towne (yf any ther wear) from tyme to tyme relived and maintained, as the said deff. can sufficiently prowe; without that the said Morogh hath tiranously or wrongfullic expulsed, or in any other maner deseised the said Roger of the said castle, as in the bill is slaunderously alledged; and without that the said castle and towne doe wholly belong to the said pi. And as to the goods, money, cowes, rente, and other thinge taken owt of the townes, laied down in the first, second, and third article annexed unto the compl' bill, the said Moroghe saieth, that whatsoever he hath taken owt of the said towns, that he is not to make any answer unto the pi. therfore, for that of verie truth, neither the thinge taken, nor the lande mencioned in the said articles, are not the proper goodes nor in any wise the lande of the pi. But for verie truth and to satisfie your Honnor, rather then of any necessitie that he ought to answer the plaintif, he saieth that he is, by her Ma"c' apointm', capten and chief both of his conntrey and nacon, in right whereof as a perquisitt, rennt, and chiefferie belonginge to the said captain, he doth and did take upp yearely, accordinge to the custome of the said countrie, such dewties as belongeth to the said captenshipp, as all those (tyme out of mynd hath done before him) that had and enjoyed his rome, which, as the deff. thinketh, is that thinge that the compl. laieth downe in the said Articles to be wrongfully taken. And as to the beoves, corne, and other thinge taken owt of Muckellin contained in the fowerth article, the deff. saieth that he toke no more there then that which he ought to have taken as in right of his said captenshipp, which in dede is not nere so much as the compl. complaineth of, yf it be any thinge at all, and withall saieth, that if ther were any cause of complaint, as in dede there is not, that the compl. hath no cause to complaine but only for the vill'h parte, for, in truth, he is not, nor in right ought not to have, but only the eight parte of that towne and castle; and as for the order mencioned in the vth article, he saieth he ought not in conscience to be tied or hindered thereby, for that he was never called to answer thereunto, and that the said order was taken onely uppon bare suggestions of the compl. To the vi'h article the deff. saieth that he knoweth not what is mencioned in the bookes of the compl., which, when he shall see, will make such answer thereunto as bccometh. And saieth further, that he thincketh (not confessinge any thinge in the said article to be true) that the compl. tenanntes never had so many kyne. And as to the vnth article, he saieth that he is not bounde by lawe nor conscience to answer any chardges that the compl. was at, for that if he did spend so much, that the same was for his owne pleasure, and not of any necessitie that he was driwen into by the deff., for the deff. did never at any tyme withhold or kepe any thinge from him that of right he ought to have. And the said deff. saieth further, that if he were, as in dede he is not, to answer or satisffie the compl. for any wronge, domadges, chardges, reparacons, or other demaundes what soever, that nowe he is clerely dischardged thereof, by reason that it was fully agreed betwixt the said Roger and Moroghe na doe, that the said Roger should cleerly forgive all manner of wronges, enjuries and demaundes whatsoever he had against the said Moroghe, in consideracon that he, the said Morogh, should give leave and permitt the pi. to build the castle of Mockullin, and that the said Moroghe should lickwise release and forgive all manner of demandes that he had against the compl., save onely such right he lawfullie hath to the said castle, as by good and sufficient prouf shall apere before your honnor."

"Referred to Sir Richarde Binghame, Knt, to take order thereon. Jo. Perrott." Orig.

The foregoing documents are preserved in the old collegiate library of Galway. The following testimony, afterwards given between the contending parties, has been abstracted from the Patent Roll, de anno 29°

"Depositions taken adperpetuam rei memoriam the xx" Aug. 1585.

"Teige Ne Bully O'flaherty*, of the Arde, in the county of Galway, esq., of the adge of threescore years or there-aboutes, saieth, that Gnobegg was the auncient enheretance of Gilleduff O'Flahertie; that he had it to him and to his children; and that he died seized thereof and his heires had it after him. Also saith there was an elder brother that had no parte or portion of Gnobegg, but had his porcon in another place, called Gnomore. Gnobegg doth conteyne the townes of Moycullen, and is the chief towne in the same, and also the chief towne of Clonduff, the townes of Ballynacgillevay, Theowre, Killeahin, Curraghduff, the town of Cosshoone, the towne or great quarter of Barney, the towne of Forbaugh, the quarter of Spiddell, the Kcylleroe, Moyaskrogh and Bocnua, the towne of Ogharry, the towne of Tulkian, the towne of Mulgorme, the towne of Ballequirke, the towne of Curcullen, the parcelles of land called Lettermillanie and Germana, the islande called Inish Me a trire, with the lands of Connomarra, Airdbeara, Baillenlemy, Baile-I-wile, and Runvyleohway. Gnobegg is bounded from Srwan I gravan hard to Galway, saveinge the liberties, and so alonge the ryver of Doukeyliet to Galway aforesaid by easte. Hughe More Mc Gylleduff was son and heire to Gilleduff, and his best son, and was possessed of all Gnobegg. Hugh Oge O'Flahertie, grandfather to Roger O'Flahertie, was son to the said Hugh more, and the premisses dissended to him, and that the said Hugh oge was seised of Moycullen to him and his heirs, and died seized of the same. Saith, that


'Rolls Office, Dublin. • Gen. Table, II. No. 35. 1 See ante, p. 62, note ».

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